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Superstructure design

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College of North West London presentation; for the National Diploma in Construction

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Superstructure design

  1. 1. SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN BTEC UNIT 6February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 1
  2. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE THIS INCLUDES; WALLS FLOORS ROOFS DOORS & WINDOWS TO KEEP BUILDING WATERTIGHTFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 2
  3. 3. WALLS Most external walls are built by brick and block. Each can be defined as either high or low density classification. This information is obtained from the UK National Annex It also provides specification guidance on other aspects such as;February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 3
  4. 4. Specification Criteria for Bricks/ Blocks Dimensions and Tolerance Configuration and format Density Compressive Strength Freeze/thaw resistance Active soluble salts contentFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 4
  5. 5. Specification Criteria for Brick/Blocks Durability designations Water absorption Reaction to fire Bond strength Clay engineering and DPC bricksFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 5
  6. 6. Concrete Blocks Been used since the 1930’s Made from aggregates such as breeze and clinker Used mainly on the internal skin of cavity construction Blocks also used for internal load bearing walls and partitions Internal block walls will be finished with plasterboard and a skim finishFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 6
  7. 7. Cavity Construction Most domestic dwellings are constructed in cavity construction Complies with building regs. Offers adequate resistance to the passage of heat energy. Legislation ensures new buildings are energy efficient with added insulation and sustainable building products.February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 7
  8. 8. Cavity Construction Cavities reduces excessive moisture from entering the property 2 ‘skins’ of wall connected with stainless steel wall ties-450mm vertically- 900mm horizontally Damp proof course used to prevent moisture from entering property D.p.c laid at a min. of 150mm above ground levelFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 8
  9. 9. Cavity Construction There are 3 different types of cavities. Clear cavity- 102mm brickwork, 50mm cavity, 100mm aerated block work & 40mm thermal board Filled cavity-102mm b/w, 75mm cavity batt, 100mm aerated block with plaster finish Partial cavity- 102mm b/w, 50mm cavity, 50mm insulation, 100mm aerated block with plaster finishFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 9
  10. 10. Types of Cavities Clear cavity Partial Fill Fully fillFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 10
  11. 11. Structural StabilityIn modern housing the stability of an external wall is assisted by the bonding in of the flank & partition walls.Additional stability is provided by the floor joists and the walls.February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 11
  12. 12. Sound Insulation Building regs set the minimum thickness for party walls. For solid walls 215mm is the min width. For cavity construction 250mm is the minimum width. Materials must be of high density Elevates airborne sound-voices, radio etcFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 12
  13. 13. Fire Protection Building regs demand external walls of a 2 storey dwelling to have 30 minutes of fire resistance and the party wall to have 1 hour. This enables any occupants to escape the fire within the time period. Level of fire protection is achieved by the use of clay bricks & concrete blocks.February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 13
  14. 14. Thermal movement In an average year a wall will expand & contract due to heat, cold & moisture content. Movement in the building must be allowed to occur, otherwise cracking will appear. Expansion joints should be included on long runs of brick/block work eg 12m for b/w & 7m for block work A compressible filler with a flexible mastic sealant is used for exp joints.February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 14
  15. 15. Parapet Walls This is the section of wall which extends beyond the height of the roof ‘Throated’ coping stones are bedded onto the top of the wall with a dpc to prevent water ingress A cavity tray should also be inserted in case moisture penetrates through the b/w.February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 15

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