Building automation & controls

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Building automation & controls

  1. 1. Building Automation and Controls: What’s New and What Will the Future Bring? Presented to the Illinois Chapter ASHRAE Tuesday, March 9, 2010 By Gaylen Atkinson President Atkinson Electronics
  2. 2. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 BUILDING AUTOMATION & CONTROLS, WHAT’S NEW & WHAT WILL THE FUTURE BRING? PRESENTER: GAYLEN ATKINSON PRESIDENT ATKINSON ELECTRONICS, INC. SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH March 2010 BUILDING AUTOMATION & CONTROLS, WHAT’S NEW & WHAT WILL THE FUTURE BRING? 1. Basic control definitions 2. Brief history of HVAC Controls & Building Automation Systems (BAS) 3. Current BAS issues and trends 4. What does the BAS future look like? BUILDING AUTOMATION & CONTROLS, PURPOSES OF CONTROLS  Reduce equipment capacity to maintain desired ambient conditions, temperature, % RH, pressure, etc.  Reduce the amount of human labor needed.  Keep processes operating at safe levels.  Operate process to maintain environment using the least amount of energy possible.
  3. 3. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 BUILDING AUTOMATION & CONTROLS, BASIC CONTROL DRFINITIONS  Controlled variable = Y  Control Set point = X  Controlled medium = water or air  Controlled device = valve or damper motor  Proportional band = 1/gain  Control action may be direct or reverse (positive or negative slope)  DDC = Direct Digital Control using micro processors or computers. TYPES OF CONTROL  Feed forward or open loop.  Feed back or closed loop.  Two position: (on – off).  Timed two position: ie heat anticipator T’s stat.  3-point floating: increase, decrease or stop, also step & wait w/ micro processor.  Proportional (0 to 10VDC, 4-20mA and 3 to 15 PSI P – Proportional only PI – Proportional + Integral PID – Proportional + Integral + Derivative Control Systems During the 1950’s & 1960’s 1950’s: • Reasonably Accurate Pneumatic Sensors & Controllers • Fairly Comfortable Environmental Conditions 1960’s: • Improved System Design & Performance (VAV) • Proliferation of Sensor/Receiver-Controller Concept • Pneumatic Control Systems Are Industry “Norm.”
  4. 4. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 Control Systems During the 1970’s 1970’s: • Micro-Chip Analog Electronic Control & Computerized Energy Management Systems • Initial Computer Based Systems Were Costly & Performed Minimal Control Functions; Typically Only Monitored Pneumatic Control Systems Control Systems During the 1980’s 1980’s: • Pneumatic systems continue • Microprocessor based panels with high density inputs & outputs • Introduction of “Smart” Controllers • Proliferation of Application-Specific DDC Control Modules • Higher System Capability Per $ Investment Control Systems During the 1990’s 1990’s: • Electronic systems replace pneumatics • Open Protocols Introduced •BACnet •LON • World Wide Web Becomes Popular
  5. 5. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 Control Systems 2000 & Beyond 2000’s: • Internet Dominates BAS systems • Wireless Technologies proliferate • Smart Building Systems • Full Building integration • Future ???? CURRENT BAS ISSUES & TRENDS:  Proprietary and open protocols. PROTOCOL - PROPERTIES  Proprietary – individually controlled  Shared – Strategic alliances  Open – General use  Defacto Standard – Industry accepted (e.g. Ethernet, Modbus, IP, etc.)  Standard – Agency/Association Approved (e.g. Lontalk, Bacnet, Arcnet, etc.)
  6. 6. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 WHY OPEN PROTOCOL THAT’S WHY ! LEVELS OF INTEROPERABILITY  Coexistance  Systems don’t interfere nor they cooperate  Solution Specific  Requires Joint development & Engineering  Plug & Play  Effortless integration of various manufacturing components  Interchangeability  Products are functionally identical
  7. 7. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 CURRENT BAS ISSUES & TRENDS:  Proprietary and open protocols.  DDC control hardware is becoming a commodity  A BAS is usually part of a building information systems (I.S.) backbone  Integration to the internet is a given INTERNET INTEGRATION Proprietary Front-End Controls Contractor BAS Salesman Building Engineer Internet Open System Building Manager Front-End Controller(s) Application Controller(s) Owner CURRENT BAS ISSUES & TRENDS:  Proprietary and open protocols.  DDC control hardware is becoming a commodity  A BAS is usually part of a building information systems (I.S.) backbone  Integration to the internet is a given  Control contractors are now system integrators  Software not hardware is the heart of today’s BAS systems
  8. 8. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 CURRENT BAS ISSUES AND TRENDS CONT’D:  New section 2300 replaces division 15 of specifications  BAS have the capacity and are being used for much more than just control FULL BAS Ethernet INTEGRATION UPS Irrigation & Electrical Alternate Energy WiFi Wireless Water Management Controls Rate Purchase Network Security Manager Internet Card Access Network Manager Lighting Controls Ethernet AHU’s Fire/Smoke Terminal Units Control HVAC System Central Plant LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION
  9. 9. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 CURRENT BAS ISSUES AND TRENDS CONT’D:  New section 2300 replaces division 15 of specifications  BAS have the capacity and are being used for much more than just control  Wireless is expanding rapidly WIRELESS BAS INTEGRATIONS:  Point to Point (sensor to VAV box)  WIFI for using a laptop for commissioning  MESH wireless networks  Cellular modems on BAS equipment  Zigbee, RFID, etc. CURRENT BAS ISSUES AND TRENDS CONT’D:  New section 2300 replaces division 15 of specifications  BAS have the capacity and are being used for much more than just control  Wireless is expanding rapidly  Power and control communications on the same wire is emerging
  10. 10. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 SAME-WIRE POWER & CONTROL  Simple 120VAC light switching  Powerline data communication  24VAC power & network traffic for HVAC actuators and sensors  Utility metering & add-on services  Home automation CURRENT BAS ISSUES AND TRENDS CONT’D:  New section 2300 replaces division 15  BAS have the capacity and are being used for much more than just control  Wireless is expanding rapidly  Power and control communications on the same wire is emerging  Internet user expectations drive BAS features  Full control systems are coming with HVAC mechanical equipment  BAS must integrate with user’s management computer systems, there are many users, not just the building engineers INTERNET INTEGRATION Proprietary Front-End Controls Contractor BAS Salesman Building Engineer Internet Open System Building Manager Front-End Controller(s) Application Controller(s) Owner
  11. 11. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 BAS ISSUES AND TRENDS CONT’D:  Knowledge of how to control HVAC and integrate much more important than any vendor’s system  Web services such as weather, technical data base and data processors are more common  Commissioning, monitoring and trending are common uses of BAS, also data archiving  BAS are used in LEED projects for building monitoring and performance verification  Smart building systems are driving innovative uses of BAS into every area of a building SMART BUILDING BAS  Knowledge based software for maintenance & re-commissioning expert system  Self-tuning control systems are becoming more common-besides trial & error PID tuning  Control device manufacturer libraries replace O&M manuals  Fuzzy logic & other techniques optimize building operations artificial intelligence BAS ISSUES AND TRENDS CONT’D :  Knowledge of how to control HVAC and integrate much more important than any vendor’s system  Web services such as weather, technical data base and data processors are more common  Commissioning, monitoring and trending are common uses of BAS, also data archiving  BAS systems are used in LEED projects for building monitoring and performance verification  Smart building systems are driving innovative uses of BAS into every area of a building  M2M networking driving every connected component to being internet addressable
  12. 12. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 M2M and End User Internet-addressable Internet TCP/IP Network Network Network Manager Manager Manger Lon or BACnet HVAC Lighting Security Access Irrigation WHAT BAS TRENDS WILL HAVE STAYING POWER INTO THE FUTURE:  BAS are part of the building “IS” network, many new players are entering the market  Wireless and power-line control will dominate, reducing installation costs  Control hardware will be a smaller percentage of mechanical budget, programming costs will grow  Internet direction will drive BAS and building controls OLD CO-EXISTENT BUILDINGS Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary HVAC Lighting System Security System
  13. 13. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 CURRENT TECHNOLOGY End User Internet TCP/IP BACnet Lon Translator Translator HVAC Lighting Security Access FUTURE TECHNOLOGY??? End User Internet TCP/IP Everything is based on Internet Protocol HVAC Lighting Security Access WHAT BAS TRENDS WILL HAVE STAYING POWER INTO THE FUTURE:  BAS is part of the building “IS” system, many other players are entering the market  Wireless and power-line control will dominate, reducing installation costs  Control hardware will be a smaller percentage of mechanical budget, programming costs will grow  Internet direction will drive BAS and building controls  BAS will increasingly become more utilized to manage energy and resources in a building  Retro-commissioning both BAS and mechanical, will be driven by increasing energy costs and change in building usage  Much more HVAC equipment will come complete with a control system  Self commissioning and auto tuning systems will become the norm
  14. 14. Building Automation & Controls March 9, 2010 LINKS FOR MORE INFORMATION  www.automatedbuildings.com  www.bacnet.org  www.lonmark.org  www.betterbricks.com  www.caba.org  www.ashrae.org  www.echelon.com  www.tridium.com  www.atkinsonelectronics.com  www.johnsoncontrols.com  www.honeywell.com  www.invensys.com  www.sbt.siemens.com  www.delta controls.com  www.automatedlogic.com  www.tac.com

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