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Ap h presentation


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Ap h presentation

  1. 1. By: Jack Benninghoff<br />Cody S.<br />Joseph Lester<br />Michael Smith<br />Chapter 4, Greece and Iran<br />
  2. 2. I. Ancient Iran<br />
  3. 3. Geography and Resources<br />Surrounded by Deserts, Mountains, and Persian Gulf<br />Open to attacts by Central Asian Nomads<br />Hot, Dry Climate<br />Limited Water Reserves<br />Few Natural Resources<br />
  4. 4. Effects<br />Sparse Population<br />Mostly in the North and West areas<br />Underground Irrigation<br />Some Dependence on Trade of Minerals and Timber<br />
  5. 5. Rise of the Persian Empire<br />First Civilization-Medes<br />Helped overthrow Assyrian Empire<br />Achaemenids-Persian Rulers-Joined Median Court through Marriage<br />Cyrus-United Persians + Overthrew Medes<br />First Persian Emperor<br />Cyrus expanded empire across Anatolia and Mesopotamia<br />Respected religions and customs<br />Cambyses, Cyrus’ Son, Conquered Egypt and Nubia<br />Darius I took throne and expanded empire into Indus Valley and Europe<br />
  6. 6. Map of Persian Expeditions<br />
  7. 7. Imperial Organization<br />Empire divided into 20 provinces, each ruled by a satrap<br />Position of satrap was hereditary<br />Some had much autonomy<br />Provinces paid tribute<br />Paid for roads that all converged at the capital, Susa<br />And garrisons at key locations<br />Kings<br />Masters of all subjects and nobles<br />Controlled “Kings Land”<br />
  8. 8. Kings were also lawgivers, but allowed other customs<br />Managed central administration<br />Performed ceremonies at Persopolis, in the Persian homeland<br />Women could own land, travel, and be politically influential.<br />
  9. 9. Religion<br />Main Religion-Zoroastrianism<br />Zoroastriansim<br />Founder- Unclear, but hymns are ascribed to Zoroaster<br />Gathas-hymns of Zoroastrianism<br />Believed in the existence of a dualistic universe <br />God of good, Ahuramazda, fights god of evil, Angra<br />
  10. 10. Ancient Greece<br /><br />
  11. 11. Geography <br /><ul><li>Located in parts of the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia.
  12. 12. Mostly full of mountains, low amount of farmland.
  13. 13. Most of Greece is made up of islands.
  14. 14. The climate is a roughly uniform one. The summer is filled with hot and dry air where as the winter is filled with cool air brought in from the ocean.</li></li></ul><li>Resources<br /><ul><li>Greece had little access to rivers so they depended heavily on rainfall to water their crops.
  15. 15. Cattle and horses were abundant in the northern part of Greece. Where sheep and goats were more common in the southern part.
  16. 16. Fine marble and clay were abundant.
  17. 17. Few metal deposits and little timber available.</li></li></ul><li>Trade<br /><ul><li>Because of the few resources available to the Greeks, they relied heavily on trade.
  18. 18. Their main transportation for trade was the sea and the ocean.
  19. 19. They acquired metals and other raw materials from regions around them.
  20. 20. Sea transport was much cheaper and faster than ones on land.
  21. 21. Imports:
  22. 22. Anatolia- gold and iron
  23. 23. Northern Aegean- timber
  24. 24. Cyprus- Copper
  25. 25. Western Med.- Tin
  26. 26. Hack Sea, Egypt, and Sicily- Grain</li></li></ul><li>Periods<br /><ul><li>Dark Age- period of isolation from everyone else around the region.
  27. 27. Archaic Period- Phoenician ships began to visit area and soon after, Greek ships set sail for trade opportunities, raw materials, and fertile farmland.
  28. 28. Population Boom- Began to have enough food for everyone and cities started to turn into trading centers.
  29. 29. Expansion- colonies built in foreign lands so Greece expanded farther than its origins.
  30. 30. Was a challenge for Greece but military aspects helped success. </li></li></ul><li>Technology<br /><ul><li>Polis “City-State”- result of population boom, was a city state that had an urban center usually located on a hilltop.
  31. 31. Each one was jealous of neighbor so
  32. 32. Hoplites- infantry men fought in close formation. Was used as a military strategy.
  33. 33. Alphabet- Phoenician writing system
  34. 34. Learned in a short period of time.
  35. 35. Used to form literature, trade, laws, and religious dedication
  36. 36. Coins- allowed for more rapid exchanges</li></li></ul><li>Government<br />Democracy- government ruled by the people<br />Military was huge.<br />More detaile<br />Tyrant- a person who seizes power in violation of political institutions and traditions of the community. <br />
  37. 37. Religion/ gods<br /><ul><li>Worshipped sky gods portrayed in The Iliad and the Odyssey.
  38. 38. Sacrifices
  39. 39. Rituals performed at front of temples where it was believed to be the residency place of the Gods. </li></li></ul><li>Athens and Sparta<br /><ul><li>Athens
  40. 40. Known for intellectual knowledge and philosophies.
  41. 41. Had a strong democracy and government.
  42. 42. Education was very important to the city.
  43. 43. Children were born to get educated and receive an educational background in life.
  44. 44. Sparta
  45. 45. Known for a strong military.
  46. 46. Citizens thought of as being born tough.
  47. 47. Won many conquests and battles because of brilliant military strategies and warriors.
  48. 48. Children were born into military training.</li></li></ul><li>Persian Wars<br /><ul><li>Greece vs. Persia
  49. 49. Started by Persia punishing Greek city states that helped rebels
  50. 50. Xerxes- Persian Ruler
  51. 51. 300 Spartans at Thermopylae defended off army of Persians and bought allies time.
  52. 52. Delian League was formed in order to unite Greek city states and drive the Persians out of Greece for good. </li>