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Freedom of expression and
public interest in media
Irena Lovrenčič Držanič
Freedom of expression
Freedom of religion
Political correctnessCensorship
Whistleblowing
Artistic freedom
Intellectual fre...
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 19:
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this ri...
Categories of Expression
• political expression: legitimate, robust
comment on public figures
• artistic expression: creat...
Relation to other rights
• Harm principle or offense principle  hate
speech
• Legal sanction, social disapproving or both...
Quote
“Anything that can hurt the convictions of someone
else, in particular religious convictions, should be
avoided.”
– ...
Hate speech
• any speech, gesture or display which is forbidden because it may incite violence
or prejudicial action again...
Examples: Charlie Hebdo
''Intouchables 2''
"It's hard to be
loved by idiots"
"The Father, The
Son, and The Holy
Ghost"
"Michael Jackson,
white at last."
Hate speech?
Virgin Mary‘s pregnancy test
Public Interest
• main function of media
• interest about topics that are relevant for a majority of
people
• not a synony...
The Fourth Estate
• fourth branch of government  monitor the political process
• guardians of democracy, defenders of the...
How Media Construct Public Opinion -
Media Coverage
• Watchdogs: reveal abuses of state authorities and defend the democratic rights
of citizens
 Task: What happens when med...
Edward Snowder-Citizenfour 2014
The Fifth Estate
• media genres outside the mainstream media (bloggers,
independent journalists, social media users and ha...
Julian Assange-The Fifth Estate 2013
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A presentation on Freedom of Expression and Public Interest in Media. Also about Media as Fourth and Fifth Estate.

Freedom of expression and public interest in media

  1. 1. Freedom of expression and public interest in media Irena Lovrenčič Držanič
  2. 2. Freedom of expression Freedom of religion Political correctnessCensorship Whistleblowing Artistic freedom Intellectual freedom Marketplace of ideas Free speech
  3. 3. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 19: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.  Task: What does it mean to have the right to your own opinion and the right to express it? What is the difference between these rights?
  4. 4. Categories of Expression • political expression: legitimate, robust comment on public figures • artistic expression: creative writing, visual art, music, theatre and dance, contribute ‘to the exchange of ideas and opinions which is essential for a democratic society’.
  5. 5. Relation to other rights • Harm principle or offense principle  hate speech • Legal sanction, social disapproving or both • Closely related to other rights and may be limited when conflicting with other rights. • Media: freedom of expression for everyone. • Freedom of the press ≠ freedom of speech  freedom of the press may constrain freedom of speech (media suppresses information or diversity of voices presented) • Principle "no money, no voice"
  6. 6. Quote “Anything that can hurt the convictions of someone else, in particular religious convictions, should be avoided.” – Jacques Chirac, French president in 2006  Task: Do you agree? What do you think, where are the limits of free speech?
  7. 7. Hate speech • any speech, gesture or display which is forbidden because it may incite violence or prejudicial action against or by a protected individual or group, or because it intimidates a protected individual or group  Task: When does freedom of expression become hate speech?
  8. 8. Examples: Charlie Hebdo ''Intouchables 2'' "It's hard to be loved by idiots"
  9. 9. "The Father, The Son, and The Holy Ghost" "Michael Jackson, white at last."
  10. 10. Hate speech? Virgin Mary‘s pregnancy test
  11. 11. Public Interest • main function of media • interest about topics that are relevant for a majority of people • not a synonym for the interest of public, because the last is driven by profit and audience maximization • When media follow public interest, they work as the fourth estate.
  12. 12. The Fourth Estate • fourth branch of government  monitor the political process • guardians of democracy, defenders of the public interest • media merely entertain and turn the potential participants in the public sphere into passive consumers • the power to set a media agenda, to focus public attention on a few key public issues
  13. 13. How Media Construct Public Opinion - Media Coverage
  14. 14. • Watchdogs: reveal abuses of state authorities and defend the democratic rights of citizens  Task: What happens when media work as the fourth estate and publish information about government’s wrongdoing?
  15. 15. Edward Snowder-Citizenfour 2014
  16. 16. The Fifth Estate • media genres outside the mainstream media (bloggers, independent journalists, social media users and hacktivists) • only a few blogs have a real power to influence the policy- making process
  17. 17. Julian Assange-The Fifth Estate 2013
  • ComfortKganyago

    Apr. 10, 2021

A presentation on Freedom of Expression and Public Interest in Media. Also about Media as Fourth and Fifth Estate.

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