501 grammar and writing questions

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501 grammar and writing questions

  1. 1. 501 GRAMMAR AND WRITING QUESTIONS
  2. 2. 501 GRAMMAR AND WRITING QUESTIONS N E W Y O R K 3rd Edition ®
  3. 3. Copyright © 2006 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 501 grammar & writing questions.—3rd ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57685-539-2 1. English language—Grammar—Examinations, questions, etc. 2. English language— Rhetoric—Examinations, questions, etc. 3. Report writing—Examinations, questions, etc. I. Title: 501 grammar and writing questions. II. Title: Five hundred one grammar and writing questions. III. Title: Five hundred and one grammar and writing questions. PE1112.A15 2006 428.2'076—dc22 2005035266 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Third Edition ISBN 1-57685-539-2 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION vii SECTION 1 Mechanics: Capitalization and Punctuation 1 SECTION 2 Sentence Structure 11 SECTION 3 Agreement 29 SECTION 4 Modifiers 43 SECTION 5 Paragraph Development 49 SECTION 6 Essay Questions 95 ANSWERS 103 Contents v
  5. 5. This book—which can be used alone, along with another writing-skills text of your choice, or in com- bination with the LearningExpress publication, Writing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day—will give you practice dealing with capitalization, punctuation, basic grammar, sentence structure, organiza- tion, paragraph development, and essay writing. It is designed to be used by individuals working on their own and for teachers or tutors helping students learn or review basic writing skills. Additionally, practicing with 501 Gram- mar and Writing Questions will greatly alleviate writing anxiety. Many people grimace when faced with grammar exercises. But in order to communicate with others, pass tests, and get your point across in writing, using words and punctuation effectively is a necessary skill. Maybe you’re one of the millions of people who, as a student in elementary or high school, found memorizing grammar rules tedious. Maybe you were confused by all of the exceptions to those rules. Maybe you thought they would just come naturally as you continued to write and speak. First, know you are not alone. It is true that some people work very hard to understand the rules, while oth- ers seem to have a natural gift for writing. And that’s okay; we all have unique talents. Still, it’s a fact that most jobs today require good communication skills, including writing. The good news is that grammar and writing skills can be developed with practice. Introduction vii
  6. 6. Learn by doing. It’s an old lesson, tried and true. The 501 grammar and writing questions included in these pages are designed to provide you with lots of practice. As you work through each set of questions, you’ll be gaining a solid understanding of basic gram- mar and usage rules. And all without memorizing! This book will help you improve your language skills through encouragement, not frustration. An Overview 501 Grammar and Writing Questions is divided into six sections: Section 1: Mechanics: Capitalization and Punctuation Section 2: Sentence Structure Section 3: Agreement Section 4: Modifiers Section 5: Paragraph Development Section 6: Essay Questions Each section is subdivided into short sets con- sisting of 8–20 questions. The book is specifically organized to help you build confidence as you further develop your written- language skills. 501 Grammar and Writing Questions begins with the basic mechanics of capitalization and punctuation, and then moves on to grammar and sentence structure. By the time you reach the section on paragraph development, you’ve already practiced on almost 300 questions. You will then continue practic- ing the skills you’ve already begun to master in the previous four sections, this time, in combination. When you get to the last section, you’ll be ready to write your own essays. How to Use This Book Whether you’re working alone or helping someone brush up on grammar and usage, this book will give you the opportunity to practice, practice, practice. Working on Your Own If you are working alone to review the basics or prepare for a test in connection with a job or school, you will probably want to use this book in combination with a basic grammar and usage text, or with Writing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day. If you’re fairly sure of your basic language-mechanics skills, however, you can use 501 Grammar and Writing Questions by itself. Use the answer key at the end of the book not only to find out if you chose the right answer, but also to learn how to tackle similar kinds of questions next time. Every answer is explained. Make sure you under- stand the explanations—usually by going back to the questions—before moving on to the next set. Tutoring Others This book will work well in combination with almost any basic grammar and usage text. You will probably find it most helpful to give students a brief lesson in the particular skill they’ll be learning—capitalization, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, pronoun agree- ment, sentence structure, style—and then have them spend the remainder of the session answering the ques- tions in the sets. You will want to impress upon them the importance of learning by doing, checking their answers, and reading the explanations carefully. Make sure they understand a particular set of questions before you assign the next one. –INTRODUCTION– viii
  7. 7. Additional Resources For more detailed explanations of English grammar and usage rules, you may want to buy—or borrow from the library—one or more of the following books: Action Grammar: Fast, No-Hassle Answers on Everyday Usage and Punctuation by Joanne Feierman (Fireside) The American Heritage Book of English Usage: A Prac- tical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English (Houghton Mifflin) The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: The Mys- teries of Grammar and Punctuation Revealed by Jane Straus (Jane Straus Books) Grammar Smart: A Guide to Perfect Usage, 2nd Edition (Princeton Review) Grammatically Correct: The Writer’s Essential Guide to Punctuation, Spelling, Style, Usage and Grammar by Anne Stilman (Writers Digest Books) The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style by Bryan A. Garner (Berkley Publishing Group) Quick Review Writing: Grammar, Usage, and Style by Jean Eggenschwiler and Emily Dotson Biggs (Cliffs Notes) Woe is I: The Grammarphobes Guide to Better English in Plain English, 2nd Edition, by Patricia T. O’Conner (Riverhead Books) Writing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day, 3rd Edition (LearningExpress) Writing Smart: Your Guide to Great Writing, 2nd Edi- tion, by Marcia Lerner (Princeton Review) –INTRODUCTION– ix
  8. 8. 501 GRAMMAR AND WRITING QUESTIONS
  9. 9. Since every sentence begins with a capital, the how-to’s of capitalization seem like a logical place to begin learning about language mechanics. When doing the exercises in this section, refer to the following checklist. Matching your answer to a rule will reinforce the mechanics of writing and secure that knowledge for you. Capitalization Checklist ✓ The first word of every sentence➞Yes, we do carry the matching bed skirt. ✓ The first word of a quoted sentence (not just a quoted phrase)➞And with great flourish, he sang, “O beautiful for gracious skies, for amber waves of grain!” ✓ The specific name of a person (and his or her title), a place, or a thing (otherwise known as proper nouns). Proper nouns include specific locations and geographic regions; political, social, and athletic organizations and agen- cies; historical events; documents and periodicals; nationalities and their language; religions, their members and their deities; brand or trade names; and holidays. ✓ The abbreviation for proper nouns. Government agencies are probably the most frequently abbreviated. Remember to capitalize each letter.➞The CIA makes me feel very secure. ✓ Adjectives (descriptive words) derived from proper nouns. Ex: America (proper noun)➞the American (adjective) flag ✓ The pronoun I. ✓ The most important words in a title➞Last March, I endured a twenty-hour public reading of A Tale of Two Cities. S E C T I O N Mechanics: Capitalization and Punctuation1 1
  10. 10. Punctuation Checklist Periods ✓ At the end of a declarative sentence (sentence that makes a statement)➞Today, I took a walk to nowhere. ✓ At the end of a command or request➞Here’s a cloth. Now gently burp the baby on your shoulder. ✓ At the end of an indirect question➞Jane asked if I knew where she had left her keys. ✓ Before a decimal number➞Statisticians claim that the average family raises 2.5 children. ✓ Between dollars and cents➞I remember when $1.50 could buy the coolest stuff. ✓ After an initial in a person’s name➞You are Sir James W. Dewault, are you not? ✓ After an abbreviation➞On Jan. 12, I leave for Africa. Question Marks ✓ At the end of a question➞Why do you look so sad? ✓ Inside a quotation mark when the quote is a ques- tion➞She asked, “Why do you look so sad?” Exclamation Points ✓ At the end of a word, phrase, or sentence filled with emotion➞Hurry up! I cannot be late for the meeting! ✓ Inside a quotation mark when the quote is an excla- mation➞The woman yelled, “Hurry up! I cannot be late for the meeting!” Quotation Marks ✓ When directly quoting dialogue, not when para- phrasing➞Hamlet says, “To be, or not to be. That is the question.” ✓ For titles of chapters, articles, short stories, poems, songs, or periodicals➞My favorite poem is “The Road Not Taken.” Semicolons ✓ Between two independent clauses (an independ- ent clause is a complete thought. It has a subject and a predicate.)➞Edward joined the basketball team; remarkably, the 5´4˝ young man excelled at the sport. ✓ Between elements in a series that uses commas ➞The possible dates for the potluck dinner are Thurs- day, June 5; Saturday, June 7; or Monday, June 9. Colons ✓ Between two complete ideas when the second idea explains the first.➞Keri pushed her dinner away: She had eaten on the car ride home. ✓ Before a list➞Grandma brought Chloe’s favorite three sweets: chocolate kisses, Tootsie Rolls, and a Snickers bar. ✓ Between titles and subtitles➞Finding Your Dream Home: A Buyer’s Guide. ✓ Between volumes and page numbers➞Marvel Comics 21:24 ✓ Between chapters and verse➞Job 4:12 ✓ Between hours and minutes➞It’s 2:00 a.m.—time to sleep. Apostrophes ✓ Where letters or numbers have been deleted—as in a contraction➞I looked at my father and whispered, “It’s (It is) okay to cry every so often.” ✓ At the end of a name where there is ownership (remember to also add an s after the apostrophe if the word or name does not end in an s already) ➞Mary Jane’s horse sprained his ankle during practice. –MECHANICS: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION– 2
  11. 11. Commas ✓ Between items in dates and addresses➞Michael arrived at Ellis Island, New York, on February 14, 1924. ✓ Between words in a list➞The university hired a woman to direct the Bursar’s, Financial Aid, and Reg- istrar’s offices. ✓ Between equally important adjectives (be care- ful not to separate adjectives that describe each other)➞The reporter spoke with several intense, tal- ented high school athletes. ✓ After a tag that precedes a direct quote➞David whined, “I am famished.” ✓ In a quote that precedes a tag and is not a question or an exclamation➞“I am famished,” whined David. ✓ Around nonessential clauses, parenthetical phrases, and appositives (A nonessential or nonrestrictive clause is a word or group of words that are not nec- essary for the sentence’s completion; a parentheti- cal phrase interrupts the flow of a sentence; and an appositive is a word or group of words that rename the noun preceding them)➞Matt’s mother, Janie (appositive), who has trouble with directions (non- essential clause), had to ask for help. ✓ After introductory words, phrases, and clauses➞ Hoping for the best, we checked our luggage. ✓ Before conjunctions (Conjunctions are words that link two independent clauses together)➞Drew wanted to experience ballroom dancing before his wedding, so he signed up for lessons at a local hall. ––MECHANICS: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION–– 3 SET 1 (Answers begin on page 103.) For the following questions, choose the lettered part of the sentence that contains a word that needs a capital letter. If no additional words should be capitalized, choose answer e. Refer to the checklist at the beginning of the chapter if you want to be certain about your answer. 1. Last week, | dr. Tanya Miller received | a special award from the | city of Atlanta. | None a b c d e 2. The new bakery | in the center of town | sells a wide assortment | of italian pastries. |None a b c d e 3. Michael Blake, jr., | is such an accomplished golfer | that he won three tournaments | in a row. | None a b c d e 4. Catherine complained loudly, | “why can’t you ever | pick me up on time | in the morning?” | None a b c d e 5. The Declaration of Independence | is one of the most important | documents in the history | a b c of the United States. | None d e 6. Sally’s Sweet shop, | one of the oldest businesses in town, | is located on one of the main streets | a b c of Millersville. | None d e
  12. 12. SET 2 (Answers begin on page 103.) Choose the punctuation mark that is needed in each of the following sentences. If no additional punctuation is needed, choose answer e. 9. “It isn’t fair!” shouted Martin. Coach Lewis never lets me start the game!” a. . b. , c. ! d. “ e. none 10. Maureen’s three sisters, Molly, Shannon, and Patricia are all spending the summer at their grandmother’s beach house. a. ; b. – c. ! d. , e. none 11. For the centerpieces, the florist recommended the following flowers daisies, tulips, daffodils, and hyacinths. a. : b. , c. . d. ; e. none 12. Lily is an accomplished gymnast she won three medals in her last competition. a. ; b. , c. ? d. : e. None 13. Everyone was shocked when Max Smithfield— a studious, extremely bright high school senior decided that college was not for him. a. ; b. , c. – d. : e. none 14. Kims assistant, usually so reliable, has been late for work three times this week, without any excuse. a. ’ b. , c. ; d. . e. none 15. Before sending out invitations, Margo checked the party date with her mother-in-law. a. , b. ; c. – d. . e. none ––MECHANICS: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION–– 4 7. My first childhood pet, | a gray cat named otis, | was given to me as a gift | on my fifth birthday. | None a b c d e 8. The local elementary school | is organizing a screening | of the movie toy story |as a fundraiser. | None a b c d e
  13. 13. 16. “I remember” Luis recollected, “the first time I was allowed to walk home from school by myself.” a. ? b. , c. : d. ; e. none 17. Madeline Larkin our office manager, is the most organized person I’ve ever known. a. : b. ; c. – d. , e. none 18. I spend most of my time at the gym on the treadmill walking is my favorite form of exercise. a. , b. ? c. ; d. ! e. none SET 3 (Answers begin on page 104.) Choose the answer that shows the best punctuation for the underlined part of the sentence. If the sentence is correct as is, choose e. 19. Simone bought three new pairs of shoes even though she had put herself on a tight budget just last week. a. shoes, even though, she b. shoes, even though she c. shoes. Even though she d. shoes; even though she e. correct as is 20. Most residents of the building have air conditioners however I’ve always found that a ceiling fan is sufficient. a. air conditioners however: I’ve b. air conditioners, however, I’ve c. air conditioners however, I’ve d. air conditioners; however, I’ve e. correct as is 21. “Are you OK,” asked Timothy, “Are you sure you don’t want to sit down and rest for a while?” a. OK?” asked Timothy. “Are b. OK?” asked Timothy, “Are c. OK,” asked Timothy? “Are d. OK?” asked Timothy? “Are e. correct as is 22. The owners of the restaurant maintain that only organic ingredients are used in their kitchen. a. maintain, that only b. maintain that, only c. maintain: that only d. maintain—that only e. correct as is 23. Before the student could be hired by the company, the students adviser had to provide a letter of recommendation. a. company the students b. company, the student’s c. company, the students’ d. company the students’ e. correct as is ––MECHANICS: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION–– 5
  14. 14. 24. The volunteers who would like to work the morning shift should sign their name on this sheet. a. volunteers, who would like to work the morning shift b. volunteers who would like to work the morning shift, c. volunteers, who would like to work the morning shift, d. volunteers who, would like to work the morning shift, e. correct as is 25. The employees asked whether the company would be offering tuition reimbursement within the next three years? a. reimbursement within the next three years! b. reimbursement, within the next three years. c. reimbursement within the next three years. d. reimbursement, within the next three years? e. correct as is 26. This is the new restaurant you’ve been talking about, isn’t it? a. about isn’t it? b. about, is’nt it? c. about, isn’t it. d. about isn’t it. e. correct as is 27. Turnips a root vegetable can be mashed, roasted, or used in casseroles. a. Turnips, a root vegetable, b. Turnips, a root vegetable c. Turnips, a root vegetable— d. Turnips a root vegetable, e. correct as is 28. They met for the first time on August 27, 1972 in Seattle, Washington. a. August 27 1972 in Seattle, Washington. b. August 27 1972, in Seattle Washington. c. August 27, 1972 in Seattle, Washington. d. August 27, 1972, in Seattle, Washington. e. correct as is SET 4 (Answers begin on page 104.) For each question, find the sentence that has a mis- take in capitalization or punctuation. If you find no mistakes, mark choice d. 29. a. My least favorite season is Winter. b. Next Friday, Uncle Jake is coming to visit. c. Maureen served as treasurer for the women’s organization. d. No mistakes. 30. a. “Can you attend next week’s meeting?” she asked. b. His new car was damaged in the accident. c. The girls’ giggled through the whole movie. d. No mistakes. 31. a. Leo told her, to call the customer service department in the morning. b. She put up signs all over town, but she didn’t get any response. c. Occasionally, her neighbors ask her to feed their cat. d. No mistakes. 32. a. Did you see the movie Shrek? b. She was given an award by mayor Chambers. c. Math and science are my two best subjects. d. No mistakes. ––MECHANICS: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION–– 6
  15. 15. 33. a. A major highway is being built on the outskirts of town. b. When you reach the traffic light on Berkshire Road, turn right onto Springfield Blvd. c. We were staying at my sister’s cape Cod vacation home. d. No mistakes. 34. a. The instructor asked us if we needed more time? b. Carla’s mother is a pediatric dentist. c. Every item in the store costs less than a dollar. d. No mistakes. 35. a. Jane’s family owned three Persian cats. b. My Uncle always takes the subway to Yankee Stadium. c. Everyone knows that Marisa’s favorite book is Pride and Prejudice. d. No mistakes 36. a. “I’ll do the grocery shopping for you, grandma,” Lucy said. b. “Where can I find the best pizza in town?” he asked. c. “Be sure to arrive two hours early,” she warned. d. No mistakes. 37. a. I always have a hard time getting up in the morning. b. We took: a tent, a cooler, and a sleeping bag. c. The fog was as thick as potato soup. d. No mistakes. 38. a. This is someone elses coat. b. Which of these songs was recorded by Bruce Springsteen? c. That book must be yours. d. No mistakes. 39. a. Don’t stand in my way. b. Cecilia and I fought our way through the crowd. c. The vegetables were old rubbery and tasteless. d. No mistakes. 40. a. Remember to walk the dog. b. “Don’t run”! Mr. Ellington shouted. c. It’s supposed to snow today and tomorrow. d. No mistakes. 41. a. Charleen’s parents worried whenever she drove the car. b. Who designed the Brooklyn Bridge? c. Diseases like Smallpox and Polio have been eradicated. d. No mistakes. 42. a. Can you find the Indian ocean on this map? b. Which river, the Nile or the Amazon, is longer? c. Lerner Avenue runs into the Thompson Parkway. d. No mistakes. 43. a. He’s the best dancer in the school. b. We were planning to go, but the meeting was canceled. c. “Okay,” she said, I’ll go with you.” d. No mistakes. 44. a. Does Judge Parker live on your street? b. Twenty government officials met to deal with Wednesday’s crisis. c. The Mayor spoke at a news conference this morning. d. No mistakes. ––MECHANICS: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION–– 7
  16. 16. 45. a. My brother, Isaac, is the best player on the team. b. Because of the high cost; we decided not to go. c. Where’s your new puppy? d. No mistakes. 46. a. I have learned to appreciate Mozart’s music. b. My cousin Veronica is studying to be a Veterinarian. c. Mr. Shanahan is taller than Professor Martin. d. No mistakes. 47. a. “You look just like your mother,” Ms. Jones told me. b. “Please be careful,” he said. c. Tyler asked, “why do I have to go to bed so early?” d. No mistakes. 48. a. Do you prefer root beer or orange soda? b. In which year did world war II end? c. I like to study the geography of the Everglades. d. No mistakes. 49. a. Colds like many other viruses are highly contagious. b. Call me when you feel better. c. Did you wash your hands, Michael? d. No mistakes. 50. a. The industrial revolution began in Europe. b. Is Labor Day a national holiday? c. General Patton was a four-star general. d. No mistakes. 51. a. Carmen brought bread, and butter, and strawberry jam. b. Let’s look at the map. c. Be sure to thank Aunt Helen for the gift. d. No mistakes. 52. a. My Aunt Georgia loves to read Eighteenth- Century novels. b. Eli’s sister’s cousin lives in Alaska. c. Is that a German shepherd? d. No mistakes. 53. a.Those shoes are too expensive. b. Michael’s best friend is Patrick. c. Did you hear that Inez got a new puppy. d. No mistakes. SET 5 (Answers begin on page 105.) Questions 54–57 are based on the following passage. First, read the passage, and then choose the answer that shows the best capitalization and punctuation for each underlined part. Madam Helena P. (54) Blavatsky born in Russia on May 8, 1831, claimed to have psy- chic powers and to be capable of performing feats of clairvoyance and telepathy. During her sixty years, she traveled to many (55) countries—including the United States, England, India, and Egypt, in order to study the occult. Although many considered her a (56) fake throughout her lifetime she was surrounded by faithful believers, including such influential persons as British states- man Allen O. Hume and Swedish countess Constance Wachtmeister. To this day, fol- lowers commemorate the date of her (57) death calling May 8, “White Lotus Day.” 54. a. Blavatsky: born b. Blavatsky—born c. Blavatsky, born d. Blavatsky. Born e. correct as it is ––MECHANICS: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION–– 8
  17. 17. 55. a. countries, including b. countries: including c. countries. Including d. countries including e. correct as it is 56. a. fake, throughout b. fake. Throughout c. fake: throughout d. fake; throughout e. correct as it is 57. a. death. Calling b. death, calling c. death: calling d. death; calling e. correct as it is Questions 58–61 are based on the following passage. First, read the passage, and then choose the answer that shows the best capitalization and punctuation for each underlined part. June 2, 2006 Melanie Jeffords 312 Maple Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60632 Mark (58) Franklin, general manager Wholesome Food Market 1245 Main Street Chicago, Illinois 60627 (59) dear Mr. Franklin; I am writing to complain about the behav- ior of one of your sales clerks. On (60) Mon- day May 22nd I visited your store to return a package of ground turkey that I had pur- chased the day before. When I explained to your sales clerk that the expiration date on the package was May 1st, she was (61) extremely rude and she refused to refund my money. This is not the kind of treatment I expect from your fine establishment. I hope you will make restitution and have a discus- sion with your staff about customer service. My receipt is enclosed. Sincerely yours, Melaine Jeffords 58. a. Franklin, general Manager b. franklin, General Manager c. Franklin, General Manager d. Franklin, General manager e. correct as it is 59. a. Dear Mr. Franklin. b. Dear, Mr. franklin, c. dear Mr. Franklin: d. Dear Mr. Franklin: e. correct as it is 60. a. Monday, May 22nd I b. Monday May 22nd; I c. Monday. May 22nd I d. Monday, May 22nd, I e. correct as it is 61. a. extremely rude, and she b. extremely rude: and she c. extremely rude? And she d. extremely rude and, she e. correct as it is ––MECHANICS: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION–– 9
  18. 18. Asentence is like a Christmas present: Assembly is always required. Fortunately, the instructions are fairly basic. Every sentence must have at least a subject and a predicate. The subject is the focus of the sentence; it is the who or the what the sentence is about. The predicate describes the sub- ject; it explains what the subject is or what the subject is doing. The completed idea is called a clause, and it is the building block of all sentences. First, you have to know these terms: ✓ Independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought.➞Monica walked on the grass. ✓ Dependent (subordinate) clause: a clause that does not express a complete thought.➞Though it was wet ✓ A complete thought➞Though it was wet, Monica walked on the grass. ✓ Essential clause: a dependent clause that is necessary to the basic meaning of the completed sentence. ➞who are pregnant Women who are pregnant can crave salty or sweet foods. ✓ Nonessential clause: a dependent clause that is not necessary to the basic meaning of the completed sentence.➞who growls whenever the phone rings Elmo, who growls whenever the phone rings, tried to attack the vacuum cleaner. ✓ Phrase: a group of words that lack either a subject or a predicate.➞In early spring In early spring, I notice a change in people’s attitudes. ✓ Appositive: a phrase that makes a preceding noun or pronoun clearer or more definite by explaining or identifying it.➞rice pudding and fruit salad Candice’s grandfather brought her favorite desserts, rice pudding and fruit salad. S E C T I O N Sentence Structure2 11
  19. 19. ✓ Fragment: a phrase punctuated like a sentence even though it does not express a complete thought.➞ Timothy saw the car. And ran. ✓ Coordinating Conjunction: a word that when pre- ceded by a comma or a semicolon joins two inde- pendent and equal clauses. (and, but, so, or, for, nor, yet)➞Dorothy had a beautiful rose garden, and her yard was a profusion of color every summer. ✓ Subordinating Conjunction: a word that makes a clause a dependent clause (after, although, as, because, before, if, once, since, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while)➞After the accident, mourners covered the beaches nearest to the tragedy with roses. ✓ ConjunctiveAdverb: a word that introduces a rela- tionship between two independent clauses (accord- ingly, besides, consequently, furthermore, hence, however, instead, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, then, therefore, thus)➞On Tuesdays, I play racquet- ball; otherwise, I would go with you. To construct a sentence: ✓ Always have at least one independent clause in the sentence. ✓ Join two independent clauses with a semicolon or a comma and a conjunction.➞Chaucer was a nar- rator, and he was a pilgrim in his Canterbury Tales. ✓ Do not run two or more independent clauses together without punctuation; that error is appro- priately called a run-on. Wrong: Chaucer was a nar- rator and he was a pilgrim in his Canterbury Tales. ✓ Do not separate two independent clauses with just a comma; that error is called a comma splice. Wrong: Chaucer was a narrator, he was a pilgrim in his Canterbury Tales. ✓ Do not use a conjunctiveadverb (the words accord- ingly, besides, consequently, furthermore, hence, how- ever, instead, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, then, therefore, thus) like a conjunction. Wrong: Chaucer was a narrator, moreover he was a pilgrim in his Canterbury Tales. ✓ Use a comma after a conjunctive adverb when it fol- lows a semicolon. (See Conjunctive Adverbs) ✓ Use a comma after introductory words, phrases, and clauses. (See Subordinating Clauses) ✓ Use commas around nonessential clauses. Do not use commas around essential clauses. (See Nonessential and Essential Clauses) ✓ Use commas around appositives. (See Appositives) ✓ Use commas around parenthetical elements (a word or group of words that interrupt a sentence’s flow).➞Mrs. Moses, that mean old crone, yelled at lit- tle Paula for laughing too loud! SET 6 (Answers begin on page 105.) Fill in the blank with the word that creates the most logical sentence. (Hint: Use a dictionary to determine which words best complete the sentence’s meaning.) 62. ________ Sarah drives to the cabin several times a year, she is often nervous about finding her way. a. Besides b. Unless c. Nevertheless d. Although 63. Lila wasn’t feeling well. _____________, she decided to stay home from work. a. Therefore b. Meanwhile c. However d. Anyway 64. ___________ he waited for the doctor to call him in, Sam sat in the waiting room and read the newspaper. a. So that b. While c. Even if d. Besides when –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 12
  20. 20. 65. Ruby loves blueberry pie _________ it is made with freshly picked blueberries. a. whether b. because c. when d. as if 66. Mitchell loves listening to jazz and rhythm and blues. Greg, ____________, will only listen to country. a. however b. then c. too d. therefore 67. __________ our low annual fee, you will receive a 20% discount if you sign up this week. a. Because b. While c. In spite of d. In addition to 68. The ticket said the show would start at 8:00, but the curtains didn’t go up _________ 8:30. a. less than b. until c. about d. since 69. My neighbor is deathly afraid of dogs; ___________, I never let my Golden Retriever, Sandy, outside without a leash. a. moreover b. yet c. mainly d. consequently 70. The wedding quilt was designed as a sentimental way to make use of fabric taken ______________ blankets and bedding that belonged to older couples in her family. a. from b. with c. in d. at 71. Sandra Day O’Connor, the first woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, ________ appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981. a. she b. and c. but d. was 72. I ________ the speech you gave last Thursday night, but I was in bed with the flu. a. will have heard b. would hear c. might hear d. would have heard 73. ________ the Beatles’ most popular songs— most of which were written by Lennon and McCartney—are “I Want to Hold Your Hand” and “Hey, Jude.” a. With b. Considering c. Among d. To –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 13
  21. 21. SET 7 (Answers begin on page 106.) Choose the sentence that best combines the under- lined sentences. 74. The airport is called the Glynco Jetport. The airline reservations and travel systems refer to its location as Brunswick, Georgia. a. Where the airport is called the Glynco Jetport, the airline reservations and travel systems refer to the location as Brunswick, Georgia. b. But the airport is called the Glynco Jetport, the airline reservations and travel systems refer to the location as Brunswick, Georgia. c. Even though the airline reservations and travel systems refer to the location as Brunswick, Georgia, the airport is called the Glynco Jetport. d. When the airport is called the Glynco Jetport, the airline reservations refer to the location as Brunswick, Georgia, and the travel systems. 75. Plato believed that boys and girls should be given an equal education. This idea is rarely mentioned in textbooks. a. Plato believed that boys and girls should be given an equal education, where this idea is rarely mentioned in textbooks. b. Plato believed that boys and girls should be given an equal education, an idea that is rarely mentioned in textbooks. c. Believing that boys and girls should be given an equal education, Plato’s idea is rarely mentioned in textbooks. d. Plato believed that boys and girls should be given an equal education, whereupon this idea is rarely mentioned in textbooks. 76. Recently there have been government cutbacks in funds. Experts foresee steady hiring in the government’s future. a. Despite recent government cutbacks in funds, experts foresee steady hiring in the government’s future. b. Whereupon recent government cutbacks in funds, experts foresee steady hiring in the government’s future. c. So that there have been recent government cutbacks in funds, experts foresee steady hiring in the government’s future. d. Nonetheless, there have been recent govern- ment cutbacks in funds, experts foresee steady hiring in the government’s future. 77. The federal government has diversity of jobs and geographic locations. The federal govern- ment offers flexibility in job opportunities that is unmatched in the private sector. a. In spite of its diversity of jobs and geographic locations, the federal government offers flexibility in job opportunities that is unmatched in the private sector. b. No matter its diversity of jobs and geographic locations, the federal government offers flexibility in job opportunities that is unmatched in the private sector. c. Because of its diversity of jobs and geo- graphic locations, the federal government offers flexibility in job opportunities that is unmatched in the private sector. d. The federal government has diversity of jobs and geographic locations, so it offers flexibility in job opportunities that is unmatched in the private sector. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 14
  22. 22. 78. The Greeks thought that the halcyon, or kingfisher, nested on the sea. All birds nest on land. a. Whereupon all birds nest on land, the Greeks thought that the halcyon, or kingfisher, nested on the sea. b. The Greeks thought that the halcyon, or kingfisher, nested on the sea, whereas all birds nest on land. c. Whenever all birds nest on land, the Greeks thought that the halcyon, or kingfisher, nested on the sea. d. The Greeks thought that the halcyon, or kingfisher, nested on the sea, as all birds nest on land. 79. The old brain is called the reptilian brain. It does not know passion, but only stolid obedience to its own genetic dictates. a. After the old brain is called the reptilian brain, it does not know passion, but only stolid obedience to its own genetic dictates. b. The old brain, called the reptilian brain, does not know passion, but only stolid obe- dience to its own genetic dictates. c. The old brain is called the reptilian brain, whereupon it does not know passion, but only stolid obedience to its own genetic dictates. d. Unless the old brain, called the reptilian brain, does not know passion, only stolid obedience to its own genetic dictates. 80. There have been great strides in the practical application of quantum physics in the last decade. We are no closer to actually under- standing it than were the physicists of the 1920s. a. Unless there have been great strides in the practical application of quantum physics in the last few decades, we are no closer to actually understanding it than were the physicists of the 1920s. b. In the last few decades, we are no closer to actually understanding it than were the physicists of the 1920s, until there have been great strides in the practical application of quantum physics. c. Although there have been great strides in the practical application of quantum physics in the last few decades, we are no closer to actually understanding it than were the physicists of the 1920s. d. In the last few decades, if there have been great strides in the practical application of quantum physics we are no closer to actually understanding it than were the physicists of the 1920s. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 15
  23. 23. 81. The wisdom of the hedgehog is applauded in medieval bestiaries. The hedgehog builds a nest with two exits and, when in danger, rolls itself into a prickly ball. a. The wisdom of the hedgehog is applauded in medieval bestiaries, while the hedgehog builds a nest with two exits and, when in danger, rolls itself into a prickly ball. b. The hedgehog builds a nest with two exits and, when in danger, rolls itself into a prickly ball, so its wisdom is applauded in medieval bestiaries. c. The hedgehog builds a nest with two exits and, when in danger, rolls itself into a prickly ball, but its wisdom is applauded in medieval bestiaries. d. Its wisdom applauded in medieval bestiaries, the hedgehog builds a nest with two exits and, when in danger, rolls itself into a prickly ball 82. Some people believe fairy tales are merely chil- dren’s stories. Some people believe fairy tales carry important psychological truths for adults. a. When some believe they carry important psychological truths for adults, some people believe fairy tales are merely children’s stories. b. Some people believe fairy tales are merely children’s stories, whereupon some believe they carry important psychological truths for adults. c. Because some believe fairy tales carry important psychological truths for adults, some people believe fairy tales are merely children’s stories. d. Some people believe fairy tales are merely children’s stories, yet some believe they carry important psychological truths for adults. 83. Most species of the bacterium Streptococcus are harmless. Some species of Streptococcus are dangerous pathogens. a. Whereas most species of the bacterium Streptococcus are harmless, some are dangerous pathogens. b. Since most species of the bacterium Streptococcus are harmless, some are dangerous pathogens. c. As most species of the bacterium Streptococcus are harmless, some are dangerous pathogens. d. Because most species of the bacterium Streptococcus are harmless, some are dangerous pathogens. 84. The man nodded politely. His expression was bewildered. a. Nodding politely, the man’s expression was bewildered. b. The man nodded politely his expression was bewildered. c. The man nodded politely, his expression bewildered. d. The man nodded politely, since his expression was bewildered. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 16
  24. 24. SET 8 (Answers begin on page 106.) Choose the sentence that best combines the under- lined sentences. 85. Watching a TV show is a passive behavior. Playing a computer game is an interactive one. a. Watching a TV show is a passive behavior, or playing a computer game is an interactive one. b. Watching a TV show is a passive behavior, for playing a computer game is an interactive one. c. Watching a TV show is a passive behavior, but playing a computer game is an interactive one. d. Being that playing a computer game is an interactive one, watching a TV show is a passive behavior. 86. Socrates taught that we should question everything, even the law. He was both greatly loved and profoundly hated. a. That he was both greatly loved and profoundly hated, Socrates taught that we should question everything, even the law. b. Socrates taught that we should question everything, even the law, so he was both greatly loved and profoundly hated. c. Socrates taught that we should question everything, even the law, which he was both greatly loved and profoundly hated. d. Socrates taught that we should question everything, even the law, for he was both greatly loved and profoundly hated. 87. Sailors are said to catch albatrosses with baited hooks let down into the ship’s wake. To kill the albatross was thought to be bad luck, so they were released immediately. a. Sailors are said to catch albatrosses with baited hooks and let them down into the ship’s wake, then release them again, for to kill the albatross was thought to be bad luck. b. With baited hooks let down into the ship’s wake, sailors are said to catch albatrosses then release them again, so to kill the alba- tross was thought to be bad luck. c. Sailors are said to catch albatrosses with baited hooks let down into the ship’s wake, then release them again, or to kill the alba- tross was thought to be bad luck. d. To kill the albatross was thought to be bad luck, so sailors are said to catch albatrosses with baited hooks let down into the ship’s wake, only to release them immediately. 88. The symptoms of diabetes often develop gradually and are hard to identify at first. Nearly half of all people with diabetes do not know they have it. a. The symptoms of diabetes often develop gradually and are hard to identify at first, so nearly half of all people with diabetes do not know they have it. b. The symptoms of diabetes often develop gradually and are hard to identify at first, yet nearly half of all people with diabetes do not know they have it. c. Nearly half of all people with diabetes do not know they have it, and the symptoms of diabetes often develop gradually and are hard to identify at first. d. The symptoms of diabetes often develop gradually for nearly half of all people with diabetes do not know they have it and are hard to identify at first. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 17
  25. 25. 89. The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly respected. Voltaire spent almost a year imprisoned in the Bastille. a. The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly respected, so he spent almost a year imprisoned in the Bastille. b. The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly respected with almost a year imprisoned in the Bastille. c. The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly respected, or he spent almost a year imprisoned in the Bastille. d. The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly respected, yet he spent almost a year imprisoned in the Bastille. 90. I must buy some new shoes to wear to the prom. My date, Donnie, will be upset if I wear my flip-flops. a. Unless my date, Donnie, will be upset if I wear my flip-flops, I must buy some new shoes to wear to the prom. b. I must buy some new shoes to wear to the prom, and my date, Donnie, will be upset if I wear my flip-flops. c. I must buy some new shoes to wear to the prom, for my date, Donnie, will be upset if I wear my flip-flops. d. My date, Donnie, will be upset if I wear my flip-flops while I must buy some new shoes to wear to the prom. 91. Sylvia is loaded with money. She can afford that trip to Silver Dollar City. a. Sylvia is loaded with money, or she can afford that trip to Silver Dollar City. b. Sylvia is loaded with money, but she can afford that trip to Silver Dollar City. c. Sylvia is loaded with money, so she can afford that trip to Silver Dollar City. d. Sylvia is loaded with money, yet she can afford that trip to Silver Dollar City. 92. The rules of statistics say that it is possible for all the air in a room to move to one corner. This is extremely unlikely. a. The rules of statistics say that it is possible for all the air in a room to move to one corner, or this is extremely unlikely. b. The rules of statistics say that it is possible for all the air in a room to move to one corner, but this is extremely unlikely. c. This is extremely unlikely in that the rules of statistics say that it is possible for all the air in a room to move to one corner. d. For all the air in a room to move to one corner, this is extremely unlikely, according to the rules of statistics saying that it is possible. 93. I must buy my dog a new license. If I don’t, I will have to pay a fine. a. I must buy my dog a new license, and I will have to pay a fine. b. I must buy my dog a new license; I will have to pay a fine. c. Unless I buy my dog a new license, I will have to pay a fine. d. I will have to pay a fine since I must buy my dog a new license. 94. Bats are not rodents. Bats bear a surface resemblance to a winged mouse. a. Bats are not rodents, although they do bear a resemblance to a winged mouse. b. Bats are not rodents that they bear a surface resemblance to a winged mouse. c. Bats are not rodents, when they bear a surface resemblance to a winged mouse. d. Bats are not rodents, if they bear a surface resemblance to a winged mouse. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 18
  26. 26. 95. Art is not only found in the museum or concert hall. Art can be found in the expressive behavior of ordinary people, as well. a. Art can be found not only in the museum or concert hall, and it can be found in the expressive behavior of ordinary people, as well. b. In the museum or concert hall, art can be found not only there and in the expressive behavior of ordinary people, as well. c. Although in the expressive behavior of ordinary people, as well, art can be found not only in the museum or concert hall. d. Art can be found not only in the museum or concert hall, but in the expressive behavior of ordinary people, as well. 96. In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is dreaming. It gives her a sense of unlimited freedom. a. In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is dreaming, although it gives her a sense of unlimited freedom. b. In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is dreaming, while it gives her a sense of unlimited freedom. c. In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is dreaming, where it gives her a sense of unlimited freedom. d. In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is dreaming, which gives her a sense of unlimited freedom. SET 9 (Answers begin on page 107.) Choose the sentence that best combines the under- lined sentences. 97. She never responded to the invitation we sent. We assumed she wasn’t coming. a. She never responded to the invitation we sent; however we assumed she wasn’t coming. b. While we assumed she wasn’t coming, she never responded to the invitation we sent. c. She never responded to the invitation we sent, whether we assumed she wasn’t coming. d. Because she never responded to the invitation we sent, we assumed she wasn’t coming. 98. My friends loved the restaurant. I thought it was overpriced. a. That my friends loved the restaurant, I thought it was overpriced. b. My friends loved the restaurant, whereas I thought it was overpriced. c. My friends loved the restaurant, when I thought it was overpriced. d. My friends loved the restaurant, or I thought it was overpriced. 99. Elizabeth is an athletic woman. Elizabeth cannot swim or ride a bike. a. Elizabeth cannot swim or ride a bike, while she is an athletic woman. b. Elizabeth cannot swim or ride a bike and is an athletic woman. c. Although Elizabeth cannot swim or ride a bike, she is an athletic woman. d. Being an athletic woman, Elizabeth cannot swim or ride a bike. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 19
  27. 27. 100. This neighborhood is called “baby central.” Almost every family within a three-block radius has a child under the age of one. a. Almost every family within a three-block radius has a child under the age of one, while this neighborhood is called “baby central.” b. Almost every family within a three-block radius has a child under the age of one, but this neighborhood is called “baby central.” c. Almost every family within a three-block radius has a child under the age of one; therefore, this neighborhood is called “baby central.” d. This neighborhood is called “baby central:” meanwhile, almost every family within a three-block radius has a child under the age of one. 101. The new shopping mall has 200 stores. The new shopping mall doesn’t have a pet shop. a. The new shopping mall has 200 stores; however, it doesn’t have a pet shop. b. Instead of a pet shop, the new shopping mall has 200 stores. c. With 200 stores, the new shopping mall doesn’t have a pet shop. d. The new shopping mall has 200 stores, and it doesn’t have a pet shop. 102. Eugene has a difficult personality. Eugene is unreliable. a. Eugene has a difficult personality, and furthermore he’s unreliable. b. Eugene has a difficult personality, although he is unreliable. c. While he is unreliable, Eugene has a difficult personality. d. Being unreliable, Eugene has a difficult personality. 103. We never eat candy or ice cream. We do drink soda. a. We never eat candy or ice cream, but we do drink soda. b. Because we never eat candy or ice cream, we drink soda. c. We never eat candy or ice cream, so we do drink soda. d. We never eat candy or ice cream and drink soda. 104. Having several cavities filled during a dental appointment is definitely unpleasant. It is not as unpleasant as having a root canal. a. Having several cavities filled during a dental appointment is definitely unpleasant, so it is not as unpleasant as having a root canal. b. Having several cavities filled during a dental appointment is definitely unpleasant, and it is not as unpleasant as having a root canal. c. Having several cavities filled during a dental appointment is definitely unpleasant, but it is not as unpleasant as having a root canal. d. Having several cavities filled during a dental appointment is definitely unpleasant, or it is not as unpleasant as having a root canal. 105. She loves celebrating her birthday. She always has a big party. a. She loves celebrating her birthday, to where she always has a big party. b. Although she loves celebrating her birthday, she always has a big party. c. She always has a big party, meanwhile she loves celebrating her birthday. d. She loves celebrating her birthday, so she always has a big party. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 20
  28. 28. 106. Insomnia does not usually begin as a physical problem. It can affect one’s physical health. a. Insomnia is not usually a physical problem; therefore, it can affect one’s physical health. b. Insomnia is not usually a physical problem, yet it can affect one’s physical health. c. Insomnia not usually a physical problem can affect one’s physical health. d. Insomnia is not usually a physical problem, so it can affect one’s physical health. 107. True narcolepsy is the sudden and irresistible onset of sleep during waking hours. True narcolepsy is extremely dangerous. a. While true narcolepsy is the sudden and irresistible onset of sleep during waking hours and is extremely dangerous. b. The sudden and irresistible onset of sleep during waking hours, which is true narcolepsy but extremely dangerous. c. True narcolepsy is the sudden and irresistible onset of sleep during waking hours, yet narcolepsy is extremely dangerous. d. True narcolepsy is the sudden and irresistible onset of sleep during waking hours, and it is extremely dangerous. 108. There has been much interest in dreams throughout the ages. The empirical, scientific study of dreams is relatively new. a. Despite much interest in dreams throughout the ages, the empirical, scientific study of dreams being relatively new. b. There has been much interest in dreams throughout the ages, yet the empirical, sci- entific study of dreams is relatively new. c. While much interest in dreams throughout the ages, although the empirical, scientific study of dreams is relatively new. d. There has been much interest in dreams throughout the ages, for the empirical, sci- entific study of dreams is relatively new. SET 10 (Answers begin on page 108.) Replace the underlined portion with the phrase that best completes the sentence. If the sentence is cor- rect as is, choose a. 109. I look forward to welcoming you and having the opportunity to show you around our office. a. I look forward to welcoming you and having b. I will look forward to our welcome and having c. As I look forward to welcoming you and to have d. I look forward to welcoming you and have e. Looking forward to welcoming you and hoping to have –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 21
  29. 29. 110. For a wide variety of different reasons, more and more people are making the choice to vacation close to home. a. For a wide variety of different reasons, more and more people b. For a variety of many reasons, much more people c. For a number of reasons, more people d. More people, for various different reasons, e. Lots of people, for many numerous reasons 111. The likelihood that she will decide to take the job is great, she is never completely predictable. a. The likelihood b. Although the likelihood c. Since the likelihood d. In fact, the likelihood e. Knowing that the likelihood e. Knowing that the likelihood 112. Most of a human tooth is made up of a substance known as dentin, which is located directly below the enamel. a. dentin, which is located b. dentin, and which is located c. dentin but located d. dentin, which it is located e. dentin, that its location is 113. Jackson Pollock, a twentieth-century American painter, is well known and renowned for creating abstract paintings by dripping paint on canvas. a. a twentieth-century American painter, is well known and renowned for creating b. an American painter who lived and painted in the twentieth century, is well known for the creation of c. renowned and prominent, was known as a twentieth-century American painter for creating d. he is an American painter famous and renowned for creating e. a twentieth-century American painter, is famous for creating 114. Having missed class several times, this was the cause of our poor grades. a. Having missed class several times, this was the cause of our poor grades. b. After missing class several times, our poor grades were anticipated. c. Because we missed class several times, we received poor grades. d. We received poor grades missing class several times. e. Receiving poor grades, we missed class several times. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 22
  30. 30. 115. Because of the need for accuracy, all employees must diligently review their work at the end of every day. a. all employees must diligently review their work at the end of every day. b. all employees who work here must be diligent and careful to review their work at the end of every day. c. employees must be diligently reviewing and checking their work at the end of every day. d. workers and employees must diligently review their work at the end of every day. e. all employees must diligently review and assess their work daily, every day. 116. Beside his expertise in gardening, Malcolm is also an accomplished carpenter. a. Beside his expertise in gardening, b. Beside gardening, c. In addition also to his accomplished carpentry, d. Besides his expertise in gardening, e. Beside his gardening, 117. Baseball is a sport that is popular in the United States like Japan. a. popular in the United States like Japan. b. as well popular in Japan as it is in the United States c. just as popular in the United States than in Japan d. popular in the United States as well as in Japan. e. popular as well as in both Japan and the United States 118. I decided to paint the kitchen yellow, and after I had painted, my husband informed me that he’d rather it be blue. a. yellow, and after I had painted, my husband b. yellow, and after I had painted my husband c. yellow and after I had painted, my husband d. yellow; and, after I had painted, my husband e. yellow and after I had painted my husband 119. Yelling after it as the taxi drove away, leaving Austin and me standing helplessly on the sidewalk. a. Yelling after it as the taxi drove away, leaving Austin and me standing helplessly on the sidewalk. b. While yelling after it and watching the taxi drive away, which left Austin and me standing helplessly on the sidewalk. c. Left helplessly standing on the sidewalk after Austin and me yelled after the taxi and watched as it drove away. d. As we yelled after it, the taxi drove away, leaving Austin and me standing helplessly on the sidewalk. e. After having yelled after it, the taxi driving off and leaving Austin and me on the sidewalk, watching helplessly. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 23
  31. 31. SET 11 (Answers begin on page 108.) Replace the underlined portion with the phrase that best completes the sentence. If the sentence is cor- rect as is, choose a. 120. When making a chocolate torte, only the best ingredients should be used. a. only the best ingredients should be used. b. you should use only the best ingredients. c. the best ingredients only should be used. d. one should have used only the best ingredients. e. using only the best ingredients is essential. 121. With her book Coming of Age in Samoa, anthropologist Margaret Mead emphasized the role of culture, rather than biology, in shaping human behavior. a. rather than biology, in shaping human behavior. b. rather than biology with shaping human behavior. c. somewhat better than biology to shape human behavior. d. in shaping human behavior, and not biology. e. in shaping human behavior over biology. 122. This was the fifth of the five speeches the mayor gave during this the month of May. a. This was the fifth of the five speeches the mayor gave during this the month of May. b. Of the five speeches the mayor gave during May, this was the fifth one. c. Thus far during the month of May, the mayor gave five speeches and this was the fifth. d. This fifth speech of the mayor’s given during the month of May was one of five speeches. e. This was the fifth speech the mayor has given during the month of May. 123. An American poet of the nineteenth century, Walt Whitman’s collection of poems, Leaves of Grass, celebrates nature and individualism. a. Walt Whitman’s collection of poems, Leaves of Grass, b. Leaves of Grass, a collection of poems by Walt Whitman, c. a collection of poems, Leaves of Grass, by Walt Whitman, d. Walt Whitman published poems, collected as Leaves of Grass, that e. Walt Whitman published a collection of poems entitled Leaves of Grass, that 124. We loved our trip to the desert where you could see the tall cactus, the blooming flowers, and the little desert animals. a. desert where you could see b. desert; you could see c. desert; where we saw d. desert; we saw e. desert in that you saw 125. Opposite in what many financial analysts had predicted, the stock market rose by 22 points this month. a. Opposite in what many financial analysts had predicted, b. Contrary to the predictions of many financial analysts, c. As against the predictions of many financial analysts, d. Contrasting of many financial analysts’ predictions, e. Contrary with what many financial analysts predicted, –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 24
  32. 32. 126. A standardized extract made from the leaves of the ginkgo biloba tree is proving to be effective in treating mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. a. is proving to be effective in treating b. has shown its proof of effectiveness with treating c. may have proven effective treatment for d. is effectively proving in treating e. have given a proven effectiveness in the treatment of 127. The citizens’ action committee has accused the city counsel members with being careless with the spending of the taxpayers’ money. a. with being careless with the spending of b. as to carelessness in the spending of c. of carelessness in the spending of d. of careless spending to e. with spending carelessly of 128. Aspirin was exclusively known as a painkiller until the time when cardiologists began prescribing it as a preventative for heart attacks. a. as a painkiller until the time when cardiologists began prescribing it as a preventative for b. to be a painkiller since when cardiologists prescribed it to be a prevention for c. as a way to kill and stop pain until cardiologists began to prescribe it as a method for the prevention of d. as a painkiller until cardiologists began prescribing it as a preventative for e. to be a painkiller up to when cardiologists prescribed its preventative for 129. The news reporter who had been covering the story suddenly became ill, and I was called to take her place. a. had been covering the story suddenly became ill, and I was called b. was covering the story suddenly becomes ill, and they called me c. is covering the story suddenly becomes ill, and I was called d. would have been covering the story suddenly became ill, and I am called e. covers the story, suddenly became ill, and they called me 130. Donald Trump, the son of a real estate developer, he has built a billion-dollar empire. a. Donald Trump, the son of a real estate developer, he b. Donald Trump, being the son of a real estate developer, c. While he was the son of a real estate developer, Donald Trump d. The son of a real estate developer, Donald Trump e. Donald Trump, the son of a real estate developer, and he 131. The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere, it extends from ground level to an altitude of seven to ten miles. a. atmosphere, it extends b. atmosphere of which it extends c. atmosphere. Extending d. atmosphere, and extending e. atmosphere; it extends –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 25
  33. 33. 132. Along with your membership to our health club and two months of free personal training. a. Along with your membership to our health club, and b. Along with your membership to our health club you receive c. With your membership to our health club, d. In addition to your membership to our health club being e. Added to your membership to our health club, 133. Our contention is that a body of common knowledge shared by literate Americans of the late twentieth century and that this knowledge can be defined. a. Our contention is that a body of common knowledge shared by b. To contend that a body of common knowledge is shared by c. We contend that we share a body of common knowledge in d. That a common body of knowledge is shared is our contention with e. It is our contention that a body of common knowledge is shared by 134. Whether they earn a BS degree, chemical engineers are almost guaranteed a job. a. Whether they earn b. If they earn c. If earning d. To earn e. Since earning SET 12 (Answers begin on page 109.) Choose the sentence that is NOT correctly written or that is unclear. If all sentences are correct, choose answer d. 135. a. We asked him to pick us up in the morning. b. Mrs. Jacobs needed a ride to the airport. c. The car racing up the street. d. No mistakes. 136. a. Our neighbors went on vacation, going to the Grand Canyon. b. There are yellow and red tulips in my garden. c. We invited Molly to our house for dinner. d. No mistakes. 137. a. We are planning to build a new fence in our backyard. b. Where is the new diner that everyone is talking about? c. There’s nothing I can do to help. d. No mistakes. 138. a. Make sure the door is locked. b. I love pumpkin pie Pearl does too. c. Yes, I will bring the dessert. d. No mistakes. 139. a. After he left, I went straight to bed. b. For the first time, I understood what she was talking about. c. We visited the town where my father grew up last summer. d. No mistakes. 140. a. Kate was allergic to all dairy products. b. Which of the Beatles’ songs is your favorite? c. The company newsletter explained the new vacation policy. d. No mistakes. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 26
  34. 34. 141. a. They went to the park and flew a kite. b. “Don’t tell me what to do,” she shouted. c. Liam loves the warm weather, unless he knows it won’t last much longer. d. No mistakes. 142. a. Bring your umbrella tomorrow it’s supposed to rain. b. The dancers’ costumes were being delivered on Saturday. c. Would you consider bringing me as your guest? d. No mistakes. 143. a. Marlene likes my apple crisp better than Aunt Kate’s. b. The people in the auditorium, whether they were seated or standing. c. I registered for a class in West Indian literature. d. No mistakes. 144. a. The free passes were given to Lena and me. b. Where’s my purple umbrella? c. After midnight, the light on the front porch goes off. d. No mistakes. 145. a. Katya and I were in the same pottery class. b. The weather was nicer today than it was yesterday. c. The grapes cost more than the melon does. d. No mistakes. 146. a. His jacket is just like mine. b. Talia went to yoga class, and that she forgot her mat. c. Indira visits her relatives frequently. d. No mistakes. SET 13 (Answers begin on page 110.) Choose the sentence that expresses the idea most clearly. 147. a. For three weeks, the Merryville Fire Chief received taunting calls from an arsonist, who would not say where he intended to set the next fire. b. The Merryville Fire Chief received taunting calls from an arsonist, but he would not say where he intended to set the next fire, for three weeks. c. He would not say where he intended to set the next fire, but for three weeks the Merryville Fire Chief received taunting calls from an arsonist. d. The Merryville Fire Chief received taunting calls from an arsonist for three weeks, not saying where he intended to set the next fire. 148. a. There is no true relationship between ethics and the law. b. Ethics and the law having no true relationship. c. Between ethics and the law, no true relationship. d. Ethics and the law is no true relationship. 149. a. Some people say jury duty is a nuisance that just takes up their precious time and that we don’t get paid enough. b. Some people say jury duty is a nuisance that just takes up your precious time and that one doesn’t get paid enough. c. Some people say jury duty is a nuisance that just takes up precious time and that doesn’t pay enough. d. Some people say jury duty is a nuisance that just takes up our precious time and that they don’t get paid enough. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 27
  35. 35. 150. a. As soon as she realized that the hurricane was going to strike, the mayor told the residents to evacuate the city. b. As soon as she realized that the hurricane was going to strike, the city residents were told to evacuate by the mayor. c. As soon as she realized that the hurricane was going to strike, the mayor tells the city residents of her decision to evacuate. d. As soon as she realized that the hurricane was going to strike, the residents of the city were told to evacuate by the mayor. 151. a. A sharpshooter for many years, a pea could be shot off a person’s shoulder from 70 yards away by Miles Johnson. b. A sharpshooter for many years, Miles Johnson could shoot a pea off a person’s shoulder from 70 yards away. c. A sharpshooter for many years, from 70 yards away off a person’s shoulder Miles Johnson could have shot a pea. d. A sharpshooter for many years, Miles Johnson could shoot from 70 yards away off a person’s shoulder a pea. 152. a. By the time they are in the third or fourth grade, the eyes of most children in the United States are tested. b. Most children by the time they are in the United States have their eyes tested in the third or fourth grade. c. Most children in the United States have their eyes tested by the time they are in the third or fourth grade. d. In the United States by the time of third or fourth grade, there is testing of the eyes of most children. 153. a. Ultraviolet radiation levels are 60% higher at 8,500 feet from the sun than they are at sea level, according to researchers. b. Researchers have found from the sun ultraviolet radiation levels 60% higher, they say, at 8,500 feet than at sea level. c. Researchers have found that ultraviolet radiation levels from the sun are 60% higher at 8,500 feet than they are at sea level. d. At 8,500 feet researchers have found that ultraviolet radiation levels are 60% higher from sea level with the sun’s rays. –SENTENCE STRUCTURE– 28
  36. 36. Agreement is a very important step in constructing a coherent sentence. There are three basic agreements in a sentence: subject-verb agreement, tense agreement, and antecedent- pronoun agreement. First, you have to know the definition of a verb: ✓ Verb: a word or group of words describing the action or the state of being of a subject. Subject-Verb Agreement ✓ If the subject is singular, the verb is singular; if the subject is plural, the verb is plural➞Mrs. Hendrickson feeds the birds every day. Or: The Hendricksons feed the birds every day. ✓ Subjects joined by and are plural and receive a plural verb➞Jolie and Lara swim together every Thursday. ✓ Subjects joined by or or nor adopt the singularity or plurality of the last subject; accordingly, the verb matches it➞Either that cat or those dogs have been eating my snacks! Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement ✓ Each, either, neither, anybody, anyone, everybody, everyone, no one, nobody, one, somebody, and someone are sin- gular pronouns and receive singular verbs. ✓ Both, few, many, and several are plural pronouns and receive plural verbs. ✓ All, any, most, none, and some can be singular or plural pronouns, depending on their use. These pronouns can receive plural or singular verbs. ✓ Do not be confused by words or phrases that follow a subject that are not the subject➞One of the chairs is damaged. His work, one of the many works exhibited here today, is refreshingly naive. S E C T I O N Agreement 3 29
  37. 37. Tense Agreement ✓ Maintain one tense in a complete thought: past tense or present tense.➞ Incorrect: In the game of hide and seek, Bobby chased Mary and tag her from behind. Correct: In the game of hide and seek, Bobby chased Mary and tagged her from behind. Incorrect: Dusk had just settled when I see a fawn timidly step onto the beach. Correct: Dusk had just settled when I saw a fawn timidly step onto the beach. Do not use of in place of have. You cannot avoid pronouns. Pronouns substitute for nouns. Instead of saying, “Because Janie was late, Janie hopped on Janie’s moped, and Janie raced to the wed- ding,” you would say, “Because Janie was late, she hopped on her moped, and she raced to the wedding.” In this section, you will not only clarify ambiguous pronouns and assure pronoun-antecedent agreement, you will also grapple with contractions. All too often, certain pronouns and contractions are confused. “The file cabinet drawer snagged on an overstuffed folder; it’s now stuck just before its halfway point.”It’s is a con- traction meaning it is, while its is a possessive pronoun meaning the drawer’s halfway point. The only visual difference between the two is an apostrophe neatly inserted between the t and the s in the contraction. Do You Know These Terms? ✓ Antecedent: In the last example, Janie is the specific noun that she and her replace; so Janie is the antecedent. The presence of the antecedent in a sen- tence is as important as which pronouns substitute for it. ✓ Contractions: When two words are made into one by omitting letters and using an apostrophe to high- light the omission—that’s a contraction. ✓ Subjective, Objective, and Possessive Cases: Per- sons or things (nouns) acting on other things are subjects. Pronouns that refer to these subjects are in the subjective case (I, you, he, she, we, they, who). Persons or things acted upon (in other words, they are not performing the action) are objects. Pro- nouns that refer to these objects are in the objective case (me, you, him, her, us, them, whom). Subjects or objects that claim ownership of something are possessors. Pronouns that claim their possessions are in the possessive case (my, your, his, her, our, your, whose). ✓ Avoid Ambiguous Pronoun References. The antecedent that a pronoun refers to must be clearly stated and in close proximity to its pronoun. If more subjects than one are present, indi- cate which subject is the antecedent.➞When Katherine and Melissa left for England, she prom- ised to write me about all their adventures. Who is she? Katherine or Melissa? Pronouns should ✓ Agree in number with their antecedent: Singular antecedents use singular pronouns, and plural antecedents use plural pronouns. ✓ Compound antecedents joined by and use plural pronouns.➞A horse and a donkey make a mule. Even though the horse and the donkey are singular subjects, together they create one plural subject. ✓ Compound antecedents joined by or or nor use pro- nouns that agree with the nearest antecedent.➞ Neither my one cat nor my four dogs are as difficult to maintain as my one pet fish. ✓ Collective nouns use singular pronouns unless it is obvious that every person or thing in the group act individually.➞The company mandated a universal naptime for all its employees. They felt workers could sustain productivity longer into the afternoon if they –AGREEMENT– 30
  38. 38. rested in the early afternoon. Unless it is a one- person operation, a company usually employs many people. However, it is treated like a singular noun. In the first sentence, the singular pronoun it sub- stitutes for company. In the second sentence, indi- viduals in the company feel separately, and so the plural pronoun they replaces the subject. ✓ Persons receive the pronouns who, whom, or whose, not that or which. ✓ After is, are, was, or were use the subjective case. ✓ Pronouns preceding or following infinitive verbs (the plain form of a verb preceded by to) take the objective case.➞Billy Jean begged him to play catch, but he did not want to play ball with her at that moment. In the first clause, him is the subject; in the second clause, her is an object. Despite their differ- ence, both take the objective case because of the infinitive to play. –AGREEMENT– 31 SET 14 (Answers begin on page 110.) For the following questions, choose the underlined part of the sentence that contains a grammatical error. If there are no errors, choose answer e. 154. We knew Lawrence must of missed the appointment because train service was disrupted for a b c three hours this morning. No error. d e 155. Every year, a few committed citizens exceeds our expectations and work tirelessly to improve our a b c d community programs in significant ways. No error. e 156. Each of the employees have had a half-hour evaluation meeting with his or her supervisor. No error. a b c d e 157. Here are one of the three keys you will need to unlock the office door tomorrow. No error. a b c d e 158. Soon after Donovan left to walk to work, he realized that he would forget his umbrella. No error. a b c d e 159. Someone from the garage phoned to say that the car had been fixed and asking if we would pick it up a b c d by 5:00. No error. e
  39. 39. SET 15 (Answers begin on page 111.) Fill in the blank with the correct verb form. 166. On March 15, 2006, the Maywood Recreation Department requested a grant from the state to rebuild the community center that _________________ in the recent fire. a. destroys b. will be destroyed c. had been destroyed d. is being destroyed 167. Matthew Morris and Jessica Glassman hosted a holiday party that The River Bank Café _________________. a. caters b. will cater c. is catering d. catered –AGREEMENT– 32 160. In 1963, Betty Friedan’s exposé of domesticity, The Feminine Mystique, became an immediate bestseller a b c and creating a national sensation. No error. d e 161. The staff at the university library deserve recognition for helping to locate the many sources needed for a b c d the successful completion of my doctoral dissertation. No error. e 162. Homesteaders on the Great Plains had to build homes, find water in a semiarid land, and to learn to a b c d understand the blessings of the environment. No error. e 163. During the winter season, homeowners should change their disposable furnace filters at least once a b a month; a dirty filter reduce furnace efficiency. No error. c d e 164. The chief executive officer and the chairman of the board agrees that the new benefit package a b should include a dental health plan as well as eye care. No error. c d e 165. Watching the film, I begun to ask myself why I cared about these characters when I felt such an intense a b c d unease. No error. e
  40. 40. 168. Megan is trying to read all three books in the series before summer ____________. a. ended b. will have ended c. will end d. ends 169. We have ______________ more sweets since that wonderful bakery opened down the block. a. ate b. been eating c. been eat d. eat 170. While attempting to _____________ his broken bicycle, Leo Donner realized that he didn’t have the proper tools. a. be repairing b. have repaired c. repair d. repaired 171. ___________ the police immediately. a. Call b. Called c. Been calling d. To call 172. The biggest problem with Martha’s garden __________ too many weeds. a. will have been b. were c. will have d. was 173. Last week, Tracy and Shane were honored at a luncheon for their part in rescuing a child who ____________________ into an icy pond. a. falls b. would fall c. had fallen d. has fallen 174. The woman who confronted the owner of the unleashed dog ____________ angry. a. were b. was c. are d. have been 175. The boy ______________ the bat and ran to first base as fast as he could. a. swings b. swinged c. swung d. swing 176. There ___________ four excellent restaurants in the center of town. a. is b. are c. was d. being 177. The noise from the lawn mowers ______________ louder as the morning progresses. a. gets b. get c. have gotten d. are getting SET 16 (Answers begin on page 111.) Replace the underlined words with the phrase that best completes the sentence. If the sentence is cor- rect as is, choose a. 178. The words Equal Justice Under Law is carved above the main entrance to the Supreme Court. a. is carved b. carved c. has been carved d. are carved e. been carved –AGREEMENT– 33
  41. 41. 179. In classical economic theory, the relationship between supply and demand determines the price of a commodity. a. between supply and demand determines b. among supply and demand determines c. among supply and demand determine d. between supply and demand determine e. with supply and demand determine 180. A corporation created by the federal government during the Great Depression, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is responsible for flood control, must generate electric power, and soil conservation. a. flood control, must generate electric power, and soil conservation. b. flood control, generating electric power, and for soil conservation. c. controlling floods, generating electric power, and soil conservation. d. flood control, the generation of electric power, and soil conservation. e. flood control, for the generation of electric power, and conserving the soil. 181. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people with healthy livers are said to be calm and that they possess unerring judgment. a. are said to be calm and that they possess b. are said to be calm and to possess c. said to be calm and possessing d. have said to be calm and to possess e. are said to be calm and possessive of 182. When the phone is ringing, Jacoby had been writing in his journal. a. is ringing, Jacoby had been writing b. rings, Jacoby was writing c. rang, Jacoby was writing d. had rung, Jacoby was writing e. rang, Jacoby will be writing 183. To determine the speed of automobiles, radar is often used by the state police. a. To determine the speed of automobiles, radar is often used by the state police. b. To determine the speed of automobiles, it is often necessary for the state police to use radar. c. In determining the speed of automobiles, the use of radar by state police is often employed. d. To determine the speed of automobiles, the state police often use radar. e. Radar by state police in determining the speed of automobiles is often used. 184. Everyone signed the petition before submitting to the city council. a. submitting b. one submits it c. you submit it d. we will submit it e. we submitted it 185. I have a cross-training exercise program: I swim laps, play tennis, the weight machines, and bicycle riding. a. I swim laps, play tennis, the weight machines, and bicycle riding. b. I swim laps, play tennis, lift weights, and ride a bicycle. c. I swim laps, play tennis, I lift weights, and bicycle riding is a change. d. swimming laps, tennis, lifting weights, and the bicycle. e. swim laps, play tennis, lifting weights, and riding a bicycle. –AGREEMENT– 34
  42. 42. 186. We all arrived at the theater on time, but before we bought our tickets, Candace says that she’s changed her mind and doesn’t want to see the movie after all. a. says that she’s changed her mind and doesn’t b. said that she had changed her mind and didn’t c. is saying that she’d changed her mind and doesn’t d. told us that she is changing her mind and didn’t e. tells us that she had changed her mind and doesn’t 187. State Senator Partridge wished to insure the people that their tax dollars would be spent wisely. a. to insure the people that their tax dollars would be spent wisely. b. that the people would be insured of tax dollars wisely spent. c. in assuring the people, that their tax dollars would be wisely spent. d. to assure the people that he would spend their tax dollars wisely. e. to assure and promise the people of his intentions to spend their tax dollars wisely. 188. Because he was given a local anesthetic, Josh was conscience throughout the operation. a. Josh was conscience throughout the operation. b. Josh had a conscience during the operation. c. the operation was completed with Josh consciousness. d. the operation was done while Josh held consciousness. e. Josh remained conscious throughout the operation. SET 17 (Answers begin on page 112.) Find the sentence that has a mistake in grammar or usage. If you find no mistakes, mark choice d. 189. a. No, it’s not true. b. The curtain closed, and the people will applaud. c. My sister is a nurse practitioner. d. No mistakes. 190. a. They talked through the entire movie. b. The plants in this garden does not require much water. c. She always brings turkey sandwiches for lunch. d. No mistakes. 191. a. Where are Gianna’s art supplies? b. Darren should of been given a chance to audition. c. It’s going to take all day. d. No mistakes. 192. a. Olivia took her older sister out for lunch. b. Nicholas is learning to speak German. c. Franklin drunk three bottles of water after the game. d. No mistakes. 193. a. She showed us five different shades of blue paint. b. The liveliest one of the three puppies are not adopted yet. c. This is the best birthday party I have ever had. d. No mistakes. 194. a. When I go the museum, I wore comfortable shoes. b. She was approached, but she declined the offer. c. There are seven floors in this building. d. No mistakes. –AGREEMENT– 35
  43. 43. 195. a. David and Mickey danced in the street. b. Here is the photographs I wanted to show you. c. My grandfather owns a 1967 Mustang. d. No mistakes. 196. a. It has not rained since last April. b. The jurors walked solemnly into the room. c. Had we known, we would not have come. d. No mistakes. 197. a. The dog’s barking woke us. b. Ursula has broke one of your plates. c. The sun rose from behind the mountain. d. No mistakes. 198. a. After we sat down to eat dinner, the phone rung. b. “Keep a positive attitude,” he always says. c. Sign here. d. No mistakes. 199. a. The children’s books are over there. b. She missed the bus and arrives late. c. There is hardly enough food for a mouse. d. No mistakes. 200. a. The winners were announced yesterday. b. Liam is the only one of the boys who were chosen. c. Although Nick was not selected, he was happy for the others. d. No mistakes. 201. a. He shook the crumbs from the tablecloth. b. We will strive to do our best. c. I see that Fred has wore his old shoes. d. No mistakes. 202. a. When I heard the alarm, I jump out of bed. b. Mr. Fox is the president of his own company. c. At night, I listened to jazz on the radio. d. No mistakes. SET 18 (Answers begin on page 112.) Choose the sentence that is the most clearly written and has the best construction. 203. a. All the children got out their rugs and took a nap. b. All the children have gotten out their rugs and took a nap. c. All the children got out their rugs and have taken a nap. d. All the children gotten out their rugs and taken a nap. 204. a. At first I was liking the sound of the wind, but later it got on my nerves. b. At first I liked the sound of the wind, but later it has gotten on my nerves. c. At first I like the sound of the wind, but later it got on my nerves. d. At first I liked the sound of the wind, but later it got on my nerves. 205. a. I became ill from eating too many fried clams. b. I became ill from eaten too many fried clams. c. I ate too many fried clams and becoming ill. d. I ate too many fried clams and become ill. 206. a. As the old saying goes, a cat may look at a king. b. A cat looking at a king, according to the old saying. c. The old saying being, a cat may look at a king. d. A cat looking at a king, in the old saying. 207. a. A longer happier life, caused by one’s owning a pet. b. Owning a pet, for one to live a longer, happier life. c. To live a longer, happier life by one’s owning a pet. d. Owning a pet can help one live a longer, happier life. –AGREEMENT– 36
  44. 44. 208. a. One of the first modern detectives in literature were created by Edgar Allan Poe. b. One of the first modern detectives in literature was created by Edgar Allan Poe. c. Edgar Allan Poe having created one of the first modern detectives in literature. d. In literature, one of the first modern detectives, created by Edgar Allan Poe. 209. a. My brother and I going to see the ball game. b. My brother and I are going to see the ball game. c. My brother and I seeing the ball game. d. My brother and I to the ball game. 210. a. I don’t like fish as well as my sister does. b. I don’t like fish as well as my sister. c. Fish isn’t liked by me as well as my sister. d. My sister likes it, but I don’t like fish as well. 211. a. After renting him the room, Alvin discovered Mr. Morris owned a cat. b. After renting him the room, a cat was discovered to belong to Mr. Morris. c. A cat belonging to Mr. Morris was discovered by Alvin after renting him a room. d. After renting him a room, Mr. Morris was discovered by Alvin to own a cat. 212. a. We ate the popcorn and watch the movie. b. While watching the movie, the popcorn was eaten. c. Popcorn, while watching the movie, was eaten. d. We ate the popcorn while we watched the movie. –AGREEMENT– 37 SET 19 (Answers begin on page 113.) For the following questions, choose the underlined part of the sentence that contains a grammatical error. If there are no errors, choose answer e. 213. All employees with two years’ experience are entitled to full benefits, including health insurance, life a b c d insurance, a retirement plan, and stock options. No error. e 214. Because their afraid of air travel, my mother and my Aunt Felicia have decided to take the train a b c from Chicago to New Orleans. No error. d e 215. To find the perimeter of a polygon, add the lengths of it’s sides. No error. a b c d e 216. After the director and assistant director both resigned, we all wondered who would be appointed a b c to fill their positions. No error. d e
  45. 45. 217. Last spring, my cousin and I packed the tent, the sleeping bags, and a cooler filled with food and headed a b c west. No error. d e 218. Although it usually has a soft body and muscular feet, some mollusks also have hard shells. No error. a b c d e 219. For all of those people who have vowed to give up fatty foods, video games, and shopping for the new a year, here’s an incentive to keep him on the straight and narrow path. No error. b c d e 220. Even as the mainstream music industry pushes further into the digital world of solid state circuitry, a b there is a renewed interest in old-style amplifiers and speakers. No error. c d e 221. To formalize and commit themselves to there new government, the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Pact. a b c d No error. e 222. Last summer around the end of July, my brother, my Aunt Clarissa, and me jumped into the Ford a b c station wagon and headed out of the city. No error. d e 223. The term “blood type” refers to one of the many groups into which a person’s blood can be categorized, a b c d based on the presence or absence of specific antigens. No error. e 224. As you use them, remember that this glossary is intended to be a guide and that nothing in it is a b c is absolute. No error. d e 225. Although the chances of being victimized are slim, if your not careful, airport thieves—who look like a b c ordinary travelers—can make off with your purse, your wallet, your phone card, and all your credit d cards. No error. e –AGREEMENT– 38
  46. 46. SET 20 (Answers begin on page 113.) Fill in the blank with the correct pronoun. 228. That fine circus elephant now belongs to my sister and ________. a. I b. me c. mine d. myself 229. The person ________ made these delicious candied figs has my vote. a. that b. whom c. who d. whose 230. If you don’t stop playing ________ video games, you will miss the bus. a. that b. those c. them d. this 231. George and Michael left ________ backpacks at school. a. his b. their c. there d. its 232. If you steal ________ artichoke from Petra’s garden, you’ll be sorry. a. them b. those c. that d. these 233. We arranged the flowers and placed ________ in the center of the table. a. it b. this c. them d. that 234. ________ met more than ten years ago at a mutual friend’s birthday party. a. Her and I b. Her and me c. She and me d. She and I 235. My parents approved of ________ taking guitar lessons. a. my b. me c. I d. mine –AGREEMENT– 39 226. The distinct geology of Cape Cod began to form about 20,000 years ago when the Wisconsin Glacier, a up to two miles thick, pushed its way south from Canada, stopped, and then slowly receded. No error. b c d e 227. Although this was an unusually dry summer, the corn crop was not seriously damaged. No error. a b c d e
  47. 47. SET 21 (Answers begin on page 114.) Replace the underlined words with the phrase that best completes the sentence. If the sentence is cor- rect as is, choose a. 236. It was either Kendra or Zoë who brought their volleyball to the picnic. a. brought their b. brought her c. brought their d. brang their e. brang her 237. Whose car will you take when you drive to their house? a. Whose car will you take when you drive to their b. Whose car will you take when you drive to there c. Who’s car will you take when you drive to their d. Who’s car will take when you drive to there e. Which car will you take when you drive to there 238. If someone is looking for the best car loan, you should compare interest rates at several banks. a. If someone is looking b. When one is looking c. If you are looking d. To have a person look e. When someone is about to look 239. When two angles have the same degree measure, it is said to be congruent. a. When two angles have the same degree measure, it is said to be congruent. b. When two angles has the same degree measure, it is said to be congruent. c. Two angles with the same degree measure is said to be congruent. d. They are congruent when the said two angles has the same degree measure. e. When two angles have the same degree measure, they are said to be congruent. 240. The friendship between Andre and Robert began when he and his family moved to Ohio. a. The friendship between Andre and Robert began when he and his b. Andre and Robert’s friendship began when he and his c. The friendship among the two boys began when he and his d. The friendship between Andre and Robert began when Robert and his e. Andre and Robert’s friendship began when their SET 22 (Answers begin on page 114.) Find the sentence that has a mistake in grammar or usage. If you find no mistakes, mark choice d. 241. a. Of the four of us, I am the tallest. b. Wilson’s brother is a chemical engineer. c. That fine circus elephant now belongs to my sister and I. d. No mistakes. –AGREEMENT– 40
  48. 48. 242. a. Help is on the way. b. The firemen used a ladder to reach the kitten. c. Don’t slip on the icy sidewalk. d. No mistakes. 243. a. His family has lived in this town for thirty- five years. b. You’re the only one who can remember that song. c. That’s the quickest way to get to Sylvia’s house. d. No mistakes. 244. a. “Meet me at six o’clock,” she said. b. Tired of running, she slowed her pace to a fast walk. c. Gabriel and me will attend the geography bee. d. No mistakes. 245. a. Sheila’s sister wanted to accompany us to the party. b. Who’s scarf is this? c. “Be sure to wear something comfortable,” she said. d. No mistakes. 246. a. The main problem Jim had was too many parking tickets. b. As the bears ran toward us, it was growling. c. Try using less butter next time. d. No mistakes. 247. a. Kamala was the most intelligent person in the group. b. The Eiffel Tower is in Paris, France. c. Nick Carraway is a character in The Great Gatsby. d. No mistakes. 248. a. They weren’t the only ones who didn’t like the movie. b. “Please come back another time,” Aunt Julie begged. c. “Threes a crowd,” he always says. d. No mistakes. 249. a. The first house on the street is there’s. b. I love the fireworks on the Fourth of July. c. My grandparents live in San Juan, Puerto Rico. d. No mistakes. 250. a. Either Cassie nor I heard the door open. b. How many people signed the Declaration of Independence? c. Draw up a plan before you make your decision. d. No mistakes. 251. a. It’s not my fault that you and him got caught. b. “Do you brush twice a day?” Dr. Evans asked. c. What’s the weather report? d. No mistakes. 252. a. Couldn’t you arrive fashionably late? b. You’re assumption is correct. c. I know that Bowser will be well treated. d. No mistakes. 253. a. We invited Mayor Chen to speak at our school. b. The alarm sounded, and the firefighters jumped into the truck. c. The committee members should work as hard as one can. d. No mistakes. –AGREEMENT– 41
  49. 49. 254. a. He wore two different shoes to class. b. Rhonda’s sister bought a new Pontiac. c. Lake Superior is the largest of the Great Lakes. d. No mistakes. 255. a. She and I have been friends for more than ten years. b. Is that one of the O’Farrell children? c. They took too much time to answer. d. No mistakes. SET 23 (Answers begin on page 114.) Choose the sentence that is the most clearly written and has the best construction. 256. a. Melanie wrote to her sister once a week while she was living abroad. b. While her sister was living abroad, Melanie wrote to her once a week. c. When traveling abroad, a letter was written once a week by Melanie to her sister. d. Her sister received a letter once a week from Melanie while she was living abroad. 257. a. Some of the instructions I have to follow are very detailed, but that doesn’t bother one as long as they are clear. b. Some of the instructions I have to follow are very detailed, but that doesn’t bother you as long as they are clear. c. Some of the instructions I have to follow are very detailed, but it doesn’t bother a person as long as they are clear. d. Some of the instructions I have to follow are very detailed, but that doesn’t bother me as long as they are clear. 258. a. In search of the missing teenagers, who still had not been found through snake-ridden underbrush all day, the exhausted volunteers had struggled. b. All day the exhausted volunteers had struggled through snake-ridden underbrush in search of the missing teenagers, who still had not been found. c. All day the exhausted volunteers had struggled through snake-ridden underbrush who still had not been found in searching for the missing teenagers. d. The exhausted volunteers who still had not found in search of the missing teenagers when they had struggled through snake- ridden underbrush. 259. a. One New York publisher have estimated that 50,000 to 60,000 people in the United States want an anthology that includes the complete works of William Shakespeare. b. One New York publisher has estimated that 50,000 to 60,000 people in the United States want a anthology that includes the complete works of William Shakespeare. c. One New York publisher has estimated that 50,000 to 60,000 people in the United States want an anthology that includes the complete works of William Shakespeare. d. One New York publisher has estimated that 50,000 to 60,000 people in the United States want an anthology that included the complete works of William Shakespeare. –AGREEMENT– 42
  50. 50. Adjectives and adverbs modify subjects and/or their actions in a sentence. In the sentence, “The orange and striped cat leapt nimbly across the dresser,” adjectives and adverbs specify what kind of cat (an “orange and striped cat”) and how that cat leapt (“nimbly”). All too often, adjectives and adverbs are confused for one another. However, in this section, you will put each in its proper place and in its proper form. First, you have to know the definition of a modifier: ✓ A modifier describes or limits another word.➞Lily is a subject. Add the word tiger before lily and the subject is modified: It is now a specific type of lily. Pushed is an action word. Add shyly and the action is limited: It is now a gentler action. Put the subject, its action, and the modifiers all together and the sentence reads: Unlike its fierce namesake, the tiger lily pushed its head shyly through the soil. Types of Modifiers ✓ Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. (Hint: An adjective answers one of three questions: which one, what kind, or how many?) ✓ Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, or whole groups of words. (Hint: An adverb answers one of four questions: where, when, how, or to what extent?) ✓ Comparatives are adjectives and adverbs used to compare two things. ✓ Superlatives are adjectives and adverbs used to compare more than two things. Follow this guideline and you will do well (well describes the verb to do; therefore it is an adverb!): ✓ Always identify whether a modifier describes or limits a sentence’s subject or its action. ✓ Use good and bad to describe nouns. ✓ Use well and badly to describe verbs, except when well means “fit”or “healthy.”When well describes a state of being, it is an adjective.➞With repetition, you will soon write well. Well describes how the subject writes; it is S E C T I O N Modifiers 4 43

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