The Industrial Revolution (simple)


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The Industrial Revolution (simple)

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution (1750-Early 1900’s) 10:3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. Causes of the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Farming Changes: During the 1700’s, farmers were able to reclaim more land to plant, made better use of land, and used fertilizer to improve the soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Enclosure Movement : In the 1700’s, rich landowners and the English Parliament began taking away land from peasants and were able to harvest more which made farming profitable. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>C. Population: The population of England rose from 5 million in the 1700’s to 9 million in 1800. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. New Technologies : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. James Watt -Based upon another inventor’s steam engine, Watt’s steam engine would revolutionize the world by introducing the train and steamships. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Abraham Darby -Produced less expensive and better iron. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>II. The Industrial Revolution starts in England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Natural Resources: England had the advantage of a large navy, canals, and a transportation system that enabled them to transport goods to the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. England’s government supported economic growth. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>C. New Inventions in the textile industry speed production. In 1793, Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin which increased cotton production and made it more profitable. Whitney is also famous for developing interchangeable parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. As factories and technology increased the price of goods decreased. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>III. Society During the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Urbanization -The movement of people from the country to the city. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Social Classes during the Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper class elite, 5% (owned most of the country’s wealth) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle classes, 15% (women worked at home raising kids) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower classes, 80% (lived mostly in tenement housing -tightly packed apartment like housing) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>C. Working Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long Hours - Most factory workers labored between 12-16 hours a day, 6 to 7 days a week. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe Conditions -Miners worked in unsafe conditions in which death and injury were commonplace. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child Labor -Although a necessity for some families, eventually child labor was limited to 12 hours a day in England. </li></ul></ul></ul>Children often worked in mines
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>D. New Beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Thomas Malthus -Believed that if the population increases faster than the food supply, poverty will be unavoidable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Adam Smith -Published a book called The Wealth of Nations in which he stated that the government should promote a free market which would increase production and lower prices. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Jeremy Bentham -Believed that the goal of society is to produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. This belief is also known as Utilitarianism . </li></ul></ul></ul>According to Malthus and this graph, is the world in trouble?
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>4. Robert Owen -Owen believed that a Utopian (perfect world) society could be established on earth and tried establishing a Utopian community. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Karl Marx -Marx believed that the proletariat class (common workers) should own the wealth of a nation. His most famous book The Communist Manifesto becomes the basis for communism during the 20 th century. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>E. Science During the Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Traditional Beliefs are challenged by Charles Darwin who wrote On the Origin of Species which stated that all living organisms evolve over the course of millions of years. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. The Social Gospel - In response to Social Darwinism, Christians fight for better working conditions, healthcare, end of slavery, and women’s suffrage. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>F. Health Care Advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Louis Pasteur -In 1870, Pasteur was the first to prove that tiny microbes resulted in diseases. Pasteur is also famous for pasteurization of milk. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. John Lister -Discovered how antiseptics prevented disease. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importance: New advances in health care caused the population of Europe to explode </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>G. The Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Romanticism (1750-1850) -A movement of writers who returned to ancient Greek/ Roman writings and emphasized order, harmony, reason, and emotions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous Writers: William Wordsworth, William Blake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous Musician: Ludwig van Beethoven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous Artist: Delacroix </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>2. Realism (Mid 1800’s) : This movement tried to represent life the way it was instead of portraying life in a mythical or romantic way. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous Writers: Victor Hugo, Charles Dickens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous Artists : Gustave Courbet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>3. Impressionism (Around 1870’s) This art movement was a response to photography and the realistic images that resulted from photography. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous Painters : Claude Monet, Edgar Degas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>IV. The Industrial Revolution Spreads to Europe and North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. New Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Henry Bessemer -Revolutionized the steel industry by making it lighter and stronger. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Alfred Nobel -Invented dynamite but felt guilty about his invention and donated large sums of his money to people who benefited society. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>3. Thomas Edison -Invented the light bulb as well as many other inventions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Karl Benz -Although no one individual can be given credit for “inventing” the automobile, Benz was the first to receive a patent in 1886. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Guglielmo Marconi -Developed the first radio </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> %3Fq%3DBenz%2BFirst%2BAutomobile%26svnum%3D30%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DG </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>