Load bearing elements part5

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College of North West London presentation; for the National Diploma in Construction

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Load bearing elements part5

  1. 1. Traditional Building Load bearing Walls Part 5February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London Slide 1
  2. 2. Requirements For Lbw  Strength & stability  Weather protection  Good thermal protection  Fire protection  DurabilityFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 2
  3. 3. Load bearing Walls  L.B.W have 2 primary functions;  To support the loads of suspended floors  To support roofsFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 3
  4. 4. Load bearing walls  A wall plate is fixed to the top of the wall  The weight load is transferred to the wall plate and then laterally through the brickworkFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 4
  5. 5. Load bearing walls Suspended floors – on a typical domestic house, wooden joists are either built into the wall or supported by joist hangers, which in turn are built into the brickworkFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 5
  6. 6. External load bearing walls  The 2 most common materials used in walling for domestic construction are:  Bricks  BlocksFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 6
  7. 7. Bricks Majority of bricks are made from clay Placed into plastic moulds Fired in a kilnFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 7
  8. 8. Bricks  Bricks can be classified into 3 categories;  Commons- used for general work which will be covered in render  Facing brick- used where the brickwork face well be exposed  Engineering brick- These are dense bricks with high compressive strength used for manholes, retaining walls etc.February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 8
  9. 9. Blocks  These are classified into 2 types;  Concrete- also known as dense blocks.  Ideal for load bearing or party walls because of their density  Good sound insulation value  Good conductors of heat- not suitable for cavity workFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 9
  10. 10. Blocks  Lightweight blocks- made form lightweight aggregates  Generally used for internal skin on cavity work  Light and easy to use  Good thermal valuesFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 10
  11. 11. Mortar  Mortar is the material that is used to bind the bricks & blocks together.  Functions;  Good workability  Adequate bond strength  Resistance to water penetration  Resilience of thermal movement to masonryFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 11
  12. 12. Mortar  Mix proportions;  Soft sand- provides the ‘bulk’ of the mix  Cement- acts as the binder and chemically reacts, hydration, with sand & water. As a result the mortar hardens.  Lime- adds to the adhesion of the mortarFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 12
  13. 13. Loads on brickwork  Brick walls have to be bonded in order to spread the load  Most common type of bond is stretcher bondFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 13
  14. 14. Loadings over window openings  There are 4 common methods of building over window and door openings;February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 14
  15. 15. Window openings  Flat gauged arch- found more in high quality Victorian homes  Segmental arch- found in low quality Victorian housing  Wooden lintel- used mainly on Edwardian cheap housingFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 15
  16. 16. Loadings over windows  On most housing projects today, catnic lintels are used  Constructed of hard steel  Insulation incorporated into the lintel to prevent ‘cold spot’  All catnics marked with safe working loadsFebruary, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 16

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