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Label and labeling


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Content of label
Types of labels
Legal requirements for labeling
Adhesives used for labeling
Packaging inserts
Packaging outserts
Labeling machinery

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Label and labeling

  1. 1. LABEL AND LABELING TECHNOLOGIES By Illuri Shravani M.Pharm (analysis) (170216885012) Ist year 2nd sem Under the guidance of Mrs. Ceema Mathew Senior Assistant professor
  3. 3. CONTENTS • Introduction • Content of label • Types of labels • Legal requirements for labeling • Adhesives used for labeling • Packaging inserts • Packaging outserts • Labeling machinery • Conclusion • Reference
  4. 4. • A label is piece of paper, polymer cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or article, on which is printed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc.,. Information printed directly on a container or article can also be considered labeling. • Labeling is manual or electromechanical process of attaching “label” to the correct particular product or packaging or service.
  5. 5. Labeling must: – Contain a summary of essential scientific information for the safe and effective use of the drug – Be informative and accurate and neither promotional in tone nor false or misleading – Based on data derived from human experience. No implied claims or suggestions of drug use may be made if there is inadequate evidence of safety or lack of substantial evidence of effectiveness – Be updated when new information becomes available that causes the labeling to become inaccurate, false, or misleading
  6. 6. Types of labels Paper label : • it is an economical label method. • the disadvantages of this material is its appearance of being tacked on. • Vulnerable to scuffing, wrinkling, blistering and lifted or curled edges. Foil labels: • Foil labels are always laminated with paper so that they work properly in labeling machine. It is done so because of the dead fold character of the foil. • Heat sensitive coating are used. • The appearance is better than paper label. Sleeve labels: • Sleeve labels are used on cylindrical surfaces like bottles etc. • It is also pilfer evident when scaled atop the closure of the bottle.
  7. 7. Types of labels based on adhesives: 1. Cold glue: The lowest cost glue is the starch or dextrin types. They are fairly fast drying but they are not waterproof or ice proof when immersed. 2. Pressure sensitive or self adhesive: A pressure sensitive label is a material, which has adhesive glue on the backing. When pressure is applied it will adhere to most surfaces. 3. Heat seal labels: Heat seal labels are made by applying a combination of heat and pressure. These labels are used for tamper evident and permanent labelling applications
  8. 8. Bilingual label: • All mandatory information on food labels must be shown in both official languages, i.e., regional and English. • In addition, all information on the labels may be in one official language only. • Designed to help alert handlers that extra care is required, these markings are available for messages such as Keep from Freezing, This End Up, Do Not Stack and Fragile. • These labels are designed to catch the eye of any personnel that comes within range of your shipments.
  9. 9. Barcode label: • Describes something about the object that carries the barcode. • Originally barcodes systematically represented data by varying the widths and spacing’s of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or one-dimensional (1D). • Later two-dimensional (2D) codes were developed, using rectangles, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns in two dimensions, usually called barcodes although they do not use bars as such.
  10. 10. Radio frequency labels: • Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. • Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. • Active tags have a local power source such as a battery and may operate at hundreds of meters from the RFID reader.
  11. 11. Structured product label: The primary purpose of SPL is to support electronic distribution and electronic update over the life cycle of the drug. SPL is to be the basis of a broader initiative that will include automated distribution of Labelling content from the sponsor, through the FDA, to a central repository operated by the National Library of Medicine.
  12. 12. In mould label: • In-mould labelling is the use of paper or plastic labels during the manufacturing of containers by blow molding, injection molding or thermo forming processes. • The label serves as the integral part of the final product, which is then delivered as pre-decorated item. • This creates the advantage that scrap bottles produced in the molding process can be recycled, without the need for label removal prior to recycling.
  13. 13. Legal requirements for labeling: 1. The name of preparation 2. Strength and dosage form 3. Quantity. 4. Instructions for the use. 5. Precautions & warnings. 6. Registration number. 7. Batch number. 8. Manufacturing & Expiry date. 9. Price
  14. 14. Adhesives used in labeling • Permanent adhesive • Peelable adhesive. • Ultra-peelable. • Freeze or frost fix.
  15. 15. • Permanent – typically not designed to be removed without tearing the stock, damaging the surface or using solvents. The adhesion strength and speed can also be varied. For example, full adhesion can be nearly instant, or the label can be almost removable for a short period with full adhesion developing in minutes or hours. (known as repositionable adhesives). • Peelable – adhesion is fairly strong and will not fall off in normal circumstances, but the label can be removed relatively easily without tearing the base stock or leaving adhesive behind on the old surface. The adhesive is usually strong enough to be applied again elsewhere. This type is frequently known as “removable”. There are many different types of removable adhesives, some are almost permanent, some are ultra.
  16. 16. • Ultra peelable – designed principally for use on book covers and glass, when removed these adhesives labels do not leave any residue. Adhesion is weak and only suitable for light duty applications. Normally these labels have very little adhesion to anything once they’ve been removed. • Freeze or frost fix – Most permanent and peelable adhesives have a service temperature limit of -10oc, where as freezer (otherwise known as frost fix) adhesive have a service temperature -40oC and are suitable for deep freeze use.
  17. 17. Packaging inserts • A package insert is a document provided along with a prescription or over-the-counter medication to provide additional information about that drug. • Package inserts follow a standard format for every medication and include the same types of information. • In addition to the obvious use of inclusion with medications, package inserts have been used or provided in other forms • Patient information is, understandably, usually generated initially in the native language of the country where the product is being developed. This leads to inconsistency in format, terminology, tone, and content.
  18. 18. Packaging outserts • Package outserts are known as circulars, brochures, monographs and patient package inserts. • Pharmagraphics prints and folds package outserts, which are applied to bottles during solid-dose filling operations. • Outserts are used on automatic packaging lines and are folded to a variety of finished sizes. • Outserts can be designed as an RTA style (right angle outserts) or strip-style outserts. • Package outserts are supplied in tray packaged and mechanically counted and labeled for full lot traceability.
  19. 19. Krones modular labelling machines 20
  20. 20. System advantages: • Four different labelling systems possible on one machine. • Compact building size via exchange of labelling stations that are not needed. • Optimal access for operation and maintenance. • Variable container turning via servomotors • Quick installation and start-up.
  21. 21. AUTOMATIC LABELING MACHINE • Model : AB2000 • Power supply : 220V; 50Hz; 500W • Applied material : Adhesive label • Label size : L (15-300) mm X H (50-130) mm • Package dimension : Dia ₵ 20~ ₵ 80; H (25~300) mm • Label speed : 0~75pcs/min (only one label); 0~50pcs/min (two labels) • Optional : 1.Code printer; 2. Bottle trimmer ₵ 800mm
  23. 23. Increased information on the labels is influenced by: • Health and safety issues: More and detailed information is required on the product, from the point of view of human health, safety of the consumer and more comprehensive contents / ingredients listings. • Better inventory control. • Much more environmental pressure, particularly on packaging waste. • National and international legislations. • Growing internationalization of the label and labelling market leading to more languages being used. • Increased problems with tampering, look-alikes and the counterfeiting of goods.
  24. 24. CONCLUSION • Labeling is one of the most important technology and essential in pharmaceutical industries. • Labeling is a intended as a guide both for medical practitioners and patients. • It will avoid the misuse and mishandling by consumer.
  25. 25. REFERENCE 1. Atul Kaushik, Bhaskar Chaurasia, Virendra Dhakar, Textbook of Pharmaceutical Technology, Edition-1, CBS publications. 2. Pharmaceutical packaging technology By U.K.Jain, D.C.Goupale, and S. Nayak 3. Pharmaceutical packaging technology By D. A. Dean, E. R. Evans, & H. Hall 4. labelling-46661344