Studies of the learners themselves as a source
of educational objectives
Studies of contemporary life outside the school
Suggestions about objectives from subject
The use of philosophy in selecting objectives
The use of a psychology of learning and
Tyler pays much of attention to arguing for general
principles in selecting learning experiences:
The first of these is that for a given objective to be
achieved, the child must have experiences that give
him/her an opportunity to practice the kind of behavior
implied in the objective.
The second principle states that the learning experience
must be such that the child obtains satisfaction from
carrying on the kind of behavior implied by the objectives.
The third general principle is that the reactions desired in
the experience are within the range of possibility for the
The fourth principle is that there are many
particular experiences that can be used to
attain the same objectives.
The fifth principle stresses the fact that the
same learning experience will usually bring
about several outcomes. Learning
experiences contribute to attaining various
types of objectives. They develop the child's
ability to think, to acquire information, and
to develop social attitudes and interests.
Tyler points out three criteria to be met in building an effectively
organized group of learning experiences:
The first is continuity, which refers to the vertical set of relations.
This means for instance that over time the same kinds of skills will
be brought into continuing operation.
The second criterion is sequence, which is related to continuity. A
curriculum element might recur again and again but merely at the
same level. Sequence emphasizes the importance of having each
experience built upon the preceding one but to go more broadly and
deeply into the matters involved.
The third criterion integration refers to the horizontal relationship
of curriculum experiences. Integration will help the child
increasingly to get a unified view and to unify his/her behavior in
relation to the elements dealt with.
According to Tyler, the basic task of evaluation is to determine to
what extent the objectives have been realized through the
program of curriculum and instruction. His conception of
evaluation contains two important aspects:
First, it implies that evaluation must appraise the behavior of
students because it is the change in behavior which is sought in
Second it implies that evaluation must involve more than a single
appraisal at any one time as to see if change has occurred. It is
necessary to make a judgment at any early point and other
judgments at later points to identify changes that may occur. As
a consequence of this concept a teacher cannot evaluate an
instructional program by testing a group of students only at the
end of the program. Without knowing where they were at the
beginning, it is not possible to tell how far changes have taken