Why is That?• Being “Green” or “Sustainable” has become the preeminent feel-good cause of the last quarter century.• Who can be against such a combination of virtue and vagueness; economics and ecology, simple-mindedness and soothsaying?• Greenwashing is RAMPANT!
What is “Green”One problem in defining green orsustainability is that it has come to mean so much to so many.
Std 189.1 Standard for the Design of High Performance Green Buildings
Agenda• What is Std 189.1?• Std 189.1 Sections • Site • Water • Energy • IEQ • Materials and Resources • Construction and Operation• Why all the bother?• Energy Targets• Questions
What is Standard 189.1-2009?• An ANSI standard developed in model code language that provides minimum requirements for high-performance, green buildings • Code and Contractually enforceable• Sponsor and co-sponsors: • ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers • USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council) • IESNA (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
How Do the Pieces Fit Together?ASHRAE Std 90.1 IECC ASHRAE Std 189.1 EPA Energy Star CEC Title 24
Std 189.1 Range SS WE EE IEQ MR COSustainable Water Use Energy Indoor Bldg Impact Construction Sites Efficiency Efficiency Environmental on and Quality Atmosphere, Operation Mat’ls and Plans Resources IAQ 30% To Increase IEQ Minimum Minimum Compliance! Compliance! Std 90.1 Std 62.1
Std 189.1 and LEED • Rating System (How high performance IS your high performance• Code Intended (Code bldg?) enforceable) • Not Code enforceable• Minimum compliance for • Not a good tool for High Performance Bldg (If you meet 189.1 you are a setting policy (e.g. “All high performance bldg) municipal bldgs shall be LEED Silver”) 184.108.40.206 Building projects shall contain on-site renewable energy systems that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 6.0 kBtu/ft2 of conditioned space.
Standard 189 Chapter Structure 220.127.116.11 Fan System Power Limitation Recipe – handles Systems shall have fan power limitations 10% below typical buildingsSSSS limitations specified in Table 18.104.22.168.1A of Standard 90.1… X.4WEWE PrescriptiveEEEE X.1 X.2 X.3 Scope Compliance MandatoryIEQIEQ X.5MRMR 7.5.3 Annual Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2 e) Performance The building project shall have an annual CO2e less than or equal to that achieved by compliance withCOCO sections… Comparisons shall be made using normative Appendix D provided that the base line Goal – handles building is calculated in accordance with… any building
Sustainable Sites SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO CO Mandatory Provisions• Site Selection • Brownfield, Greyfield vs. Greenfield• Reduce Heat Island Effect • Hardscape and wall shading, high SRI or cool roofs• Reduction of Light Pollution • Outdoor lighting lumen limits, maximum allowable Backlight, Uplight And Glare (BUG) ratings brownfield site: a site documented as contaminated by means of an ASTM E1903 Phase II Environmental Site Assessment or a site classified as a brownfield by a local, State, or Federal government agency.
Sustainable Sites SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Options• Site Development • All sites: Minimum 40% of site area to be effective pervious surface (vegetation, green roof, porous pavers) – exceptions for areas with <10 inches annual average rainfall • Greenfield sites: greenfield site: a site of which 20% or less has Minimum 20% of area to been previously developed with impervious be native or adapted surfaces. plants
Sustainable Sites SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPerformance Option • Site Development • Existing Building: minimum 20% • Greyfield Sites: minimum 40% • All Other Sites: minimum 50% • of the average annual rainfall on the development footprint shall be managed through infiltration, reuse, or evapotranspirationevapotranspiration (ET): the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. Evaporation accountsfor the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent lossof water as vapor through stomata in its leaves.
Water Use Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COMandatory Provisions• Site Water Use • Bio-diverse plantings, hydrozoning, & smart irrigation controllers• Building Water Use • Plumbing fixtures & fittings, appliances, HVAC systems & equipment, generally 40% lower than U.S. EPAct 1992 (ie: toilets<1.28 gpf or dual flush) • Disallow once through cooling with potable water• Water metering • Sub metering
Water Use Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option 1000 ton chiller Uses 50,000 gal/day!• Site Water Use • Maximum 1/3 of improved landscape can be irrigated with potable water• Building Water Use Reduction • Cooling towers • <200 ppm hardness to have minimum 5 cycles of concentration • >200 ppm hardness to have minimum 3.5 cycles of concentration • Efficient commercial food service and laboratories• Special Water Features • Fountain water must be from alternate source or reclaimed (no potable water)
Water Use Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPerformance Option• Site Water Use Reduction • proposed potable water for irrigation < 35% of baseline evapotranspiration• Building Water Use • proposed water use < mandatory plus prescriptive
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COHighlights• More stringent than Standard 90.1-2007• Plug/process loads• Peak load reduction• Energy measurement for verification• Renewable energy provisions
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COMandatory Provisions• Meet 90.1 Prescriptive Requirements • Sections 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4 and 10.4• Provide for future on-site renewable energy power systems • Building projects design shall show allocated space for installation of on-site renewable energy systems.• Energy Consumption Management • Measurement devices with remote on-site renewable energy system: communication capability shall be photovoltaic, solar thermal, provided to collect energy consumption geothermal energy, and wind systems used to generate energy and located on data the building project.
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO CO Prescriptive Option • CZ-3 Building Envelope (IP) • Roof Insulation • 189.1: R- 25 c.i., R- 49 attic • 90.1: R- 20 c.i., R- 38 attic • Walls • 189.1: Steel framed R-13 cavity + R-5 c.i., R-9.5 c.i. mass wall • 90.1: Steel framed R-13 cavity + R-3.8 c.i., R-7.6 c.i. mass wallCZ-3 Los Angeles Non-Residential Example
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO CO Prescriptive Option • CZ-3 Building Envelope (IP) • Fenestration Assemblies 90.1 189.1 nonmetal frame U-0.65 U-0.45 curtainwall U-0.60 U-0.50 other metal U-0.65 U-0.55 SHGC 0.25 0.25CZ-3 Los Angeles Non-Residential Example
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option• Building Envelope • Vertical fenestration area < 40% of the gross wall area • W, S & E permanent projections for vertical fenestration (climate zones 1-5) Projection Factor PF ≥ 0.5 • Fenestration orientation (climate zones 1-4): (AreaN*SHGCN + AreaS*SHGCS) ≥ 1.1*(AreaW*SHGCW + AreaE*SHGCE)
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option• Building Envelope • Continuous air barrier requirement • Using individual materials that have an air permeability ≤ 0.004 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. W.C. • Using assemblies of materials and components that have an average air leakage ≤ 0.04 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. W.C. continuous air barrier: the • combination of interconnected Testing the completed building and materials, assemblies and flexible demonstrating that the air leakage rate sealed joints and components of the of the building envelope ≤ 0.4 cfm/ft2 building envelope that provide air- under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. tightness to a specified permeability. W.C.
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option Addendum E change from• space to On-site renewable energy systems roof area that provide the annual energy production equivalent of 6 KBtu/ft2 of conditioned space • Exception for areas with incident solar radiation less than 4.0 kWh/m2-day and purchase of green power of 75 kWh/ft2-yr for a period not to exceed ten years • Could be the shade of another building
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO CO Prescriptive Option Mechanical Save money Save money when the when the Minimum equipment efficiency Equipment runs sun shines• Baseline is EPAct • Option for Energy efficiencies (Std Star / Appendix C 90.1) Use higher efficiency efficiencies • 6 KBtu/ft2 (1.76 equipment and reduce • 4 KBtu/ft2 (1.17 your PV/Wind kW/ft2) annual kW/ft2) annual renewable renewable power requirement energy energy by 33%! • 5% peak load • 10% peak load reduction reduction 100,000 ft2 Bldg 100,000 ft2 Bldg 11,000 ft2 panels 7,300 ft2 panels $17,600 savings/yr $11,700 savings/yr $1.1 Million install $0.73 Million install
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option Centrifugal Air Air Self Rooftop WSHPs Cooled Cooled Contained Units Chillers Chillers DX Chillers <150 tons > 150 tons Std 90.1 0.600 kW/ton 9.562 9.562 EER 11.0 EER 9.7 EER 12.0 EER Full EER 6 kBtu/ft2 12.75 IPLV 11.2 IEER 9.8 IEER Renewable 0.400 kW/ton 12.5 IPLV IPLV Std 189.1 0.600 kW/ton 10.0 10.0 EER 14.0 EER 9.7 EER 14.0 EER App. C Full EER 12.50 12.75 IPLV IPLV 14.3 IEER 10.2 IEER 4 kBtu/ft2 0.400 kW/ton Renewable IPLV
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option• Mechanical • Demand control ventilation for densely occupied spaces • Variable Exhaust for kitchen MUA • Auto light/HVAC control in guest rooms • Seal Level A duct sealing • Additional pipe/duct insulation School Classroom densely occupied space: those spaces with a design occupant density greater than or equal to 25 people per 1000 ft2
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option• Mechanical • Fan power to be 10% less than Standard 90.1 • Exhaust air energy recovery • Economizer cycle for units > 33,000 Btuh • 2 stg cooling < 65 MBH • 2 spd or VFD for AHU above 5 hp • 2 spd or VFD for DX unit above 110 MBH • Peak Load Reduction
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option• Lighting • Occupancy sensor controls • Occupancy sensor controls with multi-level switching or dimming • Interior lighting power to be 10% less the 90.1-2007 LPD • Lighting for building security or emergency egress ≤ 0.1 W/ft2 Addendum a • Automatic controls for lighting changed this to in daylight zones “daylight areas”.
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option• Other Equipment • Supermarket waste heat recovery system on permanently installed refrigeration equipment in supermarkets 25,000 ft2 or greater • Energy Star equipment and appliances if installed prior to issuance of certificate of occupancy
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPerformance Option• Annual Energy Cost • Proposed ≤ mandatory plus prescriptive• Annual Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e) • Proposed ≤ mandatory plus prescriptive• Peak Electric Demand • Proposed ≤ mandatory plus prescriptive
Energy Efficiency SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPerformance Option Building Project Energy Source CO2e lb/kWh (kg/kWh) Grid delivered electricity and other 1.670 (0.758)fuels not specified in this table LPG or Propane 0.602 (0.274) Fuel oil (residual) 0.686 (0.312) Fuel Oil (distillate) 0.614 (0.279) Coal (except lignite) 0.822 (0.373) Coal (lignite) 1.287 (0.583) Gasoline 0.681 (0.309) Natural Gas 0.510 (0.232)
IEQ SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO CO Mandatory Provisions• Indoor Air Quality • Ventilation rates per ASHRAE Standard 62.1 • Outdoor air delivery monitoring • MERV 8 filter (Std 62.1 MERV 6) • No smoking inside building• Thermal Environmental Conditions • Comply with ASHRAE Std 55 Acoustical Control • Defined STC values for exterior and interior assemblies• Daylighting by Toplighting (skylights)• Soil Gas Retarder System • Brownfields or radon• Entry mat system including scraper, absorption and finishing mats
IEQ SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPrescriptive Option• Daylighting by Sidelighting • Office spaces and classrooms • Minimum effective apertures • Minimum interior surface visible light reflectances • Minimum shading projection factors• Materials • Emissions and VOC requirements
IEQ SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COPerformance Option• Daylighting • Physical or computer model, minimum illuminance target: 30 fc (300 lux) on work surfaces, noon equinox • It shall be demonstrated that direct sun does not strike the workplane in any daylit space for more than 20% of the occupied hours during an equinox day in regularly occupied office spaces• Materials • VOC emissions model for building materials per CA/DHS/EHLB/R-174 Section 4.3
The Bldg’s Impact on SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COAtmosphereMandatory Provisions• Construction waste management • A minimum of 50% of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste material shall be diverted • Total waste on new building projects shall not exceed 42 cubic yards or 12,000 lbs per 10,000 ft2 of new building area• Wood products• Refrigerants• Storage and collection of recyclables and discarded goods
The Bldg’s Impact on SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COAtmospherePrescriptive Option• Reduced Impact Materials • The sum of post-consumer recycled content plus one-half of the pre-consumer recycled content shall constitute a minimum of 10%, based on cost, of the total materials in the building project • A minimum of 5% of building materials used, based on cost, shall be biobased products • A minimum of 15% of building materials or products used, based on cost, shall be regionally extracted/harvested/recovered or manufactured within a radius of 500 miles of the project site
The Bldg’s Impact on SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COAtmospherePerformance Option• Life Cycle Assessment • ISO Standard 14044 of a minimum of two building alternatives • The building alternative chosen for the project shall have a 5% improvement over the other building alternative • Life cycle inventory (LCI) • Compare the two building alternatives using a published third-party impact indicator method • Conduct a critical review by an external expert independent of those performing the LCA
Construction and SS SS WE WE EE EE IEQ MR IEQ MR CO COOperationMandatory Provisions• Plans for Construction • Building Acceptance Testing • Building Commissioning • Erosion and Sediment Control • IAQ Construction Management • Moisture Control • Construction Activity Pollution Prevention• Plans for Operation • BIM (Revit)• Energy Efficiency Plan for Operation
Addendum a and b• Addendum a • Revise definitions to match Std 90.1 • Revise the calculation of day-lit area• Addendum b • Modify the method of simulating day-lit area under the performance option • Lower the day-lit plane to 2.5 feet AFF
Normative Appendix D: EnergyPerformance• Mandatory provisions are still required• Variations from the prescriptive provisions are allowed only if they can be completely and accurately modeled. E.g. air barrier• Plug and process loads are required in both Baseline and Proposed models• Fan power can be different in the proposed building
Normative Appendix D: EnergyPerformance• Perception is not reality • “Your results may vary.”• The performance option is a comparison of one hypothetical building to another hypothetical building• Building additions can be modeled • The designer can choose to ignore the existing building
Energy Targets: the new Paradigm• Std 90.1 and Std 189.1 use energy use comparisons• BeQ Labeling uses comparisons• EnergyStar uses comparisons• It is time to look beyond relative metrics• Targets are absolute numbers (EUI)
Energy Targets abound everywhere• Net Zero Energy – regardless of the definition is an energy target• Without some type of specific, measurable, objective target progress is slow and ill defined.• The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey shows this clearly• Market forces alone do not drive consistently increasing energy efficiency
F ig u re 2 N atio n al Av e rag e E le ctricity P rice s (2004 D O E E IA - R e s. = 8.96, C o mm. = 8.21) 10 9 8 7Price - cents/kWh 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Y e ar C om m erc ial R es idential
F ig u re 1 N a tio n a l A v e ra g e N a tu ra l G a s P ric e s (2 0 0 4 D O E E IA - R e s . = 1 .2 3 , C o m m . = 0 .9 5 ) 1.40 1.20 1.00Price - $/therm 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 1965 1970 19 7 5 1980 1985 1990 1995 20 0 0 2005 Ye a r R es id e n tial C om m erc ial
Energy Targets• April 7, 2007 ASHRAE BOD approved the concept of energy targets.• To explain what that means, a graph was produced
Energy Targets Energy Reduction Proposal 53 36000Ene rgy (kBtu/yr) Standard 90.1 AEDG ASHRAE BOD Goal Standard 189 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Year
NREL Study on NZEB Potential 2007• This study asked two questions: • How low can you practically go in terms of energy use? • To what extent can PV supply the remaining energy?
Why all the bother? – Policy Makers Site EUI kBtu/ft2‐yr (MJ/m2‐yr)100.0 (1,135) 90 (1020) Existing commercial buildings (2003 CBECS) 79.2 (900) Models of existing stock (Griffiths et al. 2007) 75.0 (852) 70.7 (803) New buildings base scenario (90.1‐2004) 50.0 (568) 40.3 (458) Max Tech energy efficient scenario 25.0 (284) 12.2 (139) Max Tech energy efficient scenario w/ PV 0.0 0 (0) Net Zero Energy Building
ASHRAE Std 169Climate Zones Includes Canada and many International locations
What’s Going On at ASHRAE?• In February of 2010 ASHRAE Technology Council appointed an Ad Hoc Committee to establish a plan for Energy Targets• Report submitted June 2010
What’s Going On at ASHRAE?• Recommendations:• Conduct a comprehensive education program to promote a common understanding of EUI• Develop EUI Targets for Commercial Buildings (with and without on-site renewables)• Fulfill the Vision 2020 goal with the AEDG• Revise the NREL study with new technologies
What’s Going On at ASHRAE?• Status:• Implementation of the recommendations is underway• ASHRAE will consider the Research Work Statement next month in Montreal to begin developing the Energy Targets• Education and Advocacy has begun • An amendment to the Energy Conservation and Production Act (42 U.S.C. 6833) has been submitted in the Senate (May 12th) to develop definitions of energy use intensity and building types for use in model codes or in evaluating the efficiency impacts of the codes
Std 189.1 and IGCC • International Code Council (ICC) main model code developer in USA • Reach 22,000 jurisdictions • developing model High Performance Bldg code • Still in development • ASHRAE has entered into an arrangement for Std 189.1 to be one of the compliance paths in IGCC • Std 189.1 will be packaged with IGCC when it comes out • Std 189.1 is available right now • www.ASHRAE.org
Army Adopts Std 189.1• On Oct. 27, 2010, Katherine Hammack, assistant secretary of the Army for installations, energy and the environment (IE&E), issued a policy memorandum that incorporates ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1- 2009, Standard for the Design of High- Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
Closing Remarks• Std 189.1 is an excellent tool to base line a high performance building• Std 189.1 energy performance is 30% higher than Std 90.1 • There are many products and services available today that will help you achieve 189.1 prescriptive requirements• The Future for energy conscious design is building energy use performance metrics