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Life Safety Products

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Life Safety Products - March 2011 Illinois Chapter of ASHRAE Meeting

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Life Safety Products

  1. 1. LIFE SAFETY DAMPERS CODES, STANDARDS & INSTALLATIONS ASHRAE ILLINOIS CHAPTER MARCH 8TH, 2011
  2. 2. Life Safety Damper Seminar Seminar #1 by Kyle Schultz  Codes, Standards & Testing Seminar #2 by Wally Kurzeja  Review of Fire Damper, Smoke Damper & Fire/Smoke Damper Fundamentals  Installation Requirements  UL Tour Seminar #3 by James Livingston  Air Control Considerations for energy conservation and BMS integration  Fire/Smoke damper performance
  3. 3. Fire/Life Safety Products Fire Dampers Smoke Dampers Combination Fire Smoke Dampers Ceiling Dampers
  4. 4. Codes and Standards- Who’s Who? NFPA, National Fire Protection Association (Installation Standards)  NFPA-90A (Installation in HVAC systems)  NFPA-92A (Smoke Control Systems)  NFPA 101- Life Safety Code UL, Underwriter’s Laboratories (Testing standards) –UL 555, 555S, 555C Building Codes (Locations)
  5. 5. Partial application detail fromNFPA 90A
  6. 6. UL, What do they do? Independent Testing Lab Tests and Classifies Fire Resistive Materials and Products Follow Up Service (in plant inspections) UL Standards  555 Fire damper test standard (6th edition)  555S Smoke damper test standard (4th edition)  555C Ceiling radiation damper test standard (1st edition) Product Directories
  7. 7. Building CodeRequirements or Where arethe Dampers?Code Location Requirements
  8. 8. Who’s Who? Building Codes- Local Authorities International Code- most suburbs  IBC2003,2006,2009 BOCA- still around some suburbs IDPH (Illinois Department of Public Health)  Life Safety Code, NFPA 101 City of Chicago Building Code  2011 Building Code (still does not mention fire dampers) Mechanical, Electrical and Energy Conservation sections have been updated
  9. 9. Where are the Dampers?Code Location Requirements Occupancy Separation Walls Shaft Enclosures Stairwells Mechanical Rooms Building Exterior Walls Exit Corridors Atrium Enclosure Elements Elevator Lobbies Horizontal Assemblies
  10. 10. Occupancy Separation Walls
  11. 11. Occupancy Classifications IBC Chapter 4 Occupancy Classification Description Group(s) Assembly A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5 Business B Educational E Factory and Industrial F-1 and F-2 High Hazard H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 Institutional I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4 Mercantile M Residential R-1, R-2, R-3, R-3.1 and R-4 Storage S-1 and S-2Utility and Miscellaneous U
  12. 12. Fire Barriers (SECTION 707) Fire Barrier – A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread in which continuity is maintained. Table 707.3.9Fire-Resistance Rating Requirements For Fire Barriers Assemblies or Horizontal Assemblies Between Fire Areas Occupancy Group Fire-Resistance Rating (hours) H-1, H-2 4 F-1, H-3, S-1 3 A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, I, M, R, S-1 2 U 1
  13. 13. Occupancy Separation (partial)Chicago Code 13-56-280
  14. 14. IBC ChaptersIBC Chapter 1Scope and AdministrationIBC Chapter 2DefinitionsIBC Chapter 3Use and Occupancy ClassificationIBC Chapter 4Special Use and OccupancyIBC Chapter 6Types of ConstructionIBC Chapter 7Fire and Smoke Protection FeaturesIBC Chapter 9Fire Protection System
  15. 15. International Mechanical CodeIMC Sections 513- Smoke Control Systems 606- Smoke Detection Systems 607- Duct and Air Transfer Openings
  16. 16. FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION LOCATIONS Exterior Walls Fire Walls Fire Barriers Shaft Enclosures Elevator Lobbies Fire Partitions Corridors Horizontal Assemblies Smoke Barriers & Partitions Duct and Transfer Openings
  17. 17. EXTERIOR WALLS (SECTION 705)Fire-Resistance Rating, tables 601 & 602 Occupancy Construction type Distance from other structuresDucts/ Air Transfer openings areprotected and shall comply with section716FIRE DAMPER required with exceptions
  18. 18. FIRE WALLS (SECTION 706)Fire Wall – A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, whichrestricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation toor through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions toallow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. Table 706.4 Fire Wall Fire-Resistance Ratings Group Fire-Resistance Rating (Hours) A, B, E, H-4, I, R-1, R-2, U 3a F-1, H-3b, H-5, M, S-1 3 H-1, H-2 4b F-2, S-2, R-3, R-4 2 a. Walls shall be not less than 2-hour fire resistance rated where separating buildings of Type II or V construction. b. For Groups H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.4 and 415.5.
  19. 19. FIRE WALLS (SECTION 706)Used to create separate buildings(Party walls)Ducts/ Air Transfer openings areprotected and shall comply withsection 716FIRE DAMPER requiredSMOKE DAMPER required when firewall serves as a horizontal exit.
  20. 20. FIRE BARRIERS (SECTION 707) Fire Barrier – A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread in which continuity is maintained. Table 707.3.9Fire-Resistance Rating Requirements For Fire Barriers Assemblies or Horizontal Assemblies Between Fire Areas Occupancy Group Fire-Resistance Rating (hours) H-1, H-2 4 F-1, H-3, S-1 3 A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, I, M, R, S-1 2 U 1
  21. 21. FIRE BARRIERS (SECTION 707)Fire Barriers are used for: Occupancy Separation Shaft Enclosures Exit Enclosures Exit Passageways Horizontal Exit Atriums Control Areas Fire Areas
  22. 22. FIRE BARRIERS (SECTION 707)Ducts/ Air Transfer openings areprotected and shall comply withSection 716FIRE DAMPER required withexceptionsSMOKE DAMPER required whenfire barrier serves as a horizontalexit
  23. 23. SHAFT ENCLOSURES (SECTION 707)Shaft Enclosure – The wall or construction forming theboundaries of a shaft. An enclosed space extending through one ormore stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in successivefloors, or floors and roof. Fire-Resistance Rating Constructed as a Fire Barrier or Horizontal Assembly Enclosure at the Bottom Enclosure at the Top. Opening in the top are not allowed.
  24. 24. SHAFT ENCLOSURES (SECTION 707)Ducts/ Air Transfer openings are protected and shall comply with Section 716 FIRE DAMPER required (exceptions) Steel 22” Sub-Duct with continuous upward air flow Parking garage Kitchen, Clothes Dryer Exhaust ducts
  25. 25. SHAFT ENCLOSURES (SECTION 707) SMOKE DAMPER required(exceptions)Combination Fire/Smoke Damperscan be used (exceptions) Parking garage Kitchen, Clothes Dryer Exhaust ducts
  26. 26. ELEVATOR LOBBY (SECTION 707.14.1)Elevator Lobby – An enclosed elevator lobby shallbe provided at each floor where an elevator shaftenclosure connects more than three stories. Anelevator lobby is an area of refuge. Fire-Resistance Rating of minimum of 1 hour Constructed as a Fire Partition or Smoke Partition FIRE DAMPER required (exceptions) SMOKE DAMPER required (exceptions)
  27. 27. FIRE PARTITIONS (SECTION 708)Fire Partition – A vertical assembly of materialsdesigned to restrict the spread of fire in whichopenings are protected. Fire Partitions are used for: Walls Separating Dwelling Units Walls Separating Sleeping Units Walls Separating Tenant Spaces in Covered Malls Corridor Walls Elevator Lobby Separation
  28. 28. FIRE PARTITIONS (SECTION 708)Fire-Resistance Rating 1 Hour RatingDucts/ Air transfer openings areprotected and shall comply with section716FIRE DAMPER required (exceptions)SMOKE DAMPER required for Corridors(exceptions)
  29. 29. CORRIDOR ENCLOSURE (SECTION 716)Corridor – An enclosed exit access compartment thatdefines and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. Fire-Resistance Rating 1 Hour Rating Ducts/ Air transfer openings are protected and shall comply with section 716 SMOKE DAMPER required (exceptions) FIRE DAMPER required (exceptions)
  30. 30. HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES (SECTION 712)Horizontal Assembly – A fire-resistance-rated floor or roofassembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of firein which continuity is maintained. Horizontal Assemblies are used for: Floor assembly separates mixed occupancies Floor assembly separates a single occupancy into different fire areas Floor assemblies separating dwelling units in the same building and horizontal assemblies separating sleeping units
  31. 31. HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES (SECTION 712) Fire-resistance rating varies Minimum 1 hour Ducts/ Air Transfer openings shall comply with Section 716 Trough penetrations – Fire Damper required or Combination Fire/Smoke Damper (exceptions) Membrane penetrations – Ceiling roof assemblies Ceiling Radiation Dampers (exceptions) Non-fire resistance-rated assemblies – FIRE DAMPER (exception)
  32. 32. SMOKE BARRIERS (SECTION 710)Smoke Barrier – A continuous membrane, either vertical orhorizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, which isdesigned and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. Smoke Barrier are used for Institutional Group I I-1 – Housing clients, on a 24 hour basis, live in a supervised residential environment that provides personal care service I-2 – Medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care on a 24 hour basis. I-3 – Inhabited by one or more persons who are under restraint I-4 – Day care facilities
  33. 33. SMOKE BARRIERS (SECTION 710)Smoke Barrier – A continuous membrane, either vertical orhorizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, which isdesigned and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. Fire-Resistance Rating 1 Hour Rating Ducts/ Air transfer openings are protected and shall comply with section 716 SMOKE DAMPER required (exceptions) FIRE DAMPER (exceptions)
  34. 34. SMOKE PARTITIONS (SECTION 710)Smoke Partition – A continuous membrane, either verticalor horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly,which is designed and constructed to restrict the movementof smoke. Smoke Partitions are used for: Corridor Walls I-1 – Housing clients I-2 – Medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care I-3 – Inhabited by one or more persons who are under restraint I-4 – Day care facilities
  35. 35. SMOKE PARTITIONS (SECTION 710)Fire-Resistance Rating Not RequiredDucts/ Air transfer openingsare protected and shall complywith section 716SMOKE DAMPER requiredFIRE DAMPER (Not Required)
  36. 36. SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS IBC 909 IMC 513Special Inspection and Testing RequirementsDesign requirementsAnalysis Temperatures, winds, stack effectAirflow design methods Pressurization Airflow velocity Exhaust methodChicago Code 18-28-513 refers to section18-9-909 ( editors note: does not exist)
  37. 37. SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS IBC 909 IMC 513Equipment Fans Ducts Dampers Power systems Smoke control panel Stair pressurization
  38. 38. DUCT & AIR TRANSFER OPENING IBC Section 716 IMC Section 607 Fire damper testing, ratings, link temperatures Smoke damper leakage classifications, actuators Access door requirements Ceiling radiation damper Chicago Code Section 18-28-607 refers to 18-7-716 (does not exist)
  39. 39. OTHER FIRE DAMPER REFERENCES IMCHAZARD EXHAUST DUCTS (Section 510) Fire dampers are prohibitedCLOTHES DRYER EXHAUST (Section 504) Fire dampers are prohibitedGREASE DUCT PENETRATION (Section505 through 507) Fire dampers are not usedDUST COLLECTION (Section 511) Fire dampers are not usually applicable Guillotine type fire dampers may be acceptable
  40. 40. QUESTIONS?
  41. 41. Fire Damper Fundamentals Designed to STOP the passage of flame
  42. 42. Fire Dampers A Device: Installed in a fire-rated wall or floor Interrupts airflow automatically through part of an air system Close automatically in the event of fire Maintain the integrity of the fire-rated separation Part of the wall not the duct work Restrict the Passage of FLAME
  43. 43. Fusible Links Hold open damper under normal conditions Designed to “melt” at certain temperatures, typically 165, 212, 265, 286 degrees, allowing the damper to close Per NFPA 90A, links shall be used that will open at approximately 50 degrees above normal operating temperature
  44. 44. Fire Damper Ratings 1 1/2 Hour 3 HourNFPA-90A Chapter 5…protected openings with fire resistance ratings of lessthan 3 hours shall have 1 ½-hour fire protection…3 hours or more shall have a 3-hour fire protection…
  45. 45. Ratings What hourly rated damper do I install in a 2 hour wall? (NFPA-90A) 1-1/2 hour What hourly rated damper do I install in a 4 hour wall? (NFPA-90A) 3 hour
  46. 46. Types Static Fire Dampers  “Fans Off” Systems  Not required to close under airflow or pressure Dynamic Fire Dampers  “Fans On” Systems  New UL Standard 555 1999 (6th edition)  Tested to close with heated air, 2000 fpm, 4” sp  New stringent testing requirements limits
  47. 47. Types Vertical  Wall mount  Horizontal ductwork Horizontal  Floor mount  Vertical ductwork  Spring assist to close
  48. 48. Types IBD (interlocking blade) Type  Curtain style  Gravity close or spring assisted  Vertical and/or Horizontal Multi-Blade  Spring loaded blades held open by fusible link  Larger dynamic rated sizes available
  49. 49. Typical Installation –Access Doors Per NFPA 90A , Duct access doors must be provided adjacent to fire dampers Allows service and replacement of fusible links Must be large enough for resetting of links, If duct size allows, minimum 16 x18” size, for smaller ducts, no minimum listed Removable inlet or outlet openings/grilles allowed in lieu of doors
  50. 50. “Typical” Fire Damper Installation FD Must be installed in a sleeve and be located within the plane of the wall/floor Sleeve is held in place with mounting angles Ductwork is connected to the sleeve with either break-away or solid connection
  51. 51. “Typical” Fire Damper Installation Sleeves can be factory provided or contractor fabricated Angles can be factory provided or contractor fabricated
  52. 52. Interlocking Style A BladesFuse Link Frame
  53. 53. HStyle B A BDuct Connection
  54. 54. Style C damper
  55. 55. Blade Seal Multi-Blade Jamb SealSpringJackshaft Over Center Link Fuse Link
  56. 56. DIBD2 Dynamic ratedStyle B B Hood Mounting Closure Label Springs Blade Catch
  57. 57. “Typical”Fire Damper Installation Sleeve  Length  Gauge Expansion Gap Orientation  Damper position  Labels  Floor/Wall Mounting Angles Breakaway or Rigid Connections
  58. 58. “Typical” Fire Damper Installation Sleeve  Length –extend 3”-6” beyond wall/floor  Gauge  Breakaway connection- equal to or greater than duct ga.  Solid connection- 16 gauge < 36x24, 14 gauge > 36x24 Expansion Gap- 1/8” per foot 1/4” minimum Orientation  Damper position- Air Flow Direction labels, Up Arrows  Floor/Wall- Horizontal or Vertical Mounting Angles- minimum 1-1/2” 20 ga. Both sides, must overlap opening by 1”, fasten to sleeve, not wall
  59. 59. “Non - Typical”Fire Damper Installations  Some manufacturers have developed and UL tested unique products to meet installation difficulties  One side angles  Out of the wall dampers  Grille dampers  Integral sleeves and angles  Always have the UL installation details available at the jobsite for local inspectors
  60. 60. One Side Angle Used in applications where access is limited on both sides Angle attaches to wall Size limitations
  61. 61. Out of Wall or ConcreteFloor•Angle one side•Fire resistantinsulation•Sleeve attached toinside of opening
  62. 62. FD’s Grille Application Single section sizes Max. size-36”x 36” Damper in Wall Must be 6” wall Grille By Others
  63. 63. QUESTIONS?COMMENTS?
  64. 64. CEILING RADIATION DAMPERSDesigned to STOP the spread of flame and heat
  65. 65. Ceiling Dampers  A Device:  Protects the HVAC penetrations in ceiling membranes  Available for more than 20 years  Misapplications are widespread Prevents the spread of Flame and Heat.
  66. 66. Ratings  Assembly Rating of 3 Hours or Less  Key Word is Assembly
  67. 67. UL Rated Ceiling Design
  68. 68. Types  Surface Mount  Gypboard  Grille
  69. 69. Types Lay-In  Acoustical Panel  Diffuser
  70. 70. QUESTIONS?COMMENTS?
  71. 71. SMOKE DAMPERS Actuator Required! Designed to STOP the passage of smoke
  72. 72. Smoke Damper A Device: Installed in a duct which penetrates a smoke barrier Seals duct against smoke leakage  Passive  Dynamic Limited multiple section maximum sizes Leakage Rated to UL555S *Fire Dampers tested to UL555 do not qualify*
  73. 73. Smoke Damper Installation No Openings Between Barrier and Damper No sleeve required
  74. 74. Smoke Dampers Airflow Both Directions Dynamic Leakage Classes  Class I, II, III & IV Blade & Jamb Seals
  75. 75. QUESTIONS?COMMENTS?
  76. 76. Fire Smoke Dampers Designed to STOP the passage of flame and smoke
  77. 77. Fire Smoke Dampers (FSD) Combines the performance of a Fire Damper and a Smoke Damper Installed in partitions rated as both fire and smoke barriers In many ways it installs like a curtain type fire damper *Older Codes do not specifically mention fire/smoke dampers* Separate fire dampers and smoke dampers could be used
  78. 78. Ratings Tested and rated as both a fire damper and smoke damper 1 1/2 hour 3 hour Leakage Class I,II,III,IV
  79. 79. Fire/Smoke Damper Operation Under standard operation, the damper will close upon elevated temperature or from a loss in smoke control signal Closing on elevated temperature will require manual re-setting of linkage Dynamic smoke control systems will require remote operation to re-open the damper even upon fire closure. This will require additional controls.
  80. 80. Dynamic SmokeManagement Systems
  81. 81. FSD Installation Vertical Horizontal Not Centered Mounting Maximum Size Sleeves Mounting Angles
  82. 82. QUESTIONS?
  83. 83. Suggested website links iccsafe.org ul.com – certifications - UL category code “EMME” (Manufacturer’s damper certification listing) nfpa.org ruskin.com
  84. 84. Underwriter’s Laboratories Tour
  85. 85. UL555C Ceiling Dampers Ceiling Fire Damper Test StandardFire Test Flame ExposureRadiation Test Heat StopCycle Test & Salt Spray Operation Reliability
  86. 86. Tanks filled with water to simulate load on ceiling assembly
  87. 87. After approx. 1 hour gypsum board has fallenCFD remains in place… Successful Test !
  88. 88. Damper is cycled to confirm operability
  89. 89. Thank You!Working Together For Life Safety! Ruskin Co. & You!

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