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Unit 2.1 Part 4

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Unit 2.1 Part 4

  1. 1. Unit 1 – Internet Basics Presentation 4 Web Programming
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>At the end of this presentation, you will be able to </li></ul><ul><li>Use the browser </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss about Web server </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss about data transfer from client to server. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify parts of IP address and URL. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Browser <ul><li>Software that acts as an interface between the user and the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Resides in the client machine . </li></ul><ul><li>Reads the instructions given in a language such as HTML and displays the document in the browser window. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Browser <ul><li>Eg. Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Hot Java, Mozilla, Mosaic and Opera. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Internet Explorer <ul><li>To open the Internet Explorer select Start  Programs  Internet Explorer . </li></ul><ul><li>Title bar is displayed at the top </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Internet Explorer <ul><li>Menu bar is displayed below the title bar. </li></ul><ul><li>Below the Menu bar is the Standard Buttons toolbar. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Internet Explorer <ul><li>Next to the Standard Buttons toolbar is the Address bar. The URL of a Web page is typed here. </li></ul><ul><li>Below the address bar is the area where the document will be displayed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Internet Explorer <ul><li>Below the address bar is the area where the document will be displayed. </li></ul><ul><li>The status bar is displayed at the bottom of the Internet Explorer window . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Opening a Web page <ul><li>Type the URL of the Web page in the Address bar. </li></ul><ul><li>Press the Enter key. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Open yahoo.com by typing www.yahoo.com in the Address bar and press the Enter key. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Buttons in the Standard buttons toolbar - To open the previous page that had been visited. - T o open the next page to the current page that had been visited. - T o stop the search in the middle. - To restart the search from the beginning.
  11. 11. Buttons in the Standard buttons toolbar - Web pages that you often visit can be stored in Favorites. - Clicked to get back to the home page set in the browser.
  12. 12. Web Server <ul><li>Client computer makes request. </li></ul><ul><li>Server Computer responds to client’s request. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the servers are Web server, FTP server and mail server. </li></ul><ul><li>Web server follows a set of rules while communicating with the client known as HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Steps that occur while opening a Web page <ul><li>Browser breaks the URL into different parts namely, the protocol (HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol), the server name and the file name. </li></ul>Protocol Server Name http://www.geographia.com/indx04.htm File Name
  14. 14. Steps that occur while opening a Web page <ul><li>Sends the server name to a name server . </li></ul><ul><li>Name server translates Server name into IP address. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Steps that occur while opening a Web page <ul><li>Sends the server name to a name server. </li></ul><ul><li>Browser uses Server name and sends a GET request to the server asking for the Web page. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Steps that occur while opening a Web page <ul><li>Server finds the requested page and sends HTML code of the page to the browser. </li></ul><ul><li>Browser reads the HTML code and displays the page in the browser window. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Data Transmission in the Internet
  18. 18. IP Address <ul><li>Computer in the network is identified by a unique address known as IP address . </li></ul><ul><li>It contains four parts each called octet. </li></ul><ul><li>Each octet made up of 8 bits (8 binary digits) and makes a total of 4 X 8 = 32 bits. </li></ul>103.38.123.214 Represents a network Represents a specific computer in the network
  19. 19. IP Address <ul><li>Each octet is a number between 0 and 255 in decimal form and is separated by a dot. </li></ul><ul><li>First 3 octets represent the network to which the computer is connected. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth octet represents the computer in that network. </li></ul>103.38.123.214 Represents a network Represents a specific computer in the network
  20. 20. URL <ul><li>Every Web page in WWW has a unique address called as URL </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the postal address. </li></ul><ul><li>URL contains protocol, domain name, path and Web page name. </li></ul>Protocol Server Name http://www.geographia.com/indx04.htm File Name
  21. 21. URL <ul><li>Last portion in the domain name is called top-level domain that represents the type of organization, the Web site belongs to. </li></ul>Educational Institutions edu Government Organizations gov Company that provides network net Non-Profit Organizations org Commercial Organizations and companies com Domain Type Top-Level Domains
  22. 22. Summary <ul><li>In this presentation, you learnt the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Open the Internet Explorer by selecting Start  Programs  Internet Explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Browser is an application program that displays the content of a web Page. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the servers are Web server, FTP server and mail server. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>In this presentation, you learnt the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Each computer in the network is identified by a unique address known as IP address . </li></ul><ul><li>Every Web page in WWW has a unique address called as URL . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Assignment <ul><li>Write how to open Internet Explorer. </li></ul><ul><li>Define Web browser. </li></ul><ul><li>Give some examples of Web browser. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the different parts of a URL. </li></ul><ul><li>Define IP Address. </li></ul>

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