Background and location The three national wildlife refuges of the Lower Florida Keys are;1. National Key Deer2. Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge (NWR)3. Key West NWR
Background and location cont’d County: Monroe County (Keys) Size: 6688.04 acres Latitude : 25.27083º Longitude: -80.32111º Sections: 19,20,21,22,23,24,26,27, Townships: 59 Range: 40 Managing Agency: United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Background and location cont’d Located in Monroe County, Florida Above refuges extend from East Bahia Honda Key west to Marquesas Keys.
Ownership The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service State of Florida Federal Government
Philosophy To protect wildlife of the Lower Florida Keys without imposing unnecessary restrictions on boaters. To curtail incompatible or illegal public use activities, such as camping on refuge islands, through education and law enforcement efforts. To prevent human disturbance at bald eagle nest sites, particularly at nests near the edges of islands where interference by boaters has been documented.
Management Authority Provided by congressional ActsCongressional Acts include Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929 Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 Bald and Golden Eagles Protection Act of 1940,
Environment The climate of the Lower Florida Keys is tropical (Jordan 1991)1. The mean annual temperature is about 25 degrees C2. The mean annual rainfall is 99.1 cm
Environment cont’d The geology of the Lower Florida Keys Two limestone formations1. Miami oolite2. Key Largo limestone
Predominant land uses of the lower Floridakeys Recreational and commercial fishing Scuba diving and snorkeling Photography, bird watching Sightseeing
Resources and products Beaches on Woman, Marquesas, and Boca Grande Keys Wetlands include freshwater, salt ponds, Red mangrove forests
Resources and products cont’d Endangered and Threatened SpeciesBirds such as bald eagle, piping plover, and peregrine falcon.Mammals such as Key deer, silver rice rat, Lower Keys marsh rabbit, WestIndian manatee, and sperm whaleReptiles and amphibians such as Atlantic Ridley turtle, Atlantic loggerheadturtle among others
Primary Management Problems cont’d Human Disturbance of Wildlife:1. Expanding development of coastal areas2. Recreational activity increases3. human interactions with wildlife
Law Enforcement problems Camping on islands Problem with camping Campfires Cutting of trees Trash pits
Management actions Specific law enforcement programs such fines Camp guides Tailored signs and remote sense monitoring
Management actions cont’d Land conservation programsFederal and state land conservation programsTax lawsRegulations for example, Endangered Species Act, Wetlands permits
Atsena Otie Key Island Date Taken: 05/20/2010 Sensor: Aerial photography Photographer:Tom J Smith, III , U.S. Geological Survey
Southern Florida KeysDate: 11/15/2000Source: NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR TeamSensor:Multi-angle imaging Spectro-radiometerDescription: The top image is composite of blue, green, and red band imagery. Atthe bottom, the color is comprised of green, red, and near-infrared data.
Key West National Wildlife Refuge Description: Mangrove islands in the Key West National Wildlife Refuge provide valuable habitat for nesting birds and sea turtles. Location: Key West, FL, USA Date Taken: Jun 23 2010 Photographer byPaul Nelson, U.S Geological Survey:
Florida KeysDate: 12/02/2003Credit: Jeff Schmaltz, NASA/GSFCSensor: MODISDescription:Turbid waters and the Florida Keys in this true-color Moderate ResolutionImaging Spectroradiometer
Florida Keys National Marine SanctuaryDate:Sensor: Aerial photographyPhotograph by Emory KristoffDescription: Aerial photoShowing marine protectedAreas of the refuge
Marquesas KeysDate: 11/18/2006Source: NASADescription: Shows theExtension of a lagoon and waterareas with connectionto the open sea
Images and their uses in refugemanagementImages Use for refuge management Mangrove islands in the Key West used for show forest extension Used for monitoring climate changes around refuge region Aerial view of the refuge keys used for
Images and their uses in refugemanagement cont’dImages Use for refuge management Used in monitoring water color changes as well as aquatic animals Can be used in locating and managing marine protected Areas of the refuge
Images and their uses in refugemanagement cont’dImage Use for refuge management NASA screen shot can be used to show the Extension of a lagoon with the refuge and where water areas connect to the open sea. This gives management the ability to focus on given parts of the refuge.
SummaryThe goals for this refuge is to protect wildlife. Most important parts of thisaction includes nesting, feeding, roosting birds and access restrictions to thepublic.Many tools are used in managing Florida Keys National Wildlife Refuges.Among these tools include remote sensing, law enforcements, zone restrictionsamong others.
ReferencesFWS. (2012). Management Agreement. Retrieved fromhttp://floridakeys.noaa.gov/review/backcountryplan.pdfFWS. (2012). Welcome to Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge Retrieved fromhttp://www.fws.gov/cedarkeys/
ReferencesRandolph, J. (2011). Environmental Land Use Planning And Management. (2ed.). NW, Washington: Island Press.Campbell, J., & Randolph, W. (2011). Introduction to Remote Sensing. (5 ed.).New York: A Division of Guilford Publication, Inc.