SEM – 8th YEAR – 4th
H I N D U S C H O O L O F A R C H I T E C T U R E
NITIN THAKRAL SHASHANK
RAJ KAMAL TARUNA
A ceiling is an overhead interior surface that covers the
upper limits of a room.
It is not generally considered a structural element, but a
finished surface concealing the underside of the roof
structure or the floor of a storey above.
Ceilings can be decorated to taste, and there are many
fine examples of frescoes and artwork on ceilings
especially in religious buildings.
The most common type of ceiling is the dropped
ceiling which is suspended from structural elements
Pipework or ducts can be run in the gap above the
ceiling, and insulation and fireproofing material can be
Other types of ceiling include the cathedral ceiling, the
concave or barrel-shaped ceiling, the stretched ceiling
and the coffered ceiling.
TYPE OF CEILING
CONCEALED GRID CEILING:
Minimalist and elegant
Concealed grid ceiling systems offer a minimalist and elegant appearance. They can be
suspended, fastened directly or bonded with adhesive to the soffit. With no visible grid,
even ceilings that contain services installations will appear uninterrupted.
D edge Use D edge when you want an invisible grid but need to retain access to the ceiling
void. For easy installation and removal, D edge tiles have C edges on two opposing sides
and D edges on the others.
They are fully demountable. X edge X edge tiles offer a near-monolithic appearance. They
can be suspended on a T24 grid as an entire ceiling or as multi-module framed islands. They
can also be direct-mounted to the soffit using X-hooks. Tiles of any size can be mixed and
matched and are individually demountable.
SEMI – CONCEALED GRID:
This system is designed to support planks tiles that are up to 300
mm wide and 1200 , 1500 , 1800 and up to 2500 mm long.
Planks manufactured from a variety of materials including mineral
/ rock steel, aluminium etc.
Prices go up to Rs . 89 per plank depending on the size too.
Advantage: such planks are easily marketed and available in the
market. Easy to place and less time consuming.
Disadvantage: life duration not long.
FALSE CEILING :
A FALSE CEILING IS NOTHING BUT A LAYER OF
IT IS THE SUSPENDED CEILING BETWEEN THE MAIN
CEILING AND ROOM.
IT GIVES BEAUTIFUL APPEARANCE TO OUR
TYPES OF CEILING SYSTEM:
MOST COMMON TYPE
CONSIST OF LONG STRIPS INTER CONNECTED
SMOOTH AS WELL AS EXPENSIVE
USES ACOUSTICAL TILES TO HIDE GRID
SYSTEM FROM VIEW
EXPOSED T-BAR CEILING
IMPROVES THE OVERALL LOOK OF
INSULATION REDUCES HEAT FROM
THE ROOF .
OFFERS ACOUSTICAL IMPROVEMENT .
IT IS A DESIGN ELEMENT .
SOUND PROOF .
PURPOSE OF FALSE CEILING:
Types of false ceiling
(based on material)
Advantages of false
A ceiling helps cool the room.
When the height of the room is too
much, providing a ceiling helps to
reduce the height.
"Reducing the height also helps in
reducing the capacity of the air-
conditioner ,covering the upper area
also has the multiple advantages such
concealing the wiring, lighting fixtures,
air-conditioning ducts, security cameras,
and other fixtures.
The ceiling also acts as an attractive
base for all kinds of decorative electric
lights and fans. These apart, a ceiling
helps eliminate echo in the room. In
bathroom, ceilings can be provided to
hide the pipes or any other fittings
Disadvantages of false ceiling:
One disadvantage with this ceiling system is reduced headroom. Clearance is
required between the grid and any pipes or ductwork above to install the ceiling
tiles and light fixtures. In general, a minimum clearance of 100 to 200 millimetres (4
to 8 in) is often needed between the lowest obstruction and the level of the ceiling
A direct-mount grid may work for those who want the convenience of a dropped
ceiling, but have limited headroom. Stretch ceiling supports require less than one inch
of vertical space, and no space is required for tiles to be lifted out with a stretch
ceiling, but a greater clearance space may be chosen to allow room for MEC or for
Dropped ceilings generally conceal many of the functional and structural elements
of a building, creating an aesthetic paradigm that discourages the use of functional
building systems as aesthetic design elements.
Concealing these elements makes the complexity of today's advanced building
technologies more difficult to appreciate. It is also more difficult to perform
maintenance on or diagnose problems with the concealed systems.
As a renovation tool, dropped ceilings are a quick and inexpensive way to repair a
ceiling or reduce HVAC costs. Some materials may show their age quickly— for
example, mineral fiber sags, is damaged easily when handled, and stains easily, but
stretch ceiling, tin and vinyl do not have these characteristics.
WOODEN FALSE CEILING
IT IS USED BOTH FOR PROVIDING ROOFING AND FOR AESTHETICAL PURPOSE IN A BUILDING.
IT CAN BE USED BOTH FOR DOMESTIC AND COMMERCIAL PURPOSE.
Types of wooden false ceiling:-
Drop ceiling Laying method of suspended ceiling
Plank ceiling(tongue and groove)
A non structural ceiling suspended below the overhead structural slab or from the structural
elements of a building and not bearing onto the walls is known as suspended ceiling.
A drop ceiling has two parts: drop panels
and a suspended metal grid, which hangs
below an existing ceiling.
Ceiling tiles are standard 12" x 12" or
16" x 16" squares that are attached to an
existing ceiling with easy-to-install tracks
and clips, nails, or glue.
Plank ceiling(tongue and
Tongue and groove ceilings look like real
wood and can be attached directly to an
existing ceiling or inserted into a suspended
Coffered ceilings are formed with
recessed panels surrounded by dropped
beams that create a grid pattern. It's a
classic ceiling design from Greek and
A.C.P SHEET 3mm – 58 rupee sq.ft
4mm – 61 rupee sq.ft
PLY WOOD 13mm – 150 rupee
M.D.F 6mm – 21 rupee sq.ft
71 rupee sq.ft
VEENER 69 rupee sq.ft
LAMINATES 37 rupee sq.ft
48 rupee sq.ft
2200 rupee cubic feet
PARTICAL BOARD 26 rupee sq.ft
Laser cutting 1min 15 rupee for all wood
false ceiling cutting
GYPSUM BOARD CEILING
Gypsum is a mineral found in sedimentary rock formations in a crystalline form known
as calcium sulphate dihydrate CaSO4•2H2O. One hundred pounds of gypsum rock
contains approximately 21 pounds (or 10 quarts) of chemically combined water.
Gypsum rock is mined or quarried and transported to the manufacturing facility.
Have concealed suspended framing . The furring section forms a battening system on
to the gypsum board is screwed using dry wall screws with an electric screwdriver.
Furring sections are set at 600 mm to 450 mm centres depending on thickness and no
of layers of boards.
FALSE CEILING OF POP
BASIC HISTORY OF POP:-
First used in the 1700s due to large quarry deposits of gypsum located in Montmartre, a
district of Paris, which was a leading center of plaster.
It is a mixture of calcined gypsum (calcium sulfate dehydrate), sand and water.
When these ingredients are mixed together and the subsequent paste is allowed to dry, it
hardens and forms a tough coating.
As tough as plaster of Paris is when dry, it is still soft enough to be sanded and carved.
Artists use plaster of Paris to create sculpture surface.
The Greeks and romans used plaster to create replicas of their more famous artwork.
The use of finely ground gypsum plaster to create decorative molding was popular
during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Painting in fresco on a thin layer of wet plaster of Paris.
Compositions of POP
POP simply means plaster of Paris a type of ceiling that originated from France.
Use of a white powder (calcium trioxo carbonate) for molding the ceiling into any
form and pattern.
Finishing methods of pop
Usually finished with application of paints.
White paints are the most predominant choice when pop ceilings are used.
Best known for the aesthetic appeal and flexibility with recesses and different levels.
METHOD FOR FIXING THE POP FALSE CEILING
FIXING THE FRAMEWORK DIRECTLY TO THE BEAMS OR
Fixing a aluminum or wooden framework to act as supporting structure
directly to the existing ceiling or roofing beams.
Wooden supports with a spacing of 40 cm.
The panels are then screwed to the wooden framework.
Fixing a suspended framework to a plasterd ceiling.
Screw the supports to the existing ceiling using screws and plugs.
Fix the supports at the same height.
Fixing vertical struts to the supports
Decide on the height of the new ceiling.
Measure the desired height from the floor and make it off the 4 corners.
Fix the struts with a spacing of 60 cm.
Fixing the wall supports and framework members.
Apply the insulation
The insulations panels are then fitted over the framework members.
Fix the first row of ceiling panels
Screw the first ceiling panel to the left side against the wall, using 25 mm
plasterboard screws with a spacing between srews of 20 cm.
An 8 mm expansion gap between the panel and wall.
This gap is later covered with a finishing strip.
Cutting panels to length.
at the end of the row,
Measure the required
Length and mark this
Finishing the joints.
Make sure the joints are clean and dust free.
Fill the gap with grouting paste and a putty knife.
Drying for 24 hours, apply the second layer if necessary and
sand smooth after drying.
For a neat finish in the corners, cut the ends of the finishing strips
at 45 degree.
Companies of POP sheets:-
1. GYPROC FALSE CEILINGS
About POP sheets……
Thickness- 10, 12, 14 MM
6*4 feet (cost 380 Rs. – gyproc company)
Alumium and galvanized iron or wood.
*NOW A DAYS ,
GYPSUM TILES OF
ALONG WITH THE
*THE GRID IS
OF THE TILE SIZE
AND IT IS FIXED
• 20 RS PER Sq. FEET
• 15 RS FITTING CHARGE PER Sq.FEET WITH CHANNEL CO
• 35 TO 40 RS WITH FITTING AND MATERIAL
•Gypsum rock when heated to 100-190°C looses ¾ of its water.
• CaSO4.2H2O → CaSO4.½H2O + 3/2 H2O
• Plaster of Paris
•This is low burning process and named as INCOMPLETE CALCINATION.
•When calcination is carried out at temperatures above 190°C all water is removed.
•CaSO4.2H2O → CaSO4 + 2H2O
• gypsum anhydrite
•This is high-burning process & COMPLETE CALCINATION
•Both of these products form gypsum rock by recombining with water.
•CaSO4.½H2O + 3/2H2O → CaSO4.2H2O
•CaSO4 + 2H2O → CaSO4.2H2O
•Calcination process is carried out in two types of kilns.
•To produce gypsum board, calcined gypsum is mixed with
water and additives to form a slurry which is fed between
continuous layers of paper on a board machine.
•As the board moves down a conveyer line, the calcium
sulfate recrystallizes or rehydrates, reverting to its original
•The paper becomes chemically
and mechanically bonded to the
•The board is then cut to length
and conveyed through dryers to
remove any free moisture.
•Gypsum manufacturers also rely
increasingly on “synthetic”
gypsum as an effective alternative to natural
MAKING GYPSUM BOARD
• 20 RS PER Sq. FEET
• 15 RS FITTING CHARGE PER Sq.FEET WITH CHANNEL COST
• 35 TO 40 RS WITH FITTING AND MATERIAL
• SUMERU TRADELINK PVT. LTD., AHMEDABAD
• SHALIMAR INTERIORS, NEW DELHI
• SAMAR GROUP, INDORE
• 3’ X 6’
• FEBRIC TAP
• FEBRIC TAP USE FOR TWO BOARD JOIN
• MATERIAL SUSPENTION
• L – SHAPE CHANNEL
• C – SHAPE CHANNEL
• PATTI CHANNEL
• WALL FAST BOLT
COMPARISON OF P.O.P & GYPSUM CEILLING
1. P.OP BOARD SIZE 2’ X 3’
2. MORE JOINT
3. LESSER ON COST
4. REQUIRES MORE CHANNEL
5. PRICE OF Sq. FEET IS 30 TO 35 RS.
6. HEAVIER THAN GYPSUM
7. SHORTER LIFE SPAM
8. POSSIBLILITY OF CRAKE IS MORE
9. CUTTING IS HARD THAN GYPSUM
10. HAS LESS STRENGTH THAN GYPSUM
1. GYSPUM BOARD SIZE 3’ X 6’
2. LESSER JOINT THAN P.O.P CEILLING
3. COSTLIER INSTOLATION THAN P.O.P
4. LESS CHANNEL THAN P.O.P
5. PRICE OF ONE Sq. FEET IS 35 TO 40 RS.
6. LIGHTER THAN P.O.P
7. LONG LASTING THAN P.O.P
8. POSSIBILITY OF CRACKES IS LESS
9. CUTTING EASIER THAN P.O.P
10. HAS MORE STRENGTH THAN P.O.P
The shortest distance between two points of inspiration is often a curve. Perhaps that’s why
architects throughout the ages have used vaults and domes. In the modern era, you might have
your own reasons to use curved ceiling panels – such as creating increased clearance above a
ceiling for ductwork, or to allow daylighting to penetrate deeper into a room. Lightweight,
acoustical, and fully downward accessible, Radians® ceilings break the 3-dimensional barrier with
a smoothness of gesture executed with uncompromising precision.
Description: Radians’ suspension system is ICC approved in accordance with International Building
Code standards for Seismic Categories A, B, C, D, E, and F. Calculations to support slotted grid an
“heavy duty” rating are available upon request.
Panel Width: 1’ to 4’
Panel Length: 2’ to 10’ (consult factory for other dimensions)
Curvature: Radius 30” minimum
Access: Torsion spring systems provide individual downward panel access.
Light Weight: 1.5 lbs per sf (approx.).
Interior/Exterior: Exterior utilizes positive fasteners for required load.
Finishes: Wide variety of wood and metal.
No VOC: No added formaldehyde.
Aluminum: Contains high recycled content.
Made of regular metal framework onto which glass panels are attached with the help of
Glass panels are mainly 30 to 40 mm thick and they are usually 120 rs per panel.
They are mainly used in area like shower cabins etc where there is a high chance for
normal plastered ceiling to get damaged.
They are normal fixed to the wall and not suspended.