Strategy entrepreneurship & innovation


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Strategy entrepreneurship & innovation

  1. 1. Strategy Entrepreneurship & Innovation Ilhamsyah Ramadhan Faculty of administrative science Brawijaya University
  2. 2. IMPORTANT DEFINITION Entrepreneurs   Individuals, acting independently or as part of an organization, who see an entrepreneurial opportunity and then take risks to develop an innovation to exploit it Strategic entrepreneurship entrepreneurial actions (exploiting found opportunities in the external environment) through a strategic perspective (innovation efforts)
  3. 3. IMPORTANT DEFINITION • • Entrepreneurship dimension: identifying opportunities to exploit through innovations Strategic dimension: determining the best way to manage the firm’s innovation efforts Strategic entrepreneurship actions can be taken by: • Individuals • Corporations Corporate entrepreneurship: the use or application of entrepreneurship within an established firm Strategic dimension: determining the best way to manage the firm’s innovation efforts
  4. 4. ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Entrepreneurship is concerned with: • • The discovery of profitable opportunities The exploitation of profitable opportunities Entrepreneurship: the process by which individuals or groups identify and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities without the immediate constraint of the resources they currently control
  5. 5. ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Purpose of entrepreneurship: • To create wealth Firms that foster entrepreneurship are: • Risk takers • Committed to innovation • Proactive in creating opportunities rather than waiting to respond to opportunities created by others
  6. 6. CREATING VALUE THROUGH STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP Objective is to help firms develop successful incremental and radical innovations • Be flexible and willing to take risks. • Identify and exploit opportunities with sufficient resources and capabilities to launch strategic actions. • Sustain a competitive advantage while identifying and exploiting opportunities. • Foster an entrepreneurial mind-set among managers and employees. • Emphasize resource management, particularly human capital and social capital. Seek to enter and compete in international markets.
  7. 7. Innovation There is no one fixed strategy that can be applied in any real-life situations No matter how firms use variety of different combinations of resources, scientific and technical skills; success of the innovation efforts is not certain (thus very high risk) However firms should still continue to innovate in terms of products and processes to prevent competitors from superseding them.
  8. 8. Types of inovation strategies Offensive Defensive Imitative Dependent Traditional
  9. 9. Offensive Strategy  This strategy is designed to achieve technical and market leadership by being ahead of competitors in the introduction of new product/process. This strategy requires – Strong R&D department – Special relationship with the world science & technology system
  10. 10. Cont’d Firm not only need to be good in R&D, it will also need to be able to educate both it’s customers and its own personnel (additional cost to the company)
  11. 11. Defensive Strategy Its does not mean there’s no R&D. may be just as research intensive as an “offensive policy” but the defensive innovators just do not wish to be 1st in the world or left behind This strategy requires : – Capability of moving rapidly once they decide that the time is ripe – Models at least as good as the early innovators – Technical advances to differentiate their products, but at a lower cost
  12. 12. Cont’d At Oligopoly Markets – Defensive R & D is typical – A form allowing the firm to react and adapt to the technical changes introduced to competitors
  13. 13. Imitative Strategy Imitative firm content to follow leaders in established technologies & generally rely on pioneering works of others It is contented to follow some way behind the leaders Characteristic: • Save money from buying license unless the lag is short • Save money from R&D and most probably training costs
  14. 14. Cont’d Why imitating? • Geographical area where the firm enjoys special advantages (varying from politically privileged position to tariff protection) • Advantages in lower labor costs, plant investment cost, energy supplies or material costs • Advantages in managerial efficiency and in much lower overhead costs (fact that they do not need to spend heavily on R&D, patents, training and technical services ect)
  15. 15. Dependent Strategy Dependent strategy involves acceptance of a satellite or subordinate role in relation to other stronger firms The firm does not attempt to initiator even imitate technical changes in it product
  16. 16. Cont’d Characteristic • Usually rely on its customers to supply technical specification for new product, and technical advice in introducing it • Supplying components or doing subcontract works • Typically, lost all initiative in product design and has no R&D facilities
  17. 17. Traditional Strategy • Lack of technical capacity to initiate product changes of a far reaching character • Ability to cope with design changes (Aesthetic design fine tuning) Characteristics • Firms see no reason to change its product because; – Market does not demand a change – Competition does not compel it to do so • Technology often based on craft skills  • Scientific inputs are minimal or nonexistent
  18. 18. Cont’d Traditional firms • Demand for products may be strong because of their traditional craft skills • May have good survival power even in highly industrialized economies • Vulnerable to technical changes • Incapable of initiating technical innovation