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EU Common Security and Defense Policy in 2000s


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History and present of Common Security and Defense Policy of the European Union for a class on EU Transformation Political and Institutional Aspects at Belarusian State University within MA in Human Rights and Democratization for Eastern Partnership countries academic mobility semester

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EU Common Security and Defense Policy in 2000s

  1. 1. • History of Common European Defense after World War II – – – – • • • • Western European Union & Amsterdam Treaty Petersberg tasks Helsinki Headline Goals Berlin Plus Agreement European Security Strategy (2003) European Defense Agency (2004) Other notable institutions Treaty of Lisbon changes – Mutual Defense Clause – Euroforces – Outside missions • Further developments • Sources & Credits
  2. 2. • 1947 - Treaty of Dunkirk between UK and France after WWII • 1948 - military Article 4 of the Treaty of Brussels which included the BeNeLux countries • 1948 - Western Union Defense Organization under British Field Marshal Montgomery (US and Canada joined in 1949 through North Atlantic Treaty) • 1954 - amendment of the Treaty of Brussels at the London and Paris Conferences - Western European Union • 1992 - Petersberg tasks (incorporated in Amsterdam Treaty): – Humanitarian and rescue tasks – Peacekeeping tasks – Tasks for combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking • 1999 Cologne European Council – WEU Incorporated into EU with a position of High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy introduced
  3. 3. "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises” French President Jacques Chirac and British Prime Minister Tony Blair in St. Malo, 1998
  4. 4. • 1999 - Helsinki Headline Goal – Helsinki Force Catalogue • 2003 - Berlin plus agreement – EU can use NATO structures, mechanisms and assets to carry out military operations if NATO declines to act.
  5. 5. “A secure Europe in a better world” • Key threats facing Europe: – Terrorism – Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) – Regional conflicts. – State failure – Organized crime "The world is full of new dangers and opportunities"
  6. 6. • Strategic objectives: – Addressing the threats – Building security in its neighborhood – Developing an international order based on effective multilateralism • Policy implications for Europe – be more active in pursuing its strategic objectives – increase its capabilities – pursue coherent policies – work with its partners
  7. 7. • Est. 2004 • main objective - to improve Member States’ military capacities. • set common objectives for Member States in terms of military capacity; • introduce and manage programmes in order to achieve the set objectives; • harmonize Member States’ operational needs and improve the methods for procuring military equipment; • manage defense technology research activities; • contribute to strengthening the industrial and technological base of the defense sector and improving the effectiveness of military expenditure.
  8. 8. • 2002 - European Union Institute for Security Studies • 1992 (incorporated into EU in 2002) European Union Satellite Centre • Civilian Headline Goals: – Identify civilian crisis management priority areas for the EU – greater emphasis on civil-military cooperation in addition to a continued focus on improving readiness and deployability (2010) • Military Headline Goals: – …the EU should possess an autonomous military capacity to respond to crises; – Include the ability of Member States to deploy forces up to corps level, capable of the full range of Petersberg tasks; – Ensure that the EU possesses the military capabilities required to conduct the full range of missions encompassed by the Petersberg tasks.
  9. 9. • European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) Element of EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). • Establishing Common European defense Position of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy expanded
  10. 10. • If a Member State is the victim of an armed attack on its territory, it can rely on the aid and assistance of the other Member States, which are obliged to help. • Two restrictions: – does not affect the security and defense policy of certain Member States, specifically those which are traditionally neutral; – does not affect the commitments made under the framework of NATO
  11. 11. • Eurofor (land forces of Spain, France, Italy and Portugal) • Eurocorps (land forces of Germany, Belgium, Spain, France and Luxembourg) • Euromarfor (maritime forces of Spain, France, Italy and Portugal) • the European Air Group (air forces of Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom)
  12. 12. (Protocol to the Treaty of Lisbon). • Member States commit to developing their defense capacities more intensively and to supplying combat units for planned missions. • The European Defense Agency regularly assesses participating Member States’ contributions. • Permanent structured cooperation must be authorized by the Council, which acts by a qualified majority at the request of participating States. • There is no Member States threshold for establishing permanent structured cooperation. • Member States are free to withdraw or participate in the permanent structured cooperation as long as they meet the commitment criteria
  13. 13. Main aims: • peace-keeping and strengthening international security relying on civil and military assets provided by Member States. • Tasks before the Treaty of Lisbon: – humanitarian and rescue tasks; – conflict prevention and peace-keeping tasks; – tasks of combat forces in crisis management. • Tasks after the Treaty of Lisbon: – joint disarmament operations; – military advice and assistance tasks; – tasks in post-conflict stabilization ~ implementation may be delegated to a group of Member States to act in association with the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
  14. 14. • European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM), 1 Dec 2005 – : A border assistance mission to prevent smuggling, trafficking, and customs fraud on the Transnistria-section of the border. • European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM Georgia), 1 Oct 2008 – : Ceasefire monitoring mission after 2008 South Ossetia war.
  15. 15. • December 2013 - European Council meeting with heads of states to discuss how to enhance defense capabilities, strengthen the defense industry and improve the effectiveness, visibility and impact of the CSDP.
  16. 16. • • _security_policy/cfsp_and_esdp_implementation/r0 0004_en.htm • _affairs/treaties/lisbon_treaty/ai0026_en.htm
  17. 17. • MA in Human Rights and Democratization, Yerevan State University – • Belarusian State University, 2013 • 0/+KostiantynIakovliev/ • n/iakovliev