Smart course october 2011

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Smart course october 2011

  1. 1. Literature Reviews – the SMART way Isla Kuhn Reader Services Librarian Medical Library
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/ 2. exp Brain Edema/ 3. exp Glasgow Coma Scale/ 4. exp Glasgow Outcome Scale/ 5. exp Unconsciousness/ 6. exp Cerebrovascular Trauma/ 7. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or capitis or brain$ or forebrain$ or skull$ or hemispher$ or intra- cran$ or inter- cran$) adj3 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$ or contusion$)).ab,ti. 8. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or brain$ or intra-cran$ or inter-cran$) adj3 (haematoma$ or hematoma$ or haemorrhag$ or hemorrhag$ or bleed$ or pressure)).ti,ab. 9. (Glasgow adj3 (coma or outcome) adj3 (scale$ or score$)).ab,ti. 10. &quot;rancho los amigos scale&quot;.ti,ab. 11. (&quot;diffuse axonal injury&quot; or &quot;diffuse axonal injuries&quot;).ti,ab. 12. ((brain or cerebral or intracranial) adj3 (oedema or edema or swell$)).ab,ti. 13. ((unconscious$ or coma$ or concuss$ or 'persistent vegetative state') adj3 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$)).ti,ab. 14. or/1-13 </li></ul>15. (randomised or randomized or randomly or random order or random sequence or random allocation or randomly allocated or at random or controlled clinical trial$).tw,hw. 16. clinical trial.pt. 17. randomized controlled trial.pt. 18. 15 or 16 or 17 19. exp models, animal/ 20. exp Animals/ 21. exp Animal Experimentation/ 22. exp Disease Models, Animal/ 23. exp Animals, Laboratory/ 24. or/19-23 25. Humans/ 26. 24 not 25 27. 18 not 26 28. 14 and 27 29. exp Hypothermia, Induced/ 30. exp Cryotherapy/ 31. exp Body Temperature/ 32. (hypotherm* or normotherm* or cool* or cold* or temperature* or cryother* or cryogen* or cryotreat*).ab,ti. 33. or/29-32 34. neonat*.ab,ti. 35. 33 not 34 36. 28 and 35
  3. 3. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarifying the question </li></ul></ul>P I C O
  4. 4. <ul><li>What is the Glasgow Outcome Score of severe head injured patients with raised ICP (>25) despite protocol directed therapy who undergo therapeutic hyperthermia (32 – 34C) for ICP control compared within standard care? </li></ul><ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is the Glasgow Outcome Score of severe head injured patients with raised ICP (>25) despite protocol directed therapy who undergo therapeutic hypothermia (32 – 34C) for ICP control compared within standard care? <ul><li>P: severe head injury </li></ul><ul><li>I: hypothermia </li></ul><ul><li>C: / </li></ul><ul><li>O: Glasgow Coma Score </li></ul>Eligibility criterion Exclusion criterion Synonyms
  6. 6. <ul><li>P: severe head injury severe brain injury coma brain trauma TBI craniocerebral trauma </li></ul><ul><li>I: therapeutic hypothermia induced hypothermia cryotherapy cold therapy </li></ul><ul><li>C: / </li></ul><ul><li>O: Glasgow Coma Score Glasgow Coma Scale Functional Outcome Assessment trauma severity indices treatment outcome outcome assessment </li></ul>Eligibility / Exclusion: ICP age of patient? Type of publication? >25 adult yes rct yes child no letters no
  7. 7. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying keywords and synonyms and MeSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>setting parameters (inclusion/exclusion criteria not built into search?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structuring your search strategy with boolean logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T plagiarise! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t lose marks through sloppy references </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Boolean Logic <ul><li>AND – to narrow the search by combining different topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ physiotherapy” and “stroke” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Both terms must be present in the results. </li></ul>Stroke Physiotherapy
  9. 9. Boolean Logic <ul><li>OR – to broaden your search, by combining similar terms </li></ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul><ul><li>“ exercise” or “physical activity” </li></ul><ul><li>Either term can be present in the resulting set of articles. </li></ul>Cerebral-vascular Accident Stroke
  10. 10. Boolean Logic <ul><li>NOT – to restrict your search so that it does not contain a particular term </li></ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul><ul><li>“ physical therapy” not “manual therapy” </li></ul><ul><li>The first, but not the second, term must be present. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Manual Therapy Physical Therapy
  11. 11. <ul><li>P: severe head injury severe brain injury coma brain trauma TBI craniocerebral trauma </li></ul><ul><li>I: therapeutic hypothermia induced hypothermia cryotherapy cold therapy </li></ul><ul><li>C: / </li></ul><ul><li>O: Glasgow Coma Score Glasgow Coma Scale Functional Outcome Assessment trauma severity indices treatment outcome outcome assessment </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>severe head injury OR severe brain injury OR coma OR brain trauma OR TBI OR craniocerebral trauma </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>therapeutic hypothermia OR induced hypothermia OR cryotherapy OR cold therapy </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Glasgow Coma Score OR Glasgow Coma Scale OR Functional Outcome Assessment OR trauma severity indices OR treatment outcome OR outcome assessment </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Truncation </li></ul>treat treats treating treated treater treatment treatments <ul><li>Treat* </li></ul><ul><li>Treat? </li></ul><ul><li>Treat$ </li></ul>MeSH
  14. 14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12117354
  15. 16. <ul><li>severe head injur * OR severe brain injur * OR coma OR brain trauma OR TBI OR craniocerebral trauma OR exp CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA/ </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>therapeutic hypothermia OR induced hypothermia OR cryotherapy OR cold therap * OR exp HYPOTHERMIA/ </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>exp GLASGOW COMA SCALE/ OR Glasgow Coma Score * OR Glasgow Coma Scale * OR Functional Outcome Assessment OR trauma severity indices OR treatment outcome * OR outcome assessment </li></ul>
  16. 17. Sensitivity vs Specificity
  17. 18. Sensitivity vs Specificity
  18. 19. Sensitivity vs Specificity
  19. 20. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying keywords and synonyms and MeSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structuring your search strategy with boolean logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>setting parameters (inclusion/exclusion criteria not built into search?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T plagiarise! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t lose marks through sloppy references </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/ 2. exp Brain Edema/ 3. exp Glasgow Coma Scale/ 4. exp Glasgow Outcome Scale/ 5. exp Unconsciousness/ 6. exp Cerebrovascular Trauma/ 7. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or capitis or brain$ or forebrain$ or skull$ or hemispher$ or intra- cran$ or inter- cran$) adj3 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$ or contusion$)).ab,ti. 8. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or brain$ or intra-cran$ or inter-cran$) adj3 (haematoma$ or hematoma$ or haemorrhag$ or hemorrhag$ or bleed$ or pressure)).ti,ab. 9. (Glasgow adj3 (coma or outcome) adj3 (scale$ or score$)).ab,ti. 10. &quot;rancho los amigos scale&quot;.ti,ab. 11. (&quot;diffuse axonal injury&quot; or &quot;diffuse axonal injuries&quot;).ti,ab. 12. ((brain or cerebral or intracranial) adj3 (oedema or edema or swell$)).ab,ti. 13. ((unconscious$ or coma$ or concuss$ or 'persistent vegetative state') adj3 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$)).ti,ab. 14. or/1-13 </li></ul>15. (randomised or randomized or randomly or random order or random sequence or random allocation or randomly allocated or at random or controlled clinical trial$).tw,hw. 16. clinical trial.pt. 17. randomized controlled trial.pt. 18. 15 or 16 or 17 19. exp models, animal/ 20. exp Animals/ 21. exp Animal Experimentation/ 22. exp Disease Models, Animal/ 23. exp Animals, Laboratory/ 24. or/19-23 25. Humans/ 26. 24 not 25 27. 18 not 26 28. 14 and 27 29. exp Hypothermia, Induced/ 30. exp Cryotherapy/ 31. exp Body Temperature/ 32. (hypotherm* or normotherm* or cool* or cold* or temperature* or cryother* or cryogen* or cryotreat*).ab,ti. 33. or/29-32 34. neonat*.ab,ti. 35. 33 not 34 36. 28 and 35
  21. 22. <ul><li>1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/ 2. exp Brain Edema/ 3. exp Glasgow Coma Scale/ 4. exp Glasgow Outcome Scale/ 5. exp Unconsciousness/ 6. exp Cerebrovascular Trauma/ 7. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or capitis or brain$ or forebrain$ or skull$ or hemispher$ or intra- cran$ or inter- cran$) adj3 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$ or contusion$)).ab,ti. 8. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or brain$ or intra-cran$ or inter-cran$) adj3 (haematoma$ or hematoma$ or haemorrhag$ or hemorrhag$ or bleed$ or pressure)).ti,ab. 9. (Glasgow adj3 (coma or outcome) adj3 (scale$ or score$)).ab,ti. 10. &quot;rancho los amigos scale&quot;.ti,ab. 11. (&quot;diffuse axonal injury&quot; or &quot;diffuse axonal injuries&quot;).ti,ab. 12. ((brain or cerebral or intracranial) adj3 (oedema or edema or swell$)).ab,ti. 13. ((unconscious$ or coma$ or concuss$ or 'persistent vegetative state') adj3 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$)).ti,ab. 14. or/1-13 </li></ul>15. (randomised or randomized or randomly or random order or random sequence or random allocation or randomly allocated or at random or controlled clinical trial$).tw,hw. 16. clinical trial.pt. 17. randomized controlled trial.pt. 18. 15 or 16 or 17 19. exp models, animal/ 20. exp Animals/ 21. exp Animal Experimentation/ 22. exp Disease Models, Animal/ 23. exp Animals, Laboratory/ 24. or/19-23 25. Humans/ 26. 24 not 25 27. 18 not 26 28. 14 and 27 29. exp Hypothermia, Induced/ 30. exp Cryotherapy/ 31. exp Body Temperature/ 32. (hypotherm* or normotherm* or cool* or cold* or temperature* or cryother* or cryogen* or cryotreat*).ab,ti. 33. or/29-32 34. neonat*.ab,ti. 35. 33 not 34 36. 28 and 35
  22. 23. <ul><li>[Intervention Review] Hypothermia for traumatic head injury Emma Sydenham, Ian Roberts, Phil Alderson Citation: Sydenham E, Roberts I, Alderson P. Hypothermia for traumatic head injury. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001048. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001048.pub4. </li></ul><ul><li>http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD001048/frame.html </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>databases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>websites? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hand searching? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>books? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>snowballing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grey literature? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing trials? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.lib.cam.ac.uk/electronicresources/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRIP NHS Evidence RCoA Google? Search by Organisation/Filetype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which journals are key to your work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LibrarySearch or GoogleBooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WoK or Scopus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google: blog search ; SIGLE ; conference proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trials registers </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>www.tripdatabase.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.evidence.nhs.uk </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>managing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using them (cite while you write) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. What you do with your references <ul><ul><li>Reference Manager or endnoteweb or zotero or mendeley …etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CASP Critical Appraisal Checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF X-change </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping up to Date </li></ul>
  29. 30. Keeping up to date <ul><li>Citation Tracking (WOK or Scopus) </li></ul><ul><li>Alerts (Pubmed & every other database, Google?) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RSS? or Email? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Journal ToCs ( zetoc or via journal webpages) </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping up to Date </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Up (methodology) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what did you actually do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and where did you do it? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Writing up <ul><li>Search log/diary </li></ul><ul><li>Tidying up your strategy </li></ul><ul><li>What did you find (how many)? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did you find them? </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit criterion = reproducable methodology </li></ul>
  32. 33. therapeutic hypothermia
  33. 34. therapeutic hypothermia and (brain injury or head injury or coma)
  34. 35. therapeutic hypothermia and (brain injury or head injury or coma) and glasgow
  35. 36. Searching – Do’s & Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t try to do the whole search in one line </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t imagine that your first attempt will get all the articles you need </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t imagine it’s something that can be rattled off quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t give up! </li></ul>
  36. 37. Searching – Do’s & Don’ts <ul><li>Do think of alternative ways of talking about your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Do learn from your hits and your misses </li></ul><ul><li>Do remember that you still have to critically appraise each article </li></ul><ul><li>Do ask for help </li></ul>
  37. 39. Help! <ul><li>Isla Kuhn </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Services Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Library </li></ul><ul><li>Box 111 </li></ul><ul><li>Addenbrooke’s Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>phone: (01223) (3)36750 </li></ul><ul><li>web: http://library.medschl.cam.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you. </li></ul>

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