Association Communications 4 23


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Seminar on the pros and cons of association publishing in the era of Open Source

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Association Communications 4 23

  1. 1. Above and beyond. Association Communications ACSM Annual Conference and Technology Exhibition Orlando, April 25, 2006 Jason Clurman Ilse Genovese
  2. 2. Association Communications <ul><li>Communication about communication </li></ul><ul><li>Types of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the needs and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Trends in scholarly communications </li></ul><ul><li>Response to new trends </li></ul><ul><li>Know the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt or perish </li></ul>
  3. 3. Communication about Communication <ul><li>Why talk about association communications? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to share information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change driven by ICT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical and economic realities </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Communication <ul><li>Scientific [scholarly, academic] </li></ul><ul><li>Professional [technology] </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity, marketing </li></ul><ul><li>WWW, Intranet, Extranets </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast mail and e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking engagements </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Communication <ul><li>Scholarly publishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started 400 years ago in England with Royal Society’s Philosophical Transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports and furthers R&D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the best known science and technology journals are published by professional societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The publisher-pays/retains copyright model is being challenged </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Understanding the Needs and Challenges <ul><li>Increasing demand for free access to scientific information </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding online publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Greater scrutiny of publishers and their journals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trends in scholarly communications <ul><li>Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The state of the publishing business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online vs. print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open access </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The state of the publishing business <ul><li>RoweCom/Divine… the gracing of subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians faced with declining budgets </li></ul><ul><li>~2% increase in government funding for 2004-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>College and University Endowments are down ~5% </li></ul><ul><li>Subscriptions are falling </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising revenue is falling </li></ul>
  9. 9. Online vs. Print <ul><li>Pros of Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online journal is becoming the journal of record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger audience is finding more information online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online journal provides a more interactive way to read material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to disseminate information to a broader audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons of Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of online can be as expensive if not more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we guarantee the integrity of electronic data over the long-term? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we attract advertisers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright issues… how do we control access to information? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Open Access… What is it? <ul><li>“ The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use… </li></ul><ul><li>A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving” </li></ul><ul><li>– PubMed Central </li></ul>
  11. 11. Open Access… What it really is! <ul><li>Scientific, technical, medical and scholarly research made freely available to the public at the cost of Publishers and Authors, through the support of grants, author fees and government funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Authors are asked to voluntarily deposit articles (funded by the government) to the NIH database 6 months after publish date. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Initiatives <ul><li>Los Alamos – 1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Ginspang; Los Alamos Physicist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Alliance (SPARC) – 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rick Johnson; Enterprise Director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PubMed Central – 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harold Varmus; Director of NIH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BioMed Central – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan Velterop; Publisher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Library of Science – 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harold Varmus, Chairman of the Board; Patrick Brown, Stanford Professor; Michael Eisen, Berkeley Professor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Los Alamos <ul><li>First free-access electronic archive </li></ul><ul><ul><li> e-print archive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-prints in physics, mathematics, computer science and cognitive science. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic posting of pre-published articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 – 2,000 electronic transactions per hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 50% of all research articles in physics are posted to this server </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) <ul><li>Alliance of universities and research libraries aiming to improve the dissemination of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive down publishing costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid libraries in information dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops competitive alternatives to high-priced commercial journals and digital aggregations </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. PubMed Central <ul><li>NIH developed and funded electronic publishing archive (Not a publisher). </li></ul><ul><li>Peer reviewed life sciences articles. No Pre-prints are accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation is voluntary and copyright remains with the publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Access if free and unrestricted. </li></ul><ul><li>100 plus journals are hosted. </li></ul><ul><li>Many publishers/societies/associations currently utilizing site to host articles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PNAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular Biology of the Cell </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. BioMed Central <ul><li>Independent Publishing House publishing both print and online. </li></ul><ul><li>Free access to 100+ Journals in biology and medicine hosted. </li></ul><ul><li>Online submission and peer-review technology is free of charge to groups of scientists wishing to run an open-access journal under their editorial control. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors’ fees and institutional memberships fund open-access. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors who publish in BioMed hold copyright. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Public Library of Science (PLOS) <ul><li>Coalition of Research Scientists dedicated to making scientific and medical literature freely available to the public. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulated a letter that was signed by over 30,000 scientists in over 180 countries in support of Open Access. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating on Authors fees and a 9 million dollar grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes in Print and Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PLOS Biology (October 03’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLOS Medicine (Fall 04’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLOS Chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLOS Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer-reviewed and edited by a leading academic and professional editorial board. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Open Access… Sabo Bill <ul><li>Sabo Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Works of the United States Government are beyond the reach of copyright protection so that they will be freely available for the benefit of the people of the United States; United States Government funded research belongs to, and should be freely available to, every person in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work produced pursuant to scientific research substantially funded by the Federal Government to the extent provided in the funding agreement entered into by the relevant Federal agency pursuant to paragraph (2). PROVISION IN FUNDING AGREEMENTS- Any Federal department or agency that enters into a funding agreement with any person for the performance of scientific research substantially funded by the Federal Government shall include in the agreement a provision that states that copyright protection under this title is not available for any work produced pursuant to such research under the agreement. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Open Access … Who pays? <ul><li>Survey taken of PNAS authors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you willing to pay a surcharge to make your article freely available online at time of publication? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes: 104 (49.5%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No: 106 (50.5%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If yes, what is the maximum amount you would be willing to pay for open access? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$500: 81 (79.4%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$1,000: 15 (14.7%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$1,500: 4 (3.9%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$2,000: 2 (2.0%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Average cost to publish an article… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$2,000 - $10,000 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Response to new trends <ul><li>Small/Medium Societies and Associations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to compete with Open Access. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find new ways to generate revenues to support an open-access publishing model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are concerned they will not be able to support a publishing model. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University Presses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop an Open-Access Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge Authors up front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for government grants and funding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial Publishers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Open-Access Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund through author fees, other non-open-access journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently testing the models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilize Open-Access archives to save face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profits will be cut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals may disappear </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Know the Facts <ul><li>JISC study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscription trends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACSM publishers’ experience </li></ul>
  22. 22. Know the Facts <ul><li>Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print and online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online only </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Know the Facts <ul><li>Costs : Trends: Fixed costs up; variable driven by market forces and technology </li></ul>
  24. 24. Know the Facts <ul><li>Costs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of mailing single most important cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content creation up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Member subscriptions account for 2/3 of total subscriptions filled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Member subscriptions filled below cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content creation variable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of distribution down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members receive online journal as a member benefit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Know the Facts <ul><li>Revenue sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional subscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>97% of total subscription revenue (2004) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>86% of total journal revenue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member subscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6% of journal revenue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Author payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-member [personal] subscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2% of total subscription revenue received </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Know the Facts <ul><li>Subscription trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall, institutional subscriptions fell [22%] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>56% fall in print subscriptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online only up [23%] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly technology fields </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly international subscriptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members subs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on membership drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Push to encourage online only </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Know the Facts <ul><li>CaGIS , 2005-2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2005: Institutional 449 [40 print/online; 19 online only] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2005: Membership 569 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2006: Institutional 380 [ 45 print/online; 23 online only] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2006: Membership 449 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total 2005 subscription [I+M] revenue: $86,040 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Member portion of dues declared for publishing: $25,605 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 % total sub revenue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional subs revenue: $60,435 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>70 % total sub revenue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs: high fixed costs [review]; low print run = no economies of scale </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Know the Facts <ul><li>SaLIS , 2005-2006 </li></ul><ul><li>*online coming w/ March 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2005: Institutional 377 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2005: Membership 4,701 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2006: Institutional 330 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2006: Membership 4,330 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total 2005 subscription [I+M] revenue: $245,545 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Member portion of dues declared for publishing: $211,545 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>86 % total subscriptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional subs revenue: $ 34,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14 % total sub revenue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total SaLIS cost: $ 56,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paid from membership dues: $56k-$34k = $ 22,000 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Know the Facts <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CaGIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SaLIS </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Adapt or Perish <ul><li>Seeking the full potential of academic publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting cost of content creation </li></ul><ul><li>Taking advantage of technology (Digital Art) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Adapt or Perish <ul><li>Seeking the full potential of publishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizing Digital Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Peer-review and submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Manuscript Tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering Alternative publishing options for authors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Color online vs. b/w in print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional reprints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic reprints </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Adapt or Perish <ul><li>Cutting cost of content creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artwork for print and online publishing—Different requirements </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Digital Art… “ The Good… “ The Bad… “ The ‘I didn’t know it was a problem’… “ The Good… keep up the good work ” “ The Bad… see if we can help ” “ The ‘I didn’t know it was a problem’… a little education can go a long way ” Preparing artwork
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>Time savings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of online distribution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image quality improvements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online submission creates opportunities to realize full benefits of peer-review and manuscript tracking systems. </li></ul></ul>Expectations from Usable Digital Art
  35. 35. <ul><ul><li>Incompatible file formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor quality for print production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong size for page layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions about appearance of art in print reflecting monitor appearance </li></ul></ul>Digital Art Challenges
  36. 36. Certifying digital art files <ul><li>A few necessary checks to certify art files: </li></ul><ul><li>File type </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>RGB vs CMYK </li></ul><ul><li>Fonts included? </li></ul><ul><li>Compression type </li></ul>
  37. 37. Image Fundamentals Above and beyond.
  38. 38. <ul><li>From hardcopy art using scanning equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be accomplished, with mixed results, by anyone who purchases a scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From computer software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrator, PhotoShop, and others… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From digital imaging equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific and medical lab environments </li></ul></ul>Digitizing art
  39. 39. <ul><li>File Formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOR PRINTING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TIFF - T agged I mage F ile F ormat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPS - E ncapsulated P ost S cript </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FOR THE WEB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIF - G raphic I nterchange F ormat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JPEG - J oint P hotographic E xperts G roup </li></ul></ul></ul>Digital Image Fundamentals
  40. 40. Digital Image Fundamentals Raster: pixel-based, resolution-dependent Vector: mathematically-defined, resolution-independent Vector Raster
  41. 41. Digital Image Fundamentals <ul><li>Scalability of a raster image is limited. </li></ul><ul><li>As the scale of a raster image is increased, the effective resolution decreases. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Scalability of a vector image is virtually unlimited. </li></ul><ul><li>Since vector images are resolution independent, there is no relationship between scaling and resolution </li></ul>Digital Image Fundamentals
  43. 43. Digital Image Fundamentals <ul><li>What is color? </li></ul><ul><li>RGB vs. CMYK </li></ul><ul><li>Color gamuts </li></ul>Color gamut comparison
  44. 44. Color Gamut <ul><li>Dimensional representation of color space. </li></ul><ul><li>All the possible colors that the human eye can see </li></ul><ul><li>The RGB gamut – versus – The CMYK gamut </li></ul>Digital Image Fundamentals
  45. 45. RGB: What the author saw… CMYK: What the printer printed… What the Author said to the Publisher: But it looked good on my monitor…
  46. 46. <ul><li>Typical systems and applications for exchanging and outputting digital files: </li></ul><ul><li>Mac or PC </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Illustrator </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe PhotoShop </li></ul><ul><li>These applications are not recommended for print production: </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Powerpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Word </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Excel </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Publisher </li></ul>Software - what works?
  47. 47. <ul><ul><li>Use standard fonts (Publication specific fonts): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helvetica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Times Roman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical PI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European PI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always embed fonts, otherwise fonts will be replaced resulting in data loss or realignment. </li></ul></ul>Digital Image Fundamentals - Fonts
  48. 48. Digital Image Fundamentals - Fonts Missing or Substituted Fonts What the author saw… What the printer printed…
  49. 49. Compositor or Printer Author Publisher How do you fix these???????
  50. 50. DigitalExpert TM Major Components <ul><ul><li>DX Advisor an extensive web site that contains information dealing with digital files for print, for the web, and for other media. Accessible at: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DX Online a web based, digital art checking tool. The user can submit 10 files per session via a web transfer of the digital art to the TSG server. Files will be checked for 150+ issues/problems. An e-mail to the user will link to a DX report detailing the printability of the digital art. Accessible at: </li></ul></ul>DigitalExpert TM (DX) an umbrella name for TSG’s digital print and media solutions.
  51. 51. <ul><li>Association publishing is changing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry and economic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The online journal and Open Access as a new way to publish </li></ul><ul><li>We must shift our thinking about how we prepare our content as the publishing model changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital art preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editorial policies </li></ul></ul>In closing
  52. 52. Questions? <ul><li>Jason Clurman </li></ul><ul><li>The Sheridan Group, Journals Division </li></ul><ul><li>450 Fame Avenue </li></ul><ul><li>Hanover, PA 17331 </li></ul><ul><li>410-267-1618 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Ilse Genovese American Congress on Surveying and Mapping 6 Montgomery Village Ave. Suite 403 Gaithersburg, MD 20879 [email_address]