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Young people, healthy living and longevity


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Young People, Healthy Living and Longevity for Peer Educators Anti-HIV/AIDS Club, Government College Owerri

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Young people, healthy living and longevity

  1. 1. FORWARD AFRICA Improving lives through partnerships 28th November, 2015 Young People, Healthy Living and Longevity Peer Educators Anti-HIV/AIDS Club Government College Owerri Presented by: Ikedinachi Ogamba – Programme Manager
  2. 2. Objectives • To explain the concept of adolescent and puberty and characteristics of young people. • To expose risky behaviours that affects the health and wellbeing of young people • To inspire participants to think, act and promote positive lifestyle behaviour for health and longevity.
  3. 3. Outline • Who are Young People? • Adolescence and Puberty • Characteristics of Young People • Biological Physical Changes During Puberty • Healthy Living • Risky Behaviours • Young People’s Health Problems • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) • Drug Abuse • Longevity and Healthy Lifestyle • Positive Lifestyle Behaviour To Adopt
  4. 4. Who are Young People? To understand the concept of young people, we need to first understand the following: Adolescent It is period of transition from childhood to adulthood, and fall in between the ages of 10 to18. Youth It is period of adjustment from the dependence of childhood to independence adulthood with the awareness of interdependence as members of a community.
  5. 5. Adolescence and Puberty • Adolescence: It is the transition between childhood and adulthood characterized by emotional and physical changes. • Puberty: the beginning of adolescence and the development of secondary sexual features – For girls this occurs between the ages of 9-13 year, whiles boys occur between 12-14 years. • Note: Not all children don’t grow at the same rate, so some may mature earlier or later than others
  6. 6. The definition of young people is contextual and specific to the locality and environment where they are found, hence is not age restricted. For instance: • United Nation in described young people as those between the ages of 10 to 24. • The Commonwealth’s definition of young people is between the ages of 15-29. • In Nigeria, based on the scope of youth by the National Youth Policy as between 18-35 years, hence Young people in Nigeria could be referred chronologically as those between the aged of 10 and 35.
  7. 7. Adolescence and Puberty …cont’d • Adolescent: – Is a person whose age falls between 10 – 19 years Categorisation: • 10 – 14years - Early adolescence • 15 – 19years - Late adolescence FEDERAL MINSTRY OF EDUCATION, FLHE PROGRAMME Childhood Adulthood Adolescence period
  8. 8. Characteristics of Young People Biological: Young people experience changes in their body system as they develop and attain puberty (i.e a stage of life when the body matures into being capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilisation. • Observable change in boys and in girls include…
  9. 9. Biological Physical Changes During Puberty Changes in Boys Changes in Both Changes in Girls Penis & testicles grows larger Body sweats more Hips grow wider Shoulder & chest grows bigger Skin and hair becomes more oily Breast and nipples grow larger Muscles develop Body has sudden growth spurts Vagina might start to produce whitish fluid Facial and chest hairs grows Body gains weight and grows taller Ovaries grow larger and start to release eggs Voice box grows bigger, voice get deeper Hair grows in the pubic area and armpits Menstruation begins Adams apple gets larger Body produces sex hormones Sperm production begins Sometimes pimples occur Wet dreams begin
  10. 10. Emotional Changes During Puberty • Self consciousness • Struggle for acceptance by peer groups (spend more time with friends) • Development of sexual feelings • Conflict within peer groups, parents and family about beliefs and values • Mood swings • Secrecy (become isolated and want more privacy) • Inquisitiveness • Egocentric tendencies (focus more on self)
  11. 11. Social Characteristics of Young People • Becoming more aware of peers and their opinions • Are quite active with energy for exploring. • Prefer working in groups in cooperative activities. • Expand and use reasoning skills to solve problems, negotiate and compromise with peers. • Beginning to question parental authority. • Seek privacy from parents/older adults.
  12. 12. Economic Characteristics of Young People • Want to use their skills to explore and investigate the world. • Strive for financial independence, yet want and need parents help. • Are ready for in-depth and long-term experiences. • Search for career possibilities. • Desire a role in determining what happens in their world.
  13. 13. Political Characteristics of Young People • Question authority and family values. • Need information for making decisions. • Want to be part of something important. • Find justice and equity to be important issues. • Want to explore the world beyond their own community. • Want adult leadership roles. • Make commitments.
  14. 14. Advantages of Young People • Being catered for • Free education • Have future and time to plan • Population • Set the pace of trend in the society • Some job programmes tailored to youths
  15. 15. Disadvantages of Young People • Peer group pressure • Low income and standard of living. • Exploitation by others • Lack of tailored services and youth-specific projects • Marginalization in political position and appointment • Inexperience and lack of exposure (social, political, economic)
  16. 16. Strength of Young People • Creativity and innovation • Physical strength and energy • Adventurous • Capacity to learn, unlearn and relearn • Search for career possibilities and opportunities.
  17. 17. Weakness of Young People • Stubbornness • Intrusive • Aggressive • Restiveness • Take risks. • Equality • Engage in risky behaviours
  18. 18. Healthy Living Healthy living is maintaining a good personal health i.e is the practice of keeping the body well and free from illnesses and diseases. • It is lifestyle factor because an individual way of life and practices (positive or negative) affects his health and wellbeing accordingly.
  19. 19. Diseases and infections causes ill health and death. Hence, individual’s with better health seeking behaviour/healthy lifestyle tends to have stronger health and consequently longer life span. While those with poor health seeking behaviour/indulge in risky behaviours tends to have poor health and low lifespan.
  20. 20. Risky Behaviours In Nigeria, young people(10 - 24 years) constitute about 30% of Nigeria’s population Many adolescents engage in pre-marital sexual activities and other forms of risky behaviors which have adverse health consequences For instance: Complications of unsafe abortions account for 72% deaths among female teenagers
  21. 21. Young People’s Health Problems • Coping with puberty • Concerns over menstruation, wet dreams, masturbation etc • Sexually Transmitted Infections • HIV & AIDS • Unplanned pregnancy • Unsafe Abortion • Sex work (male & female) • Transactional sex • Trans generational sex • Forced marriage • Early marriage • Low economic status • Sexual violence - (rape, non- consensual sex, sexual harassment ) • Drug/substance abuse • Mental disorder (due to drug abuse) • Injuries and body deformation • Human trafficking • Death
  22. 22. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Infections passed from an infected person to another person through sexual contact (oral, vaginal or anal). • Causes: –Bacteria, –Fungi and –Viruses.
  23. 23. Categories of STIs • Ulcer-causing STIs (i.e. those that cause wound or sore on the genital organ) – E.g. Syphilis, Chancriod, Genital Warts and Herpes. • Non ulcer-causing STIs (i.e. those that do not produce wounds, but may produce discharge). (e.g. Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Hepatitis B and HIV. • Curable STIs; (Bacteria, Fungi, etc) (e.g. Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Candidiasis, Chlamydia, etc) • Treatable STIs (Virus) (e.g. Genital Herpes, Genital Warts, HIV, etc)
  24. 24. STI Transmission • Unprotected Sexual Intercourse with an infected person: – Vaginal; – Oral; – Anal • Mother-to-child: – Pregnancy (syphilis, etc), – Childbirth (gonorrhea, chlamydia, etc ) – Breastfeeding (HIV)
  25. 25. Who Is At Risk Of STI? • All • Adolescents and young people because they: – Are more likely to engage in multiple sexual relationships – Have less access to STI services
  26. 26. Relationship between STI and HIV • HIV is mainly transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse (80-85%) (HIV is an STI) • Some STIs facilitate HIV infection (especially ulcer- causing STIs like, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, etc) • STIs increase concentration of HIV in genital secretions (semen/Virginal fluid) • In the presence of HIV, other STIs may become more resistant to treatment
  27. 27. Consequences of STIs • Emotional problems (e.g. shame/guilt) • Affects newborn babies of infected mothers e.g. heart, brain and blindness • Increases risk of infertility (inability to reproduce) and damages to reproductive organs. • Death
  28. 28. Tips On Prevention • Practice Abstinence • Seek appropriate information on STIs • Avoid risky situations and environment
  29. 29. Drug Abuse What is “Drug”? • A drug is any chemical substance that affects or causes some changes in the mind of body • Drug Abuse is the indiscriminate use of drugs, that is, the use of drugs without adhering to doctors’ prescription • Drug Usage is the appropriate use of prescribed drugs
  30. 30. Commonly Abused Drugs • Alcohol (Sapele Water, Ogogoro, Kai-Kai, Beer, Spirits, etc.) • Pain Killers (Paracetamol, Aspirin, etc.) • Antibiotics (Tetracycline, Ampiclox, etc.) • Illegal Drugs (Marijuana, cocaine, etc.) • Sedatives (Valium, Lexotan, etc.) • Stimulants (Coffee, Tea, Thinner, etc.)
  31. 31. Common Ways Drugs Are Abused • Inhalation • Injection • Ingestion • Scarification – (At Initiations)
  32. 32. Reasons For Using Drugs • To feel high • To overcome shyness • To pass exams • To be a part of the gang • To overcome boredom • To have energy • To overcome unhappiness • To feel different
  33. 33. Consequences Of Drug Abuse Effects on the Individual: – Irritability – Unstable mood – Aggressive Behavior – Nervousness – Headache – Unkempt appearance – Loss of Memory – Loss of Interest – Brain Damage – Deadly Disease e.g. HIV/AIDS or Cancer – Increased absenteeism – Dropping out of school – Conflict with self and family
  34. 34. Consequences Of Drug Abuse …cont’d • Effect on Family – Shame and disappointment – Loss of valuable as child steals – Unnecessary Expenditure on health care – Disruption to family life • Effect on Society – National image dented – Unnecessary economic and socio-cultural expense, e.g rehabilitation centers – Increased automobile accidents – Increased crime rate
  35. 35. Key Points • Both legal and illegal drugs and substances can be abused through peer pressure and for so many reasons • Numerous overwhelming dangers are involved in becoming drug addict • One should put up assertive, refusal skills to prevent drug abuse • Drug abuse has serious implications for the reproductive health of young persons because a mind under the influence of drugs cannot make the right decisions
  36. 36. Longevity and Healthy Lifestyle As established earlier, health lifestyle increase longevity. It is important to begin at adolescent practice of health lifestyle by reducing risky behaviours that exposes one to health problems and reduce life span. Negative Early Childhood/Adolescent/Youth Lifestyle and Experiences Affect Longevity
  37. 37. Positive Lifestyle Behaviour To Adopt • Meaningful Active Lifestyle: walking, biking to places, sports/games • Maintain rich social connections (peer group) • Respect for family, religious and social values • Eat good food and vegetable/fruits • Say NO smoking, drinking or drugs • Avoid risky sexual behaviour/relationships • Reduce exposure to environmental toxicity/pollution
  38. 38. Life Is Good
  39. 39. 42 Thank You! Any Questions…….????