Air Pollution

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Air Pollution

  1. 1. Effects of Air Pollution on Children Dr. Desh Deepak MD Specilaist in respiratory diseases, allergy, sleep disorders & critical care Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc.
  2. 2. quot;WHO would like to provide its 191 Member States with irrefutable evidence that air pollution causes disproportionately heavy burden of diseasequot; Dr Michael Repacholi WHO Coordinator, Occupational and Environmental Health.
  3. 3. Air Pollution It is defined as any atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such concentrations that they produce undesirable effects on humans and environment.
  4. 4. Sources of air pollution : Natural - Dust storms, volcanoes, foods, lightning, etc. Man-made - industrial activities, automobile exhausts. agricultural, domestic conditions,
  5. 5. Pollutants of air : Particulate pollutants - are solids or liquids with size < 100 microns that remain suspended in the atmosphere. Dust Fumes Smoke Mist Fog Bacteria Gaseous - Toxic and poisonous e.g. CO, chlorine, NH3, H2S, SO2, NO2, CO2.
  6. 6. Major Pollutants Ozone Transient damage Permanent damage -accelerated aging of the lung Carbon monoxide - heart disease - lung diseases - central nervous system response to external stimuli (symptoms similar of flu) - Normal individual during strenuous work
  7. 7. Nitrogen Dioxide Short term - respiratory infections trigger asthma lung function respiratory irritation Long-term - chronic damage (emphysema) Suppression of immune system ability to fight off bacterial & viral infections body's ability to generate antibodies ability to remove foreign particles
  8. 8. Lead - Nerve damage IQ perceptual motor skills - Anemia - Kidney damage - High blood pressure
  9. 9. Sulfur dioxide - Trigger asthma especially in children sulfur dioxide affects adults and children differently and that chronic and acute effects may also be different
  10. 10. Particulate Matter Diesel - Cancer - Asthmatic attacks in children - Eye and throat irritation - Headache - Lightheadedness - Nausea - Perception of unpleasant odors - Lung inflammation.
  11. 11. Air Pollution: How Grievous? ?
  12. 12. Around 30-40% of cases of asthma and 20-30% of all respiratory diseases may be linked to air pollution
  13. 13. - increased acute respiratory diseases - lowered lung function in children - increased sickness rates; - increases in mortality
  14. 14. why specially in children - Children spend more time - outdoors especially in the summertime when ozone levels are the highest - engaged in vigorous activity - Have a higher breathing rate - Not likely to receive / understand the biological warnings - Breathe through mouth also - Have narrower airways - Impairment of the lung's ability to defend itself
  15. 15. Control of air pollution
  16. 16. Society Industries – Legislation – guidelines for siting of industries – emission standards for industries – development of pollution prevention technologies Vehicular pollution – stringent emission norms – cleaner fuel quality
  17. 17. What can we do to protect our kids?
  18. 18. Keep an eye on child’s health Look for warning signs share observations with pediatrician. Asthmatic child recognize triggers and avoid them on bad air days they react more strongly to triggers than usual
  19. 19. Make indoor environment quot;lung healthyquot; Smoke-free regular cleaning leaks or moisture problems
  20. 20. Keep track of air pollution levels limit the outdoor time in vigorous play during unhealthy airtime Plan the most strenuous activities for the early morning hours Keep outdoor activities away from busy roadways and other sources of pollution. Make child’s guides aware of the health risks of air pollution, and frame policies
  21. 21. Proper disposal of waste - dry leaves, old tyres, plastics & garbage Shift to cleaner fuels - vehicle, cooking Save enegry - decrease fuel consumption Diwali Speak out in support of clean air
  22. 22. Thank you

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