"Some truths there are so near and obvious to the mind that a man need only opens his eyes to see them. Such I take this important one to be, to wit, that all the choir of heaven and the furniture of earth, in a word all those bodies which compose the mighty frame of the world, have not any subsistence without a mind, that their being is to be perceived..." My purpose therefore is, to try if I can discover what those principles are, which have introduced all that doubtfulness and uncertainty, those absurdities and contradictions into the several sects of philosophy; insomuch that the wisest men have thought our ignorance George incurable, conceiving it to arise from the natural dullness and limitation of ourBerkeley faculties. ...
George Berkeley (1685-1753) An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision. A Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous De Motu Alciphron or the Minute Philosopher. The Theory of Vision, Vindicated and Explained. The Analyst A Defense of Free-thinking in Mathematics The Querist Siris: a chain of Philosophical Reflections and Enquiries concerning the Virtues of Tar-water.
Ideals of George BerkeleyBerkeley believed that, for an idea to exist, and for someone tobe aware of it, were essentially the same thing ("to be is to beperceived"), and that it was only through experience that we canknow about these ideas.Berkeley, however, declared unequivocally "Pure Intellect Iunderstand not", and maintained that the sensible qualities ofbodies and things are all that we can know of them. In thatrespect, then, he was an Empiricist.He differed from Locke or Hume in believing that what wewere "experiencing" were only ideas (or perceptions or qualities)sent from God and not the things themselves, and he effectivelychose to make knowledge of self and knowledge ofGod specific exceptions from the Empiricist mantra thatexperience is the source of all knowledge.
“A wise man proportions hisbelief to the evidence.”“All sentiment is right; becausesentiment has a reference to nothingbeyond itself, and is alwaysreal, wherever a man is conscious of it.But all determinations of theunderstanding are not right; becausethey have a reference to somethingbeyond themselves, to wit, real matterof fact; and are not alwaysconformable to that standard.”“Liberty of any kind is never lostall at once.” David Hume
David Hume (1711 - 1776) A Treatise of Human Nature Four Dissertations An Attempt to Introduce the A Concise and GenuineExperimental Method of Reasoning Account of the Dispute into Moral Subjects Between Mr. Hume and Mr. Rousseau Essays, Moral and Political My Own Life Letter from a Gentlemen to His friend in Edinburgh “Two Essays of Suicide” and of “The Immortality of the An Enquiry concerning Human Soul” Understanding An Enquiry Concerning the Dialogues Concerning Principles of Morals Natural Religion Political DiscoursesThe Historical of England
Ideals of Davidby Francis Bacon, GalileoHumeHume was a great believer in the scientific method championed Galilee (1564 - 1642) and Sir IsaacNewton (1643 - 1727).Hume was always concerned with going back to experience andobservation, and this led him to touch on some difficult ideas in whatwould later become known as the Philosophy of Language.Hume sought to reconcile human freedom with the mechanist(or determinist) belief that human beings are part of a deterministicuniverse whose happenings are governed by the laws of physics.Hume also developed many of the ideas that are still prevalent inthe field of economics, and Adam Smith, amongothers, acknowledged Humes influence on his own economicsand Political Philosophy. Hume believed in the need for an unequaldistribution of property, on the grounds that perfect equality woulddestroy the ideas of thrift and industry, and thus ultimately lead toimpoverishment.
Main Focus Subjective Idealism (or Solipsism or Subjectivism or Dog matic Idealism or Immaterial ism) is the doctrine that the mind and ideas are the only things that can be definitely known to exist or have any reality, and that knowledge of anything outside the mind is unjustified. Thus, objects exist by virtue of our perception of them, as ideas residing in our awareness and in the consciousness of the Divine Being, or God.