Phylogeny & classification


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This is a PowerPoint to supplement chapter 18 in Miller and Levine's Dragonfly book.

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Phylogeny & classification

  1. 1. Phylogeny & Classification All of chapter 18. Yup, the whole thing in one class.
  2. 2. Linnaean Classification This system was created long before scientists understood that organisms evolved. Because the Linnaean system is not based on evolution, most biologists are switching to a classification system that reflects the organisms' evolutionary history. K ing P hilip C ame O ver F or G ood S oup.
  3. 3. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Each species is assigned a two part scientific name. </li></ul><ul><li>Written in italics </li></ul><ul><li>First word is capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Second word is lowercase </li></ul>
  4. 4. Binomial Nomenclature Homo sapien Oncorhynchus keta human chum salmon Genus species
  5. 5. What is a Phylogeny? <ul><li>The context of evolutionary biology is phylogeny </li></ul><ul><li>The connections between all groups of organisms as understood by ancestor/descendant relationships. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Different ways of drawing trees All of these state the same relationships!
  7. 7. When a lineage splits (speciation), it is represented as branching on a phylogeny.
  8. 8. Clades A clade is a grouping that includes a common ancestor and all the descendents (living and extinct) of that ancestor. Using a phylogeny, it is easy to tell if a group of lineages forms a clade. Imagine clipping a single branch off the phylogeny—all of the organisms on that pruned branch make up a clade.                                                            
  9. 9. Identifying Clades Are reptiles a clade? No! That means that either &quot;reptile&quot; is not a valid phylogenetic grouping or we have to start thinking of birds as reptiles.
  10. 10. Sample Practice Question* <ul><li>For the tree above, you would need to say: </li></ul><ul><li>the frog and salamander are more closely related to each other than to the lizard, snake, bird, and mouse </li></ul><ul><li>the lizard and snake are more closely related to each other than to the bird, mouse, frog, or salamander </li></ul><ul><li>the bird is more closely related to the lizard and the snake than it is to the mouse, frog, or slamander </li></ul><ul><li>the mouse is more closely related to the lizard, snake, and bird than it is to the frog or salamander </li></ul>* Information for this practice question comes from:
  11. 11. Practice Question* Note that the previous example gives four statements about the relationships: one for each ancestral species on the tree.  See if you can give the same kind of description of relationships for each of the phylogenies pictured above. * Information for this practice question comes from:
  12. 12. Homologies help determine how species are related.
  13. 13. Homology vs. Analogy <ul><li>Homologies are similar characteristics shared by two different organisms because they were inherited from a common ancestor. </li></ul><ul><li>Analogis are similar characteristics shared by two different organisms because of convergent evolution. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Molecular Biology is a powerful tool in classification <ul><li>DNA & RNA comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A molecular clock can be calibrated in actual time. Possible to graph base substitutions against known evolutionary landmarks. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Molecular Clocks
  16. 16. Kingdoms & Domains <ul><li>Linnaeus’s two kingdoms, Animalia and Plantae don’t adequately represent the full diversity of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, scientists made five kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then they split Monera into Eu bacteria and Archae bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Leading to the three kingdom system </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Prokaryote Prokaryote Eukaryote E.coli halophiles Amoeba Mushroom, yeast Moss, ferns, flowering plants Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals