LOCATION AND DEFINITION OF THE CARIBBEAN REGIONDefinition of the Caribbean RegionGeographicalThis describes the area washed by the Caribbean Sea and is oftendescribed as the Caribbean Basin. Itwould therefore include mostof the islands of the Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles as well as themainlandterritories in Central America (Costa Rica, Belize,Panama, Honduras) and Northern South America suchasColumbia and Venezuela. The common link here is the CaribbeanSea.GeologicalThere are deep seated structural features of Caribbean geologywhich also identifies commonalities. It isthe area that is defined bythe Caribbean Plate and which experiences similar tectonic,seismic andvolcanic features and processes.HistoricalIt describes the area that saw the impact of European colonization,slavery, indentureship and theplantation system. this refers to allthe territories so that one way of defining the Caribbean is toidentifythose countries that experienced the rule of specificEuropean countries. Thus the Caribbean may bedefined as being broken up into the English, French, Dutch and Spanish speakingcountries andterritories.
PoliticalIn the Caribbean at least three types of governmental systems arefound. They include IndependentStates, Associated States andColonial Dependencies.CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIETYSocietySociety is a collection of people occupying a defined geographical area over a long period of time.Society in the Caribbean is often considered the boundaries of a nation state.The sociological understanding of the term society stresses the interaction amongst its members.CultureCulture is widely regarded as the way of life for a people.It is often defined as the learned behavior of a people. Culture issub divided intomaterialandnon-materialculture.
Material culture includes the products of people such as their stylesof architecture, types of foodpreparation, economic organizationsand their forms of technology.Non-material culture refers to the cherished values, ideas, beliefsand ideas.Cultural valuerefer to a set of rankings people in a society confer on to a myriad of social behaviors.Normsare standards of behavior that are culturally accepted and emanate from the realm of cultural valuesthat we share.CHARACTERISTICS OF CARIBBEAN SOCIETY ANDCULTUREPage 2Cultural DiversityCultural Diversity is the existence of sub-cultures within a main culture or different cultures in a largerarea such as the Caribbeanand the US.Social StratificationThis is the social arrangement of society based on criteria such asrace, wealth and education.
Social MobilityThis is the movement, usually of individuals or groups, from onesocial position to another within thesocially stratified system inany society.HybridizationThis is the admixture of cultural traits and exchange of values fromother cultures.Cultural ErasureThis is where traits or practices of a culture are no longer practicedover time.Cultural RetentionThis may occur as a result of the deliberate desire to keeptraditions alive and help some groups topreserve their sense of identity. It is also defined as the process where past cultural practices arepracticed presently.Cultural RenewalThis is where cultural practices that were once done are beingrevived or the fashioning of new practicesbased on those of the past.IMPACT OF HISTORICAL PROCESSES
Migratory MovementsThe ancestors of the pre-Colombian Amerindians may have comeout of North Eastern Asia across thefrozen Bering Straits toAlaska during the fourth Ice Age some fifteen to twenty thousandyears ago. Thenomads wandered southwards through North,Central and South America evolving distinct physical andculturacharacteristics.Over hundreds of years the Amerindians moved and some settled.Some of the familiar names are Aztec,Maya and Inca.The Orinoco Basin and the Guianas in South America were theoriginal homeland of the Caribs andArawaks who migratednorthwards through the Lesser Antilles to the Greater Antilles. By1492, the mainArawak groups which inhabited the West Indieswere the Lucayans in the Bahamas and Tainos in Cuba,Jamaica,Haiti and Puerto Rico. The greatest Amerindian civilizationflourished on the mainland ofMesoamericas and South America.It is perhaps the constant movement of people into and out of theCaribbean that led Richardson to referto a regionalmigrationtradition.This propensity to migrate, he argued, took off immediately after emancipation in the 1830¶s whenthousands of men and women most notably from smaller islands, migrated toTrinidad and BritishGuiana in search of higher wages and better conditions. By 1845, more than 10 000 migrants from smallWestIndian Islands had travelled to Trinidad and over 8000 others hadgone to British Guiana.Many of these emigrants eventuallyreturnedhome displaying the fruits of their labour. Thismovementcontinued from a long time as a feature of Caribbean people, thatis, to move from smallislands of the Eastern Caribbean to larger ones in a complex inter-island migration.Encomienda System (System of UnfreeLabor)
Hispaniola was the first test ground for Spain¶s Indian Policy.Page 5At this plate margin, the plates move away from each other and iscalled a constructive plate margin asnew crust is formed. Thisresults in gentle volcanis and earthquake activity.Magma is forcedupwards and new crust is created. E.g. the Caribbean and NorthAmerican plates moveaway from each other to form the CaymanIsland Ridge.T ransform plate marginAt this plate margin, the plates slide past each other withconverging or diverging. It is also called a fault.Volcanic activitydoes not occur here, instead only seismic activity is experienced.E.g. the Cayman IslandTrench.VolcanoesA volcano is an opening in the earth¶s crust through which moltenrock, ash, steam etc are ejected.In theCaribbean:Mt. Pelee-MartinqueErupted in 1902, and killed 30 000 people.
A nueeardente (glowing cloud filled with super heated ash andgases) descended on the village and thussuffocated the residents.EarthquakesEarthquakes are sudden earth movements or vibrations in theearth¶s crust. They are caused by thedevelopment of faults in thecrust which result from collision of plates or from the movement of moltenrocks below or within the crust or the sudden release of stress that has slowly built up along the faultplane at a transform plate margin. Thefocusis the point at which the earthquakeoriginated. Theepicenteris the point on the surface of the earthdirectly above the focus.Risks involvedwith EarthquakesTremorsThe ground vibrates during an earthquake. Waves travel outwardsfrom side to side. Walls may crack andwindows may break.Utility poles fall and buildings collapse.Ground FissuresThe ground splits and cracks.
LiquefactionLiquefaction is the process whereby reclaimed land or loosesediments behave like a liquid during anearthquake.Flood sFiresPort Royal- Jamaica(1692)The entire city of Port Royal slumped into the sea as a result of liquefaction.Over 3000 people died as a result.Kingston Jamaica(1907)Registered a 6-6.5 on the Richter scaleCaused fires
800 deaths85% buildings destroyedGround fissures over 15cm apartJamaica(1993)5.4 on the Richter scale2 deathsPage 6Triggered landslidesMore than 500 homes destroyedDominica
(2004)6.3 earthquake3 historic churches destroyedHospital damagedLandslidesWall collapsedIndonesian Earthquake and Tsunami(2004)Occurred off the island of SumatraUpward displacement of 10mTsunami travelled at speed of 800km/hHurricanes
A hurricane is a low pressure system formed in warm waters. Allhurricanes develop over the sea. Theydo not develop close to theequator as they require a surface temperature of 27 degrees.Before a hurricaneCalm weather, high humidity and strong swellsAs hurricane approaches, cloud cover builds up and windsintensifyDuring a hurricaneWind strongest near the eye of the stormEye: calm, down draught of warm airWind drops suddenly after eye passes and starts again
After a hurricaneWind speeds gradually dropHeavy rain may continueI nddamage40% increase in wind speed doubles the destructive power¡aved amageWaves may reach 8m highMay be severe beach erosionMarine life damaged or killedCorals damaged
Coastal structures damagedShips and boats at riskStorm surgeNear eye of major hurricane sea levels are several metres abovenormalStrengthened as approaches shoreFloodingFlooding by slowly rising waters (Caroni, Barrackpore)Landslide
Triggered where steep hills are sodden with rainPage 7HurricaneIvan inGrenada(September2004)80-90% houses damaged or destroyed5000-6000 slept in sheltersPower lines brought downWater supply contaminated
Recently built national stadium destroyedMost schools damaged90% nutmeg trees destroyed90% trees fellRoads blocked and airport closedLandline phone and radio transmitters down1700 hotel rooms, 300 availablePrison roof blown offSoilsSoil is the uppermost layer of loose material on top of the orck which makes up the surface of the earth.It consists of tiny oarticlesderived from the broken down fragment of rock together withhumus.Soilerosion
Soil may be eroded by:1. Soil compaction by grazing animals and machinery2. Deforestation3. Over grazing4. Over use of artificial fertilizer5.Monoculture6. Slash and burn cultivation7. Forest fires8. Bad agricultural practicesSoil conservatio
nSoil may be conserved by:1. Terracing2.Mulching3. Wind breaks4. Contour ploughing/drainage5. Crop rotation6. Canopy cover7. Cover cropping8. Intercropping9. ReforestationCoral Reefs
How are coral reefs formed?1. The main frame of the reef is built up by coral polyps whish aresmall soft bodied creatures which usecalcium carbonate dissolvedin water to build up a hard casing of limestone to protectthemselves.2. These tiny polyps live in colonies or large groups.Page 21There are three main types of entrenchment in the constitutions of the Commonwealth Caribbean:Special majorities in the Parliament-all of the constitutions of the Commonwealth Caribbean have this procedure which specifiesthat certain sections ofthe constitution require special majorities inthe Parliament.Approval ofbillsfor amendment by referenda-some of theconstitutions of the Commonwealth Caribbean require that certain bills that seek to amend the constitutionbe subjected to theapproval of a referendum after they have been passed inParliament.Time delay procedures between readings ofaBill of
Amendment-some of the constitutions of the commonwealthCaribbean specify that there should be a period of 90 daysbetweenthe first and second readings of a bill that seeks to amend theconstitution before the head of state giveshis/her assent to the bill.The effect of such a delay is that the Parliament cannot consider any bill to amend theconstitution hurriedly and more time is givenfor a deeper consideration of theproposed amendment bythewider society.The Caribbean Court ofAppealThe Caribbean Court ofAppeal is intended to be areplacement for the PrivyCouncil as the final court ofappeal for the countries
of the CommonwealthCaribbeanThe Caribbean Court ofAppeal faces critical issuessuch as budget, the methodof selecting judges, thelocation of theheadquarters,the status of a circuit courtor maintaining afixedlocation and theconfidence of the Caribbeanpublic.
DEFINTION OF KEYTERMS1.Atlantic Slave Trade-the commercial buyingof Africans from WestAfrica crossing the AtlanticOcean,to be sold toplantation owners in thewesternhemisphere.2.
Chattel slavery-form of slavery wherepeople areowned as propertyand can be bought or sold3.Communism-a theory of a society whereall propertyshould be ownedby the community or state
and labor organized for thecommon good.4.Cultural accommodation-acceptance of aspects ofor traits or traits of foreigncultures5.Cu
ltural assimilation-integration of aspects ofor traits of foreign culturesinto local culture6.Cultural beliefs-
ways of thinking common toa group people from aspecified geographical area7.Cultural diversity-the existence of sub-cultureswithina main or differentculture8.
Cultural domination-where a culture of onecountryis pervasivelyinfluencing a local culture9.Cultural erasure-
where traits of a culture arenolonger practiced over time10.Cultural expressions-ways in which one¶s cultureisdemonstrated11.Cultu
ralhybridization-the admixture culturaltraitsand exchange of valuesfrom other cultures12.Cultural norms-
the standards of behaviorthat areaccepted and sharedby members of a society13.Culturalpluralism-where minority culturesexistalongside a mainculture
14.Cultural renewal-where cultural practices thatwereonce done are beingrevived or the fashioning ofnew practices based onthose of the past15.Cu
ltural retention-where past cultural practicesare practiced presently16.Cultural relativism-the comparison betweencultures based on the notionthat no culture is superior
17.Diaspora-the dispersion anddistribution of membersof arace or society18.Repartimiento-a Spanish labor systemwhere a percentage of themale population of anyvillage between the ages of
18-60 could be recruited towork for a Spanish settlerfor a week or fortnight19.Social stratification-the social arrangement ofsociety based on criteriasuch as race, wealth andeducation
Page 2220.Sugarrevolution-the period wheresugarcane production andprocessing was the main
economicactivity in thewestern hemisphere.21.Common market-a form of economicintegrationwhere restrictionson the free movementof commodities, capital andlabor among memberstatesare abolished and acommon external tariffisestablished
22.Cultural imperialism-onecountry¶s impositiononanother directly orindirectly, of it¶s valuesystem23.Development-
the sustained high level ofeconomicand social wellbeing or standard ofliving.Development wastraditionally defined as theability of a country toadvance economically, asmeasured byincrements inits GNP per capita. Todaythe concept has beenbroadened to recognize theHuman DevelopmentIndexthat includes assessments
such as lifeexpectancy,literacy andeducational attainment-quality of lifeindicators.24.Economic growth-the increase in theproduction of goods andservices in a country overone year25.
Free TradeArea-an agreement betweencountries toabolish tariff andminimize restriction of tradebetween but set restrictionsagainst outside countries26.Globalization-
the growth of a single,unified worldfinancialmarket where geographyplays a diminishingrole27.Industrialization-a country or area wherethere are alarge number offactories and the use oftechnology
28.InterMonetaryFund-a specialized agency oftheUnited Nations that seeksto maintainmonetarystability and toassist member states in
agreementmade in 1983 thatbrought togetherMexico, Canadaand the UnitedStates together as a freetrade zone30.Popular culture-
the range of expressions ofcreativity,artifacts accessibleto, produced by, andenjoyed by themajority ofpeople in a society31.Single market-the joining of economies ina free tradearea32.Social ju
stice-the fair and equitabletreatment of allclass ofpeople33.Tariffs-taxes levied on importedgoods34.Treaty-
a contract between states,relating to peace,truce,alliance, commerce, or otherinternationalrelations35.White collar crime-deviant or corrupt behaviorby people of very highsocial standing in society
Page 23ASSIGNMENT1. Name of country2. Population size
3. Size of island4. Language spoken5. History of the island6. Type of government anddetails of government7. Relief of the land-vegetation, soil, rock8. Crops grown9. Types of industry
10. Weather patterns11. Foods12. Festivals andcelebrationsMODULE THREEDefinition of researchResearch is an activity thatentails formal, systematic
processes for carrying out ascientific method foranalysis.Characteristics of Research1.Is directed towards thesolution of a problem.2.Emphasizes thedevelopment of
generalizations, principlesor themes that will behelpful in predictingfutureoccurrences.3.Is based upon observable orempirical evidence,selectsvalid data gatheringprocedures, and usesmechanical.Electronic orpsychometric devices torefineobservation,
description and analysis ofdata.4.Involves gathering new datafrom primary orfirsthandsources, or usingexisting data for a newpurpose.Merely recognizing orrestating what is alreadyknownand has already beenwritten is not considered
researchsince it addsnothing to what is known.5.Is rigorous and systematic.6.Tries to be logical and toapply every possible testtovalidate proceduresemployed, data collectedandconclusions reached.7.
Is carefully recorded andreported. Each importanttermis defined, limitingfactors areacknowledged, proceduresare described in detail andreferences arecarefullydocumented.Purposes of researchBasicR
esearch-The findings of this type ofresearchinformsthedevelopment ofbroad generalizations orprinciples.AppliedResearch-
The goal of this type ofresearch is toimprove products andprocesses. Theory is testedin actual situations.ActionResearch-this is focused on immediateapplication. It places
emphasis on currentproblems in a local setting.Its findingsare evaluated interms of local applicabilityand not necessarilyuniversalvalidity.
Page 24Types of researchHistoricalResearchDescribes what was. Entailsinvestigating, recording,analyzingand interpretingthe events of the past for the
purpose of discoveringgeneralizations that help usto understand both thepastand present and possibleimplications for the future.DescriptiveResearchThis type of researchdescribes, records, analysesand interpretsconditions that
presently exist. It entailssome type of comparisonorcontrast and attempts todiscover relationshipsbetween existingvariables.Experimental researchThis type of researchfocuses on variablerelationships
anddescribeswhat happenswhen the variables arecarefully controlledormanipulated. Deliberatemanipulation is always apart of theexperimentalmethod.Qualitative StudiesThese are studies that use anumerical method of
describingobservations ofmaterials or characteristics.Quantitative StudiesThese are studies in whichthe description ofobservations is notordinarilyexpressed in quantitativeterms. Numerical measuremay be used but othermeans of description areemphasized.
Sampling ProceduresTypes of samplingprocedures1.Simple Random Sample-
where subjects areselected by lottery or by useof random numbers.2.Stratified Sample-where the population isstratifiedaccording to lists ofunits divided into groups orstrataaccording to anappropriate variable.3.
Quota Sampling-this approach entailsstratifiedsampling in whichthe selection within thestrata is nonrandom, oncethe general breakdown ofthe sample isdetermined.4.Pu
rposive Sampling-used in qualitativeresearchwhere subjects areselected especially fortheir particularunderstandings of andinvolvement in thecontextwhere the study is beingcarried out.Ethics in ResearchIn
formedConsentThe people you speak to,observe, send questionnairesto, shouldknow what youare doing and that you areinvolved in a
research project. You shouldnot put undue pressure onpeople or whomight beafraid to say that they do notwish to participate intheresearch.Invasionof privacy
You should seek permissionof the person beinginterviewed toallow you touse a tape recorder forexample.Confidentiality
You cannot tell other peoplewhat you learned orobserved about a person,venue or situation if thepersons are in a positiontorecognize the venue,person or situation. Youmust attempt todisguiseyour subjects¶ identity.Knowled
ge of the outcomeParticipants in the researchproject have a right to knowwhat youwill be doing withthe information you collectas well as the reasonfor theresearch.
Caribbean Studies (MODULE ONE)Add To Collection3.8KReads6Readcasts17Embed ViewsPublished byVidya AmritaTIP Press Ctrl-F to search anywhere in the document.Info and RatingCategory: Uncategorized.Rating:Upload Date: 02/06/2011Copyright: Attribution Non-commercialTags: This document has no tags.Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Word Doc (.doc / .docx), text file (.txt) or read online for free.Flag document for inapproriate contentRelated