Pandangan konvensional penilaian bahasa mungkin mempertimbangkan gagasan self-assessment sebagai pembalikan absurd hubungan kekuasaan politik yang benar.Namun demikian, melihat lebih dekat pada perolehan keterampilan mengungkapkan pentingnya, jika tidak kebutuhan, self-assessment dan manfaat dari penilaian sejawat
The Dilemma of Maximizing BothPracticality and WashbackThe principal purpose of this chapter is to examine some of the alternativesin assessment that are markedly different from formal tests. especiallylarge scaled standardized tests, tend to be one shot performances that aretimed, multiple choice decontextualized , norm-referenced, and that fosterextrinsic motivation. On the other hand, tasks likeportfolios, journals, Conferences and interviews and self assessment are :Open ended in their time orientation and formatContextualized to a curriculumReferenced to the criteria ( objectives) of that curriculum andLikely to build intrinsic motivation.
Performance – Based AssesmentPerformance-based assessment is an alternative form ofassessment that moves away from traditional paper and penciltests. Performance-based assessment involves having the studentsproduce a project, whether it is oral, written or a groupperformance.The students are engaged in creating a final project that exhibitstheir understanding of a concept they have learned. A uniquequality of performance-based assessment is that is allows thestudents to be assessed based on a process. The teacher is able tosee first hand how the students produce language in real-worldsituations. In addition, performance-based assessments tend tohave a higher content validity because a process is being measured.The focus remains on the process, rather than the product inperformance-based assessment.
According to O’Malley and Valdez Pierce (p.5), thefollowing are characteristics of performance assessment:1. Students make a constructed response2. They engage in higher-orderthinking, with open-ended tasks.3. Tasks are meaningful, engaging, andauthentic.4. Tasks call for the integration oflanguage skills.5. Both process and product are assessed6. Depth of a student’s mastery isemphasized over breadth.
PORTFOLIOSA portfolio is a purposeful collection of student’swork that demonstrates theirefforts, progress, and achievements in givenareas.Portfolios include materials such as:• Essays and compositions in draft and final form;• Reports, project outlines;• Poetry and creative prose;• Audio and/ or video recordings ofpresentation, demonstrations, etc;• Journals, diaries, and other personal reflections;• Notes on lectures
Gottlieb (1995) suggested a developmentalscheme for considering the nature and purposeof portfolios, using acronym CRADLE to designatesix possible attributes of portfolio:• Collecting• Reflecting• Assessing• Documenting• Linking• Evaluating
Number of potential benefits portfolios• Foster intrinsic motivation, responsibility, andownership• Promote student-teacher interaction with the teacheras facilitator• Individualize learning and celebrate the uniqueness ofeach student• Provide tangible evidence of a student’s work• Facilitate critical thinking, self-assessment, and revisionprocesses• Offer opportunities for collaborative work with peers• Permit assessment of multiple dimentions of languagelearning
Successful portfolio development will depand onfollowing a number of steps and guidelines1. State objectives clearly2. Give guidelines on what materials to include3. Communicate assessment criteria to students4. Designate time within the curriculum forportfolio development5. Establish periodic schedules for review andconferencing6. Designate an accessible piace to keep portfolios7. Provide positive washback-giving finalassessments
JOURNALSA journal is a log (or “account”) of one’sthoughts, feelings, reactions, assessments, ideas, or progress toward goals, usually written with littleattention to structure, form, or correctness.The result is the emergence of a number ofoverlapping categories or purposes in journalwriting, such as the following:• Language-learning logs• Grammar journals• Responses to readings• Strategies-based learning logs• Self-assessment reflections• Diaries of attitudes, feelings, and other affectivefactors• Acculturation logs
The following steps are not coincidentally parallelto those cited above for portfoli development:1. Sensitivelly introduce students to the concept ofjournal writing2. State the objective(s) of the journal3. Give guidelines on what kinds of topics toinclude4. Carefully specify the criteria for assessing orgrading journals5. Provide optimal feedback in your responses6. Designate appropriate time frames andschedules for review7. Provide formative, washback-giving finalcmments
Conferences and interviews• Conferences are not limited to drafts of written work. Itmust assume that the teacher plays the role of a facilitatorand guide , not of an administrator of a formal assesment.• A number of generic question that may be usefull to posein conference are1. What did you like about this work?2. What do you think you did well?3. How does it show improvement from previous work?Can you show me the improvement?4. What did you do when you did not know a word thatyou want to write? (Genesee and Upshur, 1996).
Guidelines for conferences andinterviews1. Offer an initial atmosphere of warmth and anxiety-lowering (warm-up).2. Begin with relatively simple questions.3. Continue with level-check and probe questions, butadapt to the interviewee as needed.4. Frame questions simply and directly.5. Focus on only one factor for each question. Do notcombine several objec-tives in the same question.6. Be prepared to repeat or reframe questions that arenot understood.7. Wind down with friendly and reassuring closingcomments.
Observations• Observation is a systematic, planned procedure for real-time, almostfurtive recording of student verbal and nonverbal behavior. One ofthe objectives of such observation is to assess students without theirawareness (and possible consequent anxiety) of the observation sothat the naturalness of their linguistic performance is maximized.• Potential observation foci:- sentence-level oral production skills.- pronunciation of target sounds, intonation, etc.- grammatical features (verb tenses, question formation, etc.- discourse-level skills (conversation rules, turn-taking, and othermacroskills)- interaction with classmates (cooperation, frequency of oralproduction)- frequency of student-initiated responses (whole class, group work)
Steps for observations• Determine the specific objectives of the observations• Decide how many students will be observed at one time• Set up the logistics for making unnoticed observations• Design a system for recording observed performances• Do not overestimate the number of different elements you canobserve at one time• Plan how many observations you will make• Determine specifically how you will use the results
Alternatives in observationChecklists are a viable alternative for recording observation results.• The observer identifies an activity or episode and checks appropriateboxes along a grid. This grid referto variables such as whole-class, group,and individual participation, linguistic competence (form, function,discourse, sociolinguistic), etc. Each variable has subcategories for betteranalysis.Rating scales have also been suggested for recording observations.• One type of rating scale asks teachers to indicate the frequency ofoccurrence of target performance on a separate frequency scale (always =5; never = 1).• Another is a holistic assessment scale that requires an overall assessmentwithin a number of categories (for example, vocabulary usage,grammatical correctness, fluency).
Students will takesubjectivity inasssessment, they tooharsh or self-flatteringAconventionalview oflanguageassessmentmightconsider thenotion of self-assessmentas an absurdreversal ofpoliticallycorrect powerrelationshipSelf and Peer Assessment• Learners develops succesfully withtheir ability to monitor her/hisown performance• Self-assessment shows learner’sautonomy principle that thenbecomes one of the primaryfoundation stones of successfullearning• Peer-assessment is used to renderassessment and give additionalinputAre theycapable enoughof renderingaccurateassessmnet oftheir ownassessment?
theoretical underpinnings• Brown and Hudson, 1998 :The benefits: direct involvement of students in their own destinyEncouragement of autonomyIncreasing motivation because of their self-involvement.• Bailey, 1998.in the assessment of generalcompetence, learners’s self-assessment may bemore accurate than one might suppose.
TYPES OF SELF- AND PEER-ASSESSMENT• Assessment of ( a spesific ) performence• indirect assessment of ( general ) competenc• Metacognitive assessment ( for setting goals )• Socioaffective assessment• Students-generated tests
Assessment of (a spesific )performence• Student monitors hishimself –in either oral orwritten- and renders some kind of evaluationsoon/ immediately after performance.• i.e• Students fills out a checklist• Students views a video-recorded lecture• Students complete a self-corrected of acomprehension quiz
media• Journal• Peer editing• Online self-qorrecting quizzez and test onDave’s ESL Café [www.eslcafe.com]• Television and film
Indirect assessment of ( general )comptenceSelf- and peer-assessment are limited in time and focus to arelatively short performance.Assessment of competence may encompass a lesson over severaldays, a module, or even a whole term of course work and theobjective is to ignore minor, nonrepeating performance flaws andto evaluate general ability.
Metacognitive assessment ( for settinggoals )• Evaluations purpose not only of viewing past performance orcompetence but also of setting goals. Personal goal settinghas the advantage of fostering intrinsic motivation and ofproviding learners with extra-special impetus from having setand accomplished goals.• Simple illustration of goals setting assessment offered bySmolen, Newman, wathen & lee (1995)
SOCIOAFFECTIVE ASSESSMENTThe type of self- and peer- assessment that examiningeffective factors in learning.So, assessment looking at oneself though a phsycologicallens.This type of assessment is purposed to the learnersresolve to assess and improve the motivation, to gauge andlower their own anxiety, to find mental and emotionalobstacles in learning and then plans to overcome thosebarriers
Students-generated testsIs the technique of engaging students inthe proccess of constructing testhemselves. With theengagement, students –generated testscan be productive, intrinsicallymotivating, autonomy-building processess.
GUIDELINES FOR SELF-AND PEER ASSESSMENT1. Tell students the purpose of the assessment2. Define the task(s) clearly3. Encourage impartial evaluation ofperformance or ability4. Ensure beneficial washback through follow-up tasks