Standard 90.1-2010 Update

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Standard 90.1-2010 Update

  1. 1. ASHRAE Standard 90.1- 2010 Hugh Crowther P. Eng Director at Large
  2. 2. Agenda• ASHRAE Standards Development – Jargon• Std 90.1 layout• Review of changes to each section• How Improvements are evaluated• Questions
  3. 3. Compliance ApproachesBuilding Systems Compliance Options Envelope Prescriptive Option HVAC Trade Off SHW Option Mandatory Compliance Provisions Power Energy Cost Budget Lighting Simplified Other
  4. 4. Std 90.1 Sections• Section 1: Purpose • Section 7: Service Water Heating• Section 2: Scope • Section 8: Power• Section 3: Definitions • Section 9: Lighting• Section 4: Admin and • Section 10: Other Equipment Enforcement • Section 11: Energy Cost Budget• Section 5: Building Envelope (ECB) method • Section 12: Normative References • Appendices
  5. 5. Std 90.1 -2010• Significant Savings over 2004 version• Site energy savings is National With Without in kWh Weighted Receptacle Receptacle Energy Loads Loads• Site energy cost Savings savings is in $ Site 25.5% 32.6% – Std 90.1 evaluates itself Energy on energy cost Energy 24.0% 30.1%• How did they do that? Cost
  6. 6. How did they do that? 30% Improvement 109 Addenda TPS Change2004 2007 2010 Lets talk about changes from 2007 version to the 2010 version
  7. 7. Section 2 Change in Scope• Process (plug) loads can now be included 11% 17% Lighting 17%• The TPS change Cooling 9% allows the committee Heating 21% 64% 14% to write rules on plug 9% Ventilation 5% Regulated loads if they deem it Water Heating 9% Refrigeration 3% necessary 3% Electronics 5%• If the Std does not 3% Computers 3% 25% specifically address a 5% Cooking 3% Unregulated 21% Other 14% process load, then it 3% Adjust to SEDS 11% is unregulated 9% 5% A 30% total site reduction would require a 47% reduction in regulated loads A 50% total site reduction would require a 78% reduction in regulated loads Source: Building Energy Data Book 2009, Table 3.1.4
  8. 8. Section 5 Building Envelope• Building envelope requirements change based on location• Approximately 20 changes between 2007 and 2010 versions• Informative Appendix F lists changes by addenda
  9. 9. Section 5 Building Envelope• Continuous air barrier for most buildings – 5.4.3.1 – Material leakage rate under 0.004 cfm/ft² @ 0.3 in. w.c. – Assembly leakage rate under 0.04 cfm/ft² @ 0.3 in. w.c. Goal: Minimize infiltration by 83% and HVAC energy usage by 40% - NIST
  10. 10. Section 5 Building Envelope• Tightened air leakage rates for fenestration and doors – 5.4.3.2 – 1 cfm/ft² @ 1.57 PSF for doors – 0.06 cfm/ft² @ 1.57 PSF for curtain wall Goal: Minimize infiltration
  11. 11. Section 5 Building Envelope• Vestibule Requirements changed – 5.4.3.4• Insulation requirements for metal buildings more stringent – 5.5.3.1 and 5.5.3.2
  12. 12. Section 5 Building Envelope• Cool roofs required in some climate zones – 5.5.3.1.1 – Zones 1,2 and3 – Solar reflectance = 0.55 – SRI = 64 (ASTM E1980) Goal: Minimize roof loads
  13. 13. Section 5 Building Envelope• Vertical fenestration must have more area on south side than on either east or west side – 5.5.4.5• Large spaces with tall ceilings must have minimum skylight area and automatic daylighting controls – 5.5.4.2.3
  14. 14. Section 5 Building Envelope• Exceptions are provided to SHGC requirements for dynamic glazing – 5.5.4.4.1
  15. 15. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Process cooling can now be included – Scope change• New data center requirements – Added CRAC units based on ASHRAE Std 127 – Introduced sensible Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) – 6.4.1.1, 6.5.1, Table 6.8.1k – A/C equipment primarily serving computer rooms must meet Table Example of process loads now being 6.8.1k considered
  16. 16. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Upgraded efficiencies to most HVAC equipment categories – 6.8.1 tables• New term for Unitary equipment – Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio (IEER) – Brings focus to part load efficiency rather than just full load performance Goal: Promote Part load performance
  17. 17. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Increased efficiency for water- cooled and evaporatively cooled air conditioners/heatpumps – 3 to 5% more stringent as of June 2011 – IEER increase from 5 to 13% – Two position valves required on water cooled unitary equipment (WSHPs) – Pumps larger than 5 hp serving W/C unitary equipment need VFD
  18. 18. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Water to water heat pumps – Added to standard – Efficiencies based on application (Watersource, ground water, ground source)
  19. 19. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Increased efficiency for PTACs and PTHPs as of Oct 2012 – Created standard (16 x 42 size) and non standard efficiency tables – Standard size for new construction Standard – Non standard size for replacement (existing wall sleeves) Non -standard
  20. 20. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Two path compliance for chillers (addendum M) – Both paths have a full and part load target – Path A targets high full load performance – Path B targets high part load performance – Chillers with glycol now under Std 90.1 – Glycol chiller performance criteria based on just water when checking with 90.1 Goal: Promote full operating range performance
  21. 21. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Recent Chiller Interpretations – Where customers request more strict conditions than required in AHRI 550/590, the chillers will be compared to Std 90.1 at standard rating conditions. – Power usage shall be measured at the line side of starter or VFD. – Starter and VFD losses must be included in chiller performance
  22. 22. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Chiller scope expansion – Air and water cooled positive displacement chillers now included in Std 90.1 with LFT > 32 °F• Non standard chiller equation – 6.4.1.2.1 – Covers chillers with LFT ≥ 36 °F – Covers chillers with CWT ≤ 115 °F – 20 °F to 80 °F of lift Goal: Avoid gaming by picking 85.1 °F CWT• About 98% of centrifugal chillers now covered by Std 90.1
  23. 23. Section 6 HVAC Systems• VRF systems added – Based on new AHRI 1230 test standard – The IEER levels will increase in 2012• New rating system for water to water HX – 6.4.1.4 – Encouraging manufacturers to certify their products – No performance targets yet
  24. 24. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Restrictions on pump head sizing and pipe sizing – 6.4.2.2 – Need to calculate the pressure drop through piping and components for critical path• Pipe sizing as per table 6.5.4.5 Goal: Make sure pumps are not oversized – Flow rate by Dia. And hours operation
  25. 25. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Pump differential pressure flow control shall – Not exceed pressure required for 110% of design flow through heat exchanger – Shall reset down during part load until one control valve is nearly open. – 6.5.4.1
  26. 26. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Hydronic systems other than unitary systems must have VFD over 10 hp – 6.5.4.1 – No caveats any more – No pump curve riding etc Goal: Promote Variable flow systems
  27. 27. Section 6 HVAC Systems• VAV requirement for DX and chilled water systems that serve single zone – 6.4.3.10 – Chilled water systems ≥ 5 hp fan motors must be variable flow – 2 spd or VFD – As of Jan. 1, 2012 DX systems > 110kBtu/h must be able to reduce fan speed 2/3 or less at 50% load – 2 spd or VFD• Fan power ratings based on constant volume power limits Goal: Promote fan power savings
  28. 28. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Increased insulation requirements for pipes and ducts – 6.4.4• New requirements for radiant panel systems – 6.4.4 – Ineffective panel areas shall have r-3.5
  29. 29. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Limitations on centrifugal fan cooling towers – 6.5.5.3 – 1100 gpm or greater, must meet axial fan efficiency – 38.2 USgpm per fan hp – Exempt if they are ducted• New tower category for closed circuit cooling towers – Avoid confusion with Fluid coolers Goal: Promote fan power savings
  30. 30. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Economizer changes – 6.5.1• With more stringent envelopes and higher internals loads, cooling required at lower ambients – Promotes economizers• Economically justified in all but Zones 1a Goal: Promote economizers. The and ab. improvements in building envelopes make economizers economically justified in more climate zones
  31. 31. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Sizes 54 kBtu/h and larger require economizers – Individual unit (not system) – Air or water economizers – Economizer is 1st stage cooling – 2nd stage mechanical cooling – Economizer goes to minimum when high limit reached – High limit settings by region• 12 exceptions
  32. 32. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Economizer exception for computer rooms – 6.5.1j – Total design below 3,000 kBtu/h and not served by chiller plant – Total design below 600 kBtu/h and is served by chiller plant – Local authority prohibits cooling towers – Less than 600 kBtu/h computer load being added to existing building
  33. 33. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Water economizer sizing for computer rooms – 6.5.1.2 – Load must be met at 40 °F db/ 35°F wb with evaporative type water economizers – Load must be met at 35 °F db with dry type water economizers
  34. 34. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Changes to damper leakage requirements – 6.5.1.1.4 – Comply with changes to controls section – Motorized intake and exhaust dampers in most climate zones Goal: Limit infiltration during off hours and slow down heat up or cool down
  35. 35. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Dynamic ventilation control for multi zone VAV systems following Std 62.1 Appendix A – 6.5.3.3 – VAV systems with DDC controls shall lower ventilation air below design rate in response to ventilation efficiency
  36. 36. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Supply air reset – Removed from 1999 version – Back in 2010 version – 6.5.3.4• Goal is to reset SAT up to max level when boxes at minimum flow – Fan penalty should be offset by reheat savings Goal: Mechanical cooling savings that more than offset additional fan work – Can be based on outdoor air reset
  37. 37. Section 6 HVAC Systems• SAT Reset exceptions – Climate zones 1a, 2a,3a – Systems that prevent reheating, re-cooling or mixing – Systems where 75% of reheat comes from recovery or solar.
  38. 38. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Additional requirements for reheat/re-cool minimums – 20% zone design peak supply rate during deadband and 50% zone peak design rate for full heating – Meant to help with stratification in heating from ceiling diffusers• Overheat heating SAT Goal: Reduce heating air flow to minimum limited to 20 ° above F level where overhead distribution is still effective temperature set point
  39. 39. Section 6 HVAC Systems• Climatic based requirement for energy recovery – 6.5.6 – Based on climate zone, size and % outdoor air• New requirements for garage and kitchen hood ventilation – 6.4.3.4.5 and 6.5.7 – Garage systems shall modulate to 50% based on contaminants Goal: Fan power savings in garages and kitchen exhaust systems
  40. 40. Section 6 HVAC Systems• New requirements for lab exhaust – 6.5.7.2 – Need to be VAV above 5000 cfm
  41. 41. Section 7 Service Water Heating• No changes from 2007 version
  42. 42. Section 8 Power• Half of all convenience power outlets shall be controlled such that power is turned off when space is not occupied – 8.4.2• Efficiency requirements added for dry type transformers – 8.1.2 – Reflect 2005 Federal requirements Goal: Std 90.1 in line with Federal codes
  43. 43. Section 9 Lighting• Increased documentation requirements – 9.7• Lighting alteration requirements now – Take effect at 10% replacement – Include exterior areas – Include renovations even when it is just lamp/ballast replacement – Require compliance with auto shut requirements – 9.1.2
  44. 44. Section 9 Lighting• Changes to lighting power density (LPD) values – tables 9.5.1 and 9.6.1• Adjustment Factor added for tall spaces – 9.6.3• Additional LPD allowed when using certain non mandatory controls – 9.6.2c
  45. 45. Section 9 Lighting• Allowances for retail lighting have been reduced – 9.6.2b• Multi-use spaces now use multiple LPD valves – 9.6.1
  46. 46. Section 9 Lighting• Exterior lighting now broken into 5 zones based on ambient light levels – 9.6.1 – Undeveloped park area to high traffic commercial zone
  47. 47. Section 9 Lighting• Light control changes include (9.4) – Bi level control – Auto shut off based on occupancy required in more spaces – Certain required controls must be manual/auto on to no more than 50% power – Deleted 5000 ft² threshold for auto shutoff – Functional testing of some lighting controls now required (9.4.4) – Daylight harvesting required in certain situations 5.5.4.2.3
  48. 48. Section 10 Other Equipment• Control requirements for water pressure booster pump systems – 10.4.2 – Variable flow design – Don’t dead head a pumpGoal: Avoid pump work during low or noflow requirement periods
  49. 49. Section 10 Other Equipment• Requirements added to limit lighting and fan power in elevator cabs and de-energize during stand by mode – 10.4.3• Motor efficiency tables changed for motors built after 12/19/2010 – Table 10.8a,b,c Goal: Keep Std 90.1 in line with Federal motor requirements
  50. 50. Section 11 ECB Method Large Office• No changes to 2010 version• Case sample provided in previous Users manual has Secondary School been deleted – Can be downloaded from ASHRAE
  51. 51. Appendix GPerformance Rating Method• Can use Appendix G to rate High-rise Apartment buildings for other than compliance with Std 90.1 – LEED – Appendix G is nota compliance path• A building complies with Std 90.1 (section 11) if the proposed design energy cost ≤ energy cost budget Hospital• In Appendix G Proposed building performance ≥ baseline building performance
  52. 52. Appendix GPerformance Rating Method• Now normative part of the High-rise Apartment Standard whereas it was informative• Heated only storage spaces have been added – G3.1.1• 2 rules added to ventilation rules for Hospital baseline HVAC systems – G3.1.2.6
  53. 53. Questions?

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