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Systematic reviewing may2012

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Systematic reviewing may2012

  1. 1. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYSystematic Literature Reviews: A How To GuideIsla KuhnReader Services LibrarianMedical Library
  2. 2. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• how to clarify the question (or perhaps questions) on which you need to find literature• selecting the databases and other resources you will need to search• devising the most comprehensive literature search strategy so you know you’ve not missed any relevant studies• keeping up to date with new information appearing between the initial search and write-up• issues around documentation of process and results• management of references (using software such as EndNote), and getting hold of the full text article
  3. 3. 1 clinical trial.pt. 24 or/13-23 46 exp Bed Rest/ CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY2 randomized.ab,ti. MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/3 placebo.ab,ti. 26 discitis.ab,ti. 48 or/39-474 dt.fs. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 49 24 or 385 randomly.ab,ti. 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 496 trial.ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 51 48 and 507 groups.ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti.8 or/1-7 31 spinal fusion.sh.9 Animals/ 32 spinal neoplasms.sh.10 Humans/ 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti.11 9 not (9 and 10) 34 intervertebral disk.sh.12 8 not 11 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti.13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti.14 exp Back Pain/ 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti.15 exp Low Back Pain/ 38 or/25-3716 backache.ab,ti. 39 exp activities of daily living/17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 40 activities of daily living.tw.18 coccyx.ab,ti. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab.19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab.20 exp Sciatica/ 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab.21 sciatica.ab,ti. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab.22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.23 lumbago.ab,ti.
  4. 4. What do you actually have to produce? CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• http://www.prisma-statement.org/2.1.2%20-%20PRISMA%202009%20Chec
  5. 5. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topic • clarifying the question • setting parameters (inclusion/exclusion criteria not built into search?)lose marks through sloppy references Question Keywords Synonyms MeSH / Subject Headings / sub headings Boolean Logic Truncation / wildcards Limits
  6. 6. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • Topic -> question -> keywords/synonymsDiabetes, especially the impact of patient education ….. ”Is patient education effective in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?”…………………keywords???.... synonyms???........................ Themes?
  7. 7. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?”1 – teenagers2 – patient education3 – blood sugar Synonyms?
  8. 8. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?”1 – teenagers teens adolescents2– patient education patient information3 – blood sugar blood glucose hypoglycaemia hyperglycaemia
  9. 9. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY AND – to narrow the search by combining different topics eg “physiotherapy” and “stroke” Both terms must be present in the results. Physiotherapy Stroke
  10. 10. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYOR – to broaden your search, by combining similar terms eg “exercise” or “physical activity”Either term can be present in the resulting set of articles. Cerebral-vascular Stroke Accident
  11. 11. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYNOT – to restrict your search so that it does not contain a particular term eg“physical therapy” not “manual therapy”The first, but not the second, term must be present. Physical Manual Therapy Therapy
  12. 12. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?”teenagers OR teens OR adolescentsANDpatient education OR patient informationANDblood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycaemia OR hyperglycaemia
  13. 13. Question: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY 1st theme OR OR OR AND 2nd theme OR OR OR AND 3rd theme OR OR OR AND4th theme? OR OR OR
  14. 14. Truncation CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYTreatment treat treats treating • Treat* treated • Treat? treater • Treat$ treatment treatments
  15. 15. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Truncation / wildcards?1 – teenagers OR teens OR adolescentsAND2 – patient education OR patient informationAND3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycaemia OR hyperglycaemia
  16. 16. Task CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Go to http://wok.mimas.ac.uk• Open Web of Science• Type a key word, and search by “topic” • How many hits?• Type the keyword with some truncation (use *) • How many hits?
  17. 17. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Where in the article record do you want the terms/keywords to appear? • Title? • Abstract? • All/any field?• Impact on sensitivity/specificity?
  18. 18. Task CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Go to http://wok.mimas.ac.uk• Open Web of Science• Type a key word, and search by “topic” • How many hits?• Type a keyword and search by “title” • How many hits?
  19. 19. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
  20. 20. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20
  21. 21. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY MeSH1 – teen* OR adolesce* OR "Adolescent"[Mesh]AND2 – patient education OR patient information OR "Patient Education as Topic"[Mesh]AND3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycae* OR hyperglyca* OR "Blood Glucose"[Mesh] OR "Hypoglycemia"[Mesh]
  22. 22. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Inclusion / exclusion criterion?teen* OR adolesce* OR "Adolescent"[Mesh]ANDpatient education OR patient information OR "Patient Education as Topic"[Mesh]ANDblood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycae* OR hyperglyca* OR "Blood Glucose"[Mesh] OR "Hypoglycemia"[Mesh] Year of publication? Humans vs Animals? Type of publication? Language of publication?
  23. 23. 1 clinical trial.pt. 24 or/13-23 46 exp Bed Rest/ CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY2 randomized.ab,ti. MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/3 placebo.ab,ti. 26 discitis.ab,ti. 48 or/39-474 dt.fs. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 49 24 or 385 randomly.ab,ti. 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 496 trial.ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 51 48 and 507 groups.ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti.8 or/1-7 31 spinal fusion.sh.9 Animals/ 32 spinal neoplasms.sh.10 Humans/ 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti.11 9 not (9 and 10) 34 intervertebral disk.sh.12 8 not 11 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti.13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti.14 exp Back Pain/ 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti.15 exp Low Back Pain/ 38 or/25-3716 backache.ab,ti. 39 exp activities of daily living/17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 40 activities of daily living.tw.18 coccyx.ab,ti. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab.19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab.20 exp Sciatica/ 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab.21 sciatica.ab,ti. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab.22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.23 lumbago.ab,ti.
  24. 24. 1 clinical trial.pt. 24 or/13-23 46 exp Bed Rest/ CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY2 randomized.ab,ti. MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/3 placebo.ab,ti. 26 discitis.ab,ti. 48 or/39-474 dt.fs. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 49 24 or 385 randomly.ab,ti. 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 496 trial.ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 51 48 and 507 groups.ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti.8 or/1-7 31 spinal fusion.sh.9 Animals/ 32 spinal neoplasms.sh.10 Humans/ 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti.11 9 not (9 and 10) 34 intervertebral disk.sh.12 8 not 11 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti.13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti.14 exp Back Pain/ 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti.15 exp Low Back Pain/ 38 or/25-3716 backache.ab,ti. 39 exp activities of daily living/17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 40 activities of daily living.tw.18 coccyx.ab,ti. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab.19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab.20 exp Sciatica/ 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab.21 sciatica.ab,ti. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab.22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.23 lumbago.ab,ti.
  25. 25. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYAdvice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acutelow-back pain and sciaticaThe objective of this review is to determine the effects of advice to rest in bed or stay active for patients with acute low-back pain or sciatica.The following comparisons will be made: • Bed rest versus staying active • Bed rest versus other treatments (besides staying active) • Shorter periods of bed rest versus longer periods of bed rest • Staying active versus other treatments (besides bed rest) • Comparison between different forms of advice to stay active (e.g. avoiding bedrest, staying active)http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007612/pdf_fs.html
  26. 26. From topic to search: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYsame strategy, different wordsMoving from one database to another…..
  27. 27. From topic to search: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY same strategy, different words MEDICAL LIBRARY Medline (via OVID) Embase (via OVID) 1 Epidemiologic studies/ 1 Clinical study/ 2 Exp case control studies/ 2 Case control study 3 Exp cohort studies/ 3 Family study/ 4 Case control.tw. 4 Longitudinal study/ 5 (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw. 5 Retrospective study/ 6 Cohort analy$.tw. 6 Prospective study/ 7 (Follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 7 Randomized controlled trials/ 8 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 8 6 not 7 9 Longitudinal.tw. 9 Cohort analysis/ 10 Retrospective.tw. 10 (Cohort adj (study or studies)).mp. 11 Cross sectional.tw. 11 (Case control adj (study or studies)).tw. 12 Cross-sectional studies/ 12 (follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 13 Or/1-12 13 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 14 (epidemiologic$ adj (study or studies)).tw. 15 (cross sectional adj (study or studies)).tw. 16 Or/1-5,8-15• http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Observational Study Filters
  28. 28. From topic to search: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARYsame strategy, different words MEDICAL LIBRARYMedline (via OVID) Medline (via Pubmed)1 Epidemiologic studies/ #1 “Epidemiologic studies”[Mesh]2 Exp case control studies/ #2 “case control studies”[Mesh]3 Exp cohort studies/ #3 “cohort studies”[Mesh]4 Case control.tw. #4 Case control[Text Word]5 (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw. #5 (cohort stud*))[Text Word]6 Cohort analy$.tw. #6 Cohort analy*[Text Word]7 (Follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. #7 (Follow up AND (study or studies))[Text8 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. Word]9 Longitudinal.tw. #8 (observational AND (study or studies))[Text10 Retrospective.tw. Word]11 Cross sectional.tw. #9 Longitudinal[Text Word]12 Cross-sectional studies/ #10 Retrospective[Text Word]13 Or/1-12 #11 Cross sectional[Text Word] #12 “Cross-sectional studies”[Mesh] #13 #1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11 OR #12• http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Observational Study Filters
  29. 29. Keywords CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literature • identifying keywords and synonyms and MeSH • structuring your search strategy with boolean logicReferences • DON’T plagiarise! • Don’t lose marks through sloppy references
  30. 30. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
  31. 31. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
  32. 32. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
  33. 33. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!) • http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/electronicresources/ databases? • Google? Search by Organisation websites? • Which journals are key to your work? hand searching? • WoK or Scopus snowballing? • LibrarySearch or COPAC or GoogleBooks books? • Google: blog search; SIGLE; grey literature? conference proceedings ongoing trials? • Trials registers
  34. 34. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topic CASP http://www.casp-uk.netreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!) “How to read a paper” Trish GreenhalghReferences & PDFs WB 18.343 – in the Medical Library or http://tinyurl.com/bmj-trish • Critically appraising Zotero Mendeley • managing EndnoteWeb Endnote • storing Reference Manager RefWorks • using them (cite while you write) Papers • Data extraction Pdf xchange Prisma
  35. 35. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!)ReferencesKeeping up to Date • alerts Email alerts • journal TOCs RSS fees • citation tracking
  36. 36. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!)ReferencesKeeping up to DateWriting Up • what did you actually do? • and where did you do it? (750 words?) • Search log/diary • Results matrix • Tidying up your strategy • What did you find, where? • Explicit criterion = reproducable methodology
  37. 37. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7446/991.full.pdfhttp://jech.bmj.com/content/61/12/1069.full.pdf
  38. 38. Books that might help CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|1258728 http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|317470http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|4750307 http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|4850812
  39. 39. Searching – Do’s & Don’ts CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Don’t try to do the whole search in one line• Don’t imagine that your first attempt will get all the articles you need• Don’t imagine it’s something that can be rattled off quickly• Don’t give up!
  40. 40. Searching – Do’s & Don’ts CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Do think of alternative ways of talking about your topic• Do consider the various types of information that might be relevant• Do learn from your hits and your misses• Do remember that you still have to critically appraise each article• Do ask for help
  41. 41. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
  42. 42. Help! CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYIsla Kuhn Reader Services Librarian Medical Library Box 111 Addenbrooke’s Hospital email: ilk21@cam.ac.uk phone: (01223) (3)36750 web: http://library.medschl.cam.ac.uk Thank you.

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