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Fisiologia delle-emozioni-e-dei-sentimenti-2009-12-12

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Fisiologia delle-emozioni-e-dei-sentimenti-2009-12-12

  1. 1. Fisiologia delle emozioni e dei sentimenti Flavio Keller Laboratorio di Neuroscienze dello Sviluppo Università “Campus Bio-Medico” di Roma Roma, 12 dicembre 2009
  2. 2. B.F. Skinner «Le “emozioni” sono eccellenti esempi di cause fittizie alle quali attribuiamo comunemente il comportamento» (B.F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior, 1953)
  3. 3. Temi • Emozioni, stati d’animo, sentimenti. • Le alterazioni corporee nelle emozioni. • Relazione tra alterazioni corporee e coscienza delle emozioni (la diatriba James- Cannon). • Classificazione e quantificazione delle emozioni. • Espressioni facciali delle emozioni. • Le basi neurologiche delle emozioni: esiste un “cervello emotivo”?
  4. 4. • Etimologia: ex movēre , indicano dunque un movimento, particolarmente un movimento corporeo. • In situazioni di attivazione emotiva, l’organismo è spinto ad agire, investendo energia psicofisica. • Avvicinamento (bene, ricompensa, guadagno, piacere) oppure allontanamento (male, punizione, perdita, dispiacere). • L’uomo può sperimentare emozioni non direttamente collegate con la sfera dell’agire: “emozioni contemplative”, ad esempio emozioni estetiche, religiose, scientifiche (ad es. l’emozione di una scoperta) Emozioni
  5. 5. Funzioni delle emozioni • Mettono l’organismo “in condizioni di agire” • Segnalano ad altri individui il proprio stato affettivo • Funzione valutativa-cognitiva • Permettono di manipolare il comportamento di altri individui = contagio emotivo (attori)
  6. 6. Emozioni e sentimenti a confronto Emozioni Sentimenti Latenza breve lunga Oggetto determinato indeterminato Controllo volontario scarso elevato
  7. 7. Componente periferica delle emozioni • Sistema cardiovascolare (frequenza cardiaca, pressione arteriosa, ECG) • Conduttività elettrodermica (GSR) • Frequenza respiratoria • Diametro pupillare • Temperatura corporea • Tensione muscolare
  8. 8. Conduttività elettrodermica in una situazione di rischio Iowa Gambling Task
  9. 9. Da: Rani et al., 2006 Affective Computing e Robotica sociale
  10. 10. Temi • Emozioni, stati d’animo, sentimenti. • Le alterazioni corporee nelle emozioni. • Relazione tra alterazioni corporee e coscienza delle emozioni (la diatriba James- Cannon). • Classificazione e quantificazione delle emozioni. • Espressioni facciali delle emozioni. • Le basi neurologiche delle emozioni: esiste un “cervello emotivo”?
  11. 11. “Senso comune” Teoria di James-Lange
  12. 12. “Siamo tristi perché piangiamo, adirati perché colpiamo, impauriti perché tremiamo, e non il contrario: piangiamo, picchiamo o tremiamo perché siamo tristi, adirati o impauriti” (W. James, What is Emotion?)
  13. 13. Le emozioni come processi diencefalo- corticali “Stimolando un’area circoscritta della zona ergotropica (dinamogenica) avviene regolarmente un manifesto cambiamento dell’umore. Persino un gatto di natura pacifica diventa aggressivo; inizia a sputare saliva e, se avvicinato, lancia un attacco mirato. Le pupille si dilatano e contemporaneamente il pelo si rizza, e si instaura un quadro simile a quello mostrato dal gatto quando è attaccato da un cane e non può scappare. La dilatazione delle pupille e la piloerezione sono facilmente comprensibili come un effetto del simpatico. Ma lo stesso non può dirsi delle alterazioni psicologiche. Per spiegare queste ultime è necessario prendere in considerazione connessioni tra ipotalamo, talamo e corteccia cerebrale.[…]
  14. 14. Temi • Emozioni, stati d’animo, sentimenti. • Le alterazioni corporee nelle emozioni. • Relazione tra alterazioni corporee e coscienza delle emozioni (la diatriba James- Cannon). • Classificazione e quantificazione delle emozioni. • Espressioni facciali delle emozioni. • Le basi neurologiche delle emozioni: esiste un “cervello emotivo”?
  15. 15. L’arousal come indice non specifico di intensità emotiva (quantità di energia psicofisica investita) Il rendimento migliore, ad esempio durante l’esecuzione di un esame, viene generalmente ottenuto ad un livello intermedio di attivazione emotiva, ovvero quando lo studente non è né apatico né agitato. Rendimento Apatico Agitato Livello di attivazione emotiva
  16. 16. Da: Bradley & Lang (2007)
  17. 17. Correlazione tra parametri fisiologici ed esperienza emotiva Coefficienti di correlazione tra parametri fisiologici ed esperienza affettiva (stimolo: immagini con contenuto affettivo) [Modificata da: Bradley MM, Emotion and Motivation, Handbook of Psychophysiology (Ed. da JT Cacioppo, LG Tassinary, GG Berntson), 2° edizione, pag. 630]
  18. 18. Gli studi di Duchenne de Boulogne “Nel volto, il nostro Creatore non era preoccupato dalle necessità meccaniche. Ha potuto, nella sua sapienza, o – mi si perdoni questo modo di parlare – in una divina fantasia, mettere in azione un solo muscolo oppure vari insieme, quando ha voluto che i segni caratteristici delle passioni, persino i più fugaci, fossero scritti sul volto dell’uomo.” [Trad. da: G.-B. Duchenne de Boulogne, Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine ou Analyse Electro-Physiologique de l’Expression des Passions, Jules Renouard Libraire, Paris, 1862, pag. 31].
  19. 19. Correlazione tra parametri fisiologici ed esperienza emotiva Coefficienti di correlazione tra parametri fisiologici ed esperienza affettiva (stimolo: immagini con contenuto affettivo) [Modificata da: Bradley MM, Emotion and Motivation, Handbook of Psychophysiology (Ed. da JT Cacioppo, LG Tassinary, GG Berntson), 2° edizione, pag. 630]
  20. 20. Il “sorriso di Duchenne”
  21. 21. Fig. 7. Le sei espressioni facciali delle emozioni secondo Ekman: da sinistra a destra e dall’alto verso il basso: rabbia, paura, disgusto, sorpresa, gioia, tristezza.
  22. 22. Nell’uomo le emozioni sono espresse attraverso molteplici sistemi (mimica facciale, fonazione, prosodia, postura, cammino…).
  23. 23. Le unità di azione facciale • Ekman e Friesen hanno sviluppato un sistema di riconoscimento delle emozioni in base al pattern di attivazione di 44 “unità di azione facciale” (facial action units, AU), che corrispondono approssimativamente a singoli muscoli o gruppi di muscoli della mimica facciale. • Emozioni basiche considerate da Ekman: rabbia, disgusto, paura, felicità, sorpresa, tristezza. • Il sistema di Ekman viene utilizzato tra l’altro in robot espressivi (es. “Einstein”)
  24. 24. Temi • Emozioni, stati d’animo, sentimenti. • Le alterazioni corporee nelle emozioni. • Relazione tra alterazioni corporee e coscienza delle emozioni (la diatriba James- Cannon). • Classificazione e quantificazione delle emozioni. • Espressioni facciali delle emozioni. • Le basi neurologiche delle emozioni: esiste un “cervello emotivo”?
  25. 25. Il “cervello emotivo” è molto più esteso del circuito di Papez
  26. 26. Corteccia prefrontale e risposta affettiva
  27. 27. Le basi neurofisiologiche del riso • Stimolazione elettrica puntiforme all’interno di SMA della corteccia cerebrale in paz sveglio (AK) provoca riso accompagnato da esperienza affettiva appropriata (divertimento), differenza importante con “riso patologico”. • In proporzione all’intensità della stimolazione, passaggio continuo da sorriso a risata prolungata e contagiosa. • Questi esperimenti dimostrano l’unità tra componente motoria, affettiva e cognitiva del riso (unità di percezione ed azione). da Fried et al., Nature 391, 650 (1998)
  28. 28. Grazie per l’attenzione!

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