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All about leather 2017

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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.
People use leather to make various goods—including clothing (e.g., shoes, hats, jackets, skirts, trousers, and belts), bookbinding, leather wallpaper, and as a furniture covering. It is produced in a wide variety of types and styles, decorated by a wide range of techniques.

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All about leather 2017

  1. 1. All about leather Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 2
  2. 2.  Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide.  It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.  Leather is used to make various goods—including clothing (e.g., shoes, hats, jackets, skirts, trousers, and belts), bookbinding, leather wallpaper, and as a furniture covering.  It is produced in a wide variety of types and styles, decorated by a wide range of techniques. Dictionary Meaning: Leather – The skin of an animal, with the hair removed, prepared for use by tanning or a similar process designed to preserve it against decay and make it pliable or supple when dry. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 3
  3. 3. Several tanning processes transform hides and skins into leather:  Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium sulfate and other chromium salts. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is also known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium. More exotic colors are possible when using chrome tanning. The chrome tanning method usually only takes a day to finish, and the ease and agility of this method make it a popular choice. It is reported that chrome-tanned leather adds up to 80% of the global leather supply.  Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins and other ingredients found in different vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills, wood, leaves, fruits, and roots. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and the color of the skin. It is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, so if left to soak and then dried it shrinks and becomes harder. Historically, it was occasionally used as armour after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 4
  4. 4. Chrome-tanned leather Vegetable-tanned leather Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 5
  5. 5.  Aldehyde-tanned leather: This is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the main type of "chrome-free" leather, often seen in shoes for infants and automobiles.  Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process that uses emulsified oils, often those of animal brains such as deer, cattle, and buffaloes. They are known for their exceptional softness and wash-ability.  Chamois leather produces a porous and highly water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made using marine oils (traditionally cod oil) that oxidize easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather to color it.  Rose-tanned leather is a variation of vegetable oil tanning and brain tanning, where pure rose Otto replaces the vegetable oil and emulsified oils. Rose-tanned leather tanned leaves a powerful rose fragrance even years from when it is manufactured. It has been called the most valuable leather on earth, but this is mostly due to the high cost of rose Otto and its labor-intensive tanning process. Aldehyde-tanned Brain tanned Chamois leather Rose-tanned Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 6
  6. 6.  Synthetic-tanned leather is tanned using aromatic polymers. This leather is white in color and was invented when vegetable tannins were in short supply during the Second World War. Melamine and other amino-functional resins fall into this category, as well, and they provide the filling that modern leathers often require.  Alum-tanned leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum-tanned leather is technically not tanned, as tannic acid is not used, and the resulting material reverts to rawhide if soaked in water long enough to remove the alum salts.  Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tanning, rawhide is not technically "leather", but is usually lumped in with the other forms. Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather; it is primarily found in uses such as drum heads and parchment where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching. Alum-tanned leather Synthetic-tanned leather Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 7
  7. 7.  Leather, usually vegetable-tanned, can be oiled to improve its water resistance. This currying process after tanning supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water.  Russia leather was an important international trade good for centuries. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically.  Leather with the hair still attached is called "hair-on". Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 8
  8. 8. Types In general, leather is sold in these four forms:  Full-grain leather refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed, or snuffed (as opposed to top- grain or corrected leather) to remove imperfections (or natural marks) on the surface of the hide. The grain remains allowing the fiber strength and durability. The grain also has breathability, resulting in less moisture from prolonged contact. Rather than wearing out, it develops a patina during its expected useful lifetime. High quality leather furniture and footwear are often made from full-grain leather. Full- grain leathers are typically available in two finish types: aniline, semi-aniline.  Top-grain leather (the most common type in high-end leather products) is the second-highest quality. It has had the "split" layer separated away, making it thinner and more pliable than full-grain. Its surface has been sanded and a finish coat added, which produces a colder, plastic feel with less breathability, and it does not develop a natural patina. It is typically less expensive and has greater stain resistance than full-grain leather if the finish remains unbroken.  Corrected-grain leather is any leather that has had an artificial grain applied to its surface. The hides used to create corrected leather do not meet the standards for use in creating vegetable-tanned or aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected or sanded off, and an artificial grain embossed into the surface and dressed with stain or dyes. Most corrected-grain leather is used to make pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 9
  9. 9. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 10 Facts About Leather 1. The leather industry generates more than $53.8 billion USD worldwide each year. That fun fact represents a larger dollar value than the sale of rubber, cotton, coffee, tea, rice, and sugar – combined! And out of that $53.8 billion, almost 60 per cent represents the sale of leather footwear. 2. The average consumer is wearing four leather products at any given time. This may include a pair of shoes, a belt or wallet, or even a the strap on a wristwatch.
  10. 10.  Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the top-grain of the rawhide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation, the top-grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides, the middle split can be separated into multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain(bycast leather). Splits are also used to create suede. The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Suede is "fuzzy" on both sides. Manufacturers use a variety of techniques to make suede from full-grain. A reversed suede is a grained leather that has been designed into the leather article with the grain facing away from the visible surface. It is not considered a true suede. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 11
  11. 11. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 12
  12. 12. Less-common leathers include: Buckskin or brained leather is a tanning process that uses animal brains or other fatty materials to alter the leather. The resulting supple, suede-like hide is usually smoked heavily to prevent it from returning to a rawhide state, if wetted. It is easier to soften, and helps repel leather-eating bugs. Patent leather is leather that has been given a high-gloss finish. Inventor Seth Boyden developed the original process in Newark, New Jersey in 1818. Patent leather usually has a plastic coating. Fish leather is popular for its motifs and its pigmentation. Mainly used for making shoes and bags, the fish skin is tanned like other animal skins. The species used include salmon, perch, sturgeon, etc. Vachetta leather is used in the trimmings of luggage and handbags. The leather is left untreated and is therefore susceptible to water and stains. Sunlight makes the natural leather darken in shade (develop a patina). Slink is leather made from the skin of unborn calves. It is particularly soft and is valued for making gloves. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 13
  13. 13.  Deerskin is a tough, water-resistant leather, possibly due to the animal's adaptations to its thorny and thicket-filled habitats. Deerskin has been used by many societies, including indigenous Americans. Most modern deerskin is no longer procured from the wild, with deer farms breeding the animals specifically for the purpose of their skins. Large quantities are still tanned from wild deer hides in historic tanning towns such as Gloversville and Johnstown in upstate New York. Deerskin is used in jackets and overcoats, martial arts equipment such as kendo bogu, as well as personal accessories such as handbags and wallets.  Goatskin is soft but tough, and is used for items such as thorn-resistant gardener's gloves.  Nubuck is top-grain cattle hide leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface.  Russia leather is a particular form of bark-tanned cow leather. It is distinguished by an oiling step, after tanning, where birch oil is worked into the leather to make it particularly hard-wearing, flexible and resistant to water. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 14
  14. 14. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 15 4. The value of cattle hides and sheepskins represent roughly 5-10% of the value of the animal. Cattle and sheep are most often farmed for meat, dairy and wool products. Leather is a byproduct, as it represents a small percentage of the value of the animal. Presently in the United States, no animals are slaughtered for the sole purpose of producing leather. 3. More than 23 billion square feet of leather were produced in 2007. No facts about leather would be complete without including some astonishingly high numbers. Facts About Leather
  15. 15. There are two other types of leather commonly used in specialty products, such as briefcases, wallets, and luggage:  Belting leather is a full-grain leather originally used in driving pulley belts and other machinery. It is found on the surface of briefcases, portfolios, and wallets, and can be identified by its thick, firm feel and smooth finish. Belting leather is generally a heavy-weight of full-grain, vegetable-tanned leather.  Napa leather is chrome-tanned and is soft and supple. It is commonly found in wallets, toiletry kits, and other personal leather goods. The following are not "true" organic leathers, but are materials that contain leather fiber. Depending on jurisdiction, they may still be labeled as "Genuine Leather", even though the consumer generally can only see the outer layer of the material and can't actually see any of the leather content:  Bonded leather or reconstituted leather is an economical material that uses leftover organic leather (from tanneries or workshops) that are shredded and bonded together with polyurethane or latex on to a fiber sheet. The varying degree of organic leather in the mix (10% to 90%) affects the smell and texture. Its reduced cost makes it popular for furniture upholstery, especially for commercial furniture that requires durability—though durability can vary widely depending on the formulation.  Bycast leather is a split leather with a layer of polyurethane laminated to the surface and then embossed. Bycast was originally made for the shoe industry, and later adopted by the furniture industry. The original formula created by Bayer was strong but expensive. The result is a material that is slightly stiffer but cheaper than top-grain leather but has a much more consistent texture. Because its surface is completely covered in plastic, is easier to clean and maintain, but is not easily repaired.Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 16
  16. 16. Full Grain Leather Description: Full-grain leather refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed, or snuffed (as opposed to top-grain or corrected leather) to remove imperfections (or natural marks) on the surface of the hide. Features and Benefits: The grain remains allowing the fiber strength and durability. The grain also has breathability, resulting in less moisture from prolonged contact. Advantages : Rather than wearing out, it will develop a patina during its expected useful lifetime, thus looking nicer and nicer in time. The grain pattern in this part of the hide is very tight. It is desirable because of its minimal treatments and its durability. It is naturally water repellent and breathable A smooth surface which is easy to clean. Additional Information: High quality leather furniture are often made from full-grain leather. Full-grain leathers are typically available in two finish types: aniline, semi-aniline. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 17
  17. 17. Aniline Leather Description: Aniline leather is a type of leather dyed exclusively with soluble dyes without covering the surface with a top coat paint or insoluble pigments. The resulting product retains the hide's natural surface with the 'grain', i.e. visible pores, scars etc. of the complete original animal's skin structure. Features and Benefits: Aniline dyes are transparent so natural markings in the cow hide such as healed scars, finished scratches, insect bites and brands will easily visible. These hides can be minimally processed and used in their most natural form. Advantages : Aniline leather is very soft and comfortable. It retains the unique markings and characteristics of the hide, making each piece different. Additional Information: The dyes used are clear and transparent chemicals that allow the grain structure of the leather to be seen. These dyes show the natural texture, but do not protect the leather from damage. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 18
  18. 18. Aniline Leather Semi-aniline leather hides are similar to full aniline hides with the addition of a thin layer of matching pigment applied to even out the color. Features and Benefits: The hide is sprayed with a clear protective top coat giving maximum protection against stains and wears while retaining the natural look and feel of a full aniline leather. Advantages : While it retains the uniqueness of aniline leather, semi-aniline leather has more consistent color and is more resistant to stains. Additional Information: Semi-aniline leather is produced through a very similar process to full-aniline, but has a thin protective top coat added to protect it from wear and staining. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 19
  19. 19. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 20 5. Leather is a renewal and natural resource. If leather was not produced, synthetic alternatives created from non- renewal resources would be needed to replace it. How is that for a fun fact? 6. The weight of leather is measured in ounces per square foot. For instance, if a square foot of leather were to weigh three ounces, it would be referred to as 3-ounce leather and would be approximately 1/8 of an inch thick. It is a rough translation, but a heavier weight describes a thicker leather. Sometimes, facts about leather include math! Facts About Leather
  20. 20. Corrected-grain Leather Description: Corrected-grain leather is any leather that has had an artificial grain applied to its surface. The hides used to create corrected leather do not meet the standards for use in creating vegetal-tanned or aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected or sanded off, and an artificial grain embossed into the surface and dressed with stain or dyes. Features and Benefits: Of the various types of corrections, the most common is to sand down, and remove some of the natural grain and then emboss a consistent graining pattern. Another type of correction is to lightly buff the hide to remove the peaks and valleys of the grain. This improves the durability of the surface.It can be expected to give excellent service. Advantages : A protective topcoat is applied giving it high resistance to spills, stains, fading, and scratches. Highly durable when well made. This type of leather is easy to maintain and stands up to different conditions and uses. Additional Information: Most corrected-grain leather is used to make pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 21
  21. 21. Top Grain Leather Top-grain leather (the most common type used in high-end leather products) is the second-highest quality. It has had the "split" layer separated away, making it thinner and more pliable than full- grain. Its surface has been sanded and a finish coat added to the surface which results in a colder, plastic feel with less breathability, and it will not develop a natural patina. Features and Benefits: The best top-grain hides reflect that the animal has lived in an environment that resulted in limited scratches, insect bites or other damage. These hides can be minimally processed and used in their most natural form. Advantages : It is typically less expensive and has greater resistance to stains than full-grain leather, so long as the finish remains unbroken. It is similar to full-grain leather, except that the top couple millimetres have been sanded and buffed to take away imperfections. It is naturally water repellent and breathable. Additional Information: With the top layer removed, the leather will have a more uniform finish, but it won't be as durable and it will break down much faster. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 22
  22. 22. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 23 COLOR VARIATION GRAIN VARIATION VEIN LINES Horn Butts, Scrapes & Healed Scars FAT WRINKLES INSECTS BITES
  23. 23. Split Leather Description: Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the top-grain of the rawhide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation, the top- grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides, the middle split can be separated into multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Features and Benefits: Split leather looks nice when it is new. It is fuzzy and soft. Advantages : It is less expensive than other types of leather. Its immediate comfort and no need to "break in" the product. Additional Information: Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain (bycast leather). The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 24
  24. 24. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 25 7. Cowhide is the most used skin in the production of leather products. This is probably due to the ease of its care, especially when given a protective finish or waterproofing. Cowhide also tends to be the thickest leather, ranging between 1-ounce and 12-ounce varieties. 8. Leather has experienced widespread popularity since 3000 BC. During the Roman Empire, it is widely known that sails used on boats were made of leather. Other common uses included household furniture, tents, weapons, and body armour. Approximately 1000 years later, leather started being worn by fashionable Egyptian women.
  25. 25. Pigmented Leather Description: The outside face of the hide is coated with a pigmented resin, and then a subsequent clear-coating (for durability). These resins create a film that bond to the surface of the leather. Its primary goal is to protect the leather, providing wear, stain, and fade resistance. And this leather is called 'Pigmented Leather' or 'Finished Leather'. Features and Benefits: A protective topcoat is applied giving it high resistance to spills, stains, fading, and scratches. Advantages : This type of leather is easy to maintain and stands up to different conditions and uses. Pigmented leather is the most common type of upholstery leather and when well made, will have a highly durable finish. Additional Information: Pigmented leather has a layer of colorants sprayed onto the hide giving it a rich and uniform color. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 26
  26. 26. Nubuck Leather Description: Nubuck is top-grain leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface. Features and Benefits: It is very soft to the touch and water drops will darken the leather temporarily (it will return to its original color upon drying). Since the outside layer of a skin is much tougher, nubuck lasts much longer and responds very well to sanding process. It has velvet soft feel that makes it desirable. Advantages : It is resistant to wear, and may be white or colored. Additional Information: Nubuck is similar to suede. It differs in that suede is created from the inner side of a hide, whereas nubuck is created from the outer side of a hide, giving it more strength and thickness along with a fine grain. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 27
  27. 27. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 28 10. Top grain leather does not mean top quality. Those who are unfamiliar with facts about leather might be confused by the term top grain. Top grain generally refers to leather that is not totally genuine, while full grain is considered to be the most genuine of all leather. 11. Leather can be made from the skin of an alligator, deer, or ostrich. Many more exotic animals are used to produce leather. For instance, one of the most durable leathers the world has seen comes from Thailand and it is made from stingrays. 9. The first leather shoe made with a shoelace and holes was invented in 1790. Even though leather footwear had been produced for thousands of years, the first shoelace was produced in 1790. Want another fun fact? The first shoes assigned to left and right feet were invented in 1818. Facts About Leather
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  30. 30. Material Care:  Clean spills immediately.  Avoid using any type of harsh cleaners or abrasive cleansers on your leather furniture as these will cause damage to the surface.  NEVER use any kind of oils as it may damage the leather and leave it feeling sticky.  Generally, it is not good to use saddle soap, varnish, ammonia-based cleaners (i.e. Windex) or bleach on your leather furniture, all of which may be too harsh for the leather and may cause serious damage or discoloration.  Dust your leather furniture on a regular basis to help the leather breathe and last longer.  To protect your leather furniture, avoid placing it in direct sunlight and keep it at least two feet away from any heat (i.e. heating vents, fireplaces, radiators, etc.) and air conditioning sources. Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat5/12/2017 31
  31. 31. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 32 8Tips for Regular Leather Maintenance Leather is a popular choice for clothing, accessories and furniture. Leather is beautiful and regal, and with proper care, it can age gracefully. Some people are hesitant to add leather furnishings to their home because they believe it will be challenging to care for. This is especially true for households with small children and pets that could cause unnecessary damage or destruction. Fortunately, these concerns are more based in myth than reality. Children and pets pose as much risk to any other type of upholstery as they do to leather. And with some regular maintenance, caring for leather furniture is a fairly simple task. Although these tips for leather maintenance could be applied to any leather product, we will focus on leather furniture for the sake of simplicity. Follow these eight tips for regular leather maintenance, and you will find your leather furnishings will continue to look healthy, gorgeous, and inviting. #1 WipeYour Leather Furniture Down To begin with your regular leather maintenance program, wipe down your furniture with a dry and clean cloth. The objective here is to remove any excess debris, dust or dirt. In fact, wiping down furniture with a dry cotton cloth is a foolproof strategy for keeping any kind of upholstery looking its best. #2VacuumYour Leather Furniture Carefully Dust and other dirt has a strange way of collecting in the crevices of any type of furniture. After you wiped down the obvious surface dust in step one, use your vacuum to get into all the nooks and crannies where more might be hiding.This is especially important to keep the spaces under and behind cushions clean. Contrary to popular belief, vacuuming leather does not pose any risk to the furniture itself – it is perfectly safe.
  32. 32. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 33 13. White leather is the most difficult to produce. A poor quality hide exposed to white dye is likely to feel stiff, and it may even crack. Only the best quality hides will accept white dye without any noticeable change in texture. 12. Golf balls were once made from leather stuffed with feathers. Dating back to the early 19th century, wooden golf balls were replaced with leather. Those newer leather balls were stuffed with enough feathers to fill an entire top hat! Facts About Leather
  33. 33. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 34 #3 Apply a Leather Conditioner Regular Unlike traditional upholstery choices, leather needs to be conditioned regularly. In this case, regularly refers to once or twice every year. Do this step once all the surface dirt and dust has been wiped and vacuumed away, and always read the application guidelines on the conditioner packaging. Leather conditioners are easy to find in stores. If your local hardware store doesn’t stock it, check out any number of furniture stores. If that fails, automotive stores stock it for the purpose of conditioning and detailing leather car interiors. Leather conditioner could be best described as having a creamy consistency, and you will need to patiently buff it into your leather furnishings. The objective here is to prevent your leather from drying out. When leather dries, it may crack. You want to keep your furniture moist as part of your regular leather maintenance. #4 Don’t Delay IfThere Is a Spill! Rather than preventative or regular leather maintenance, this fourth step needs to be done immediately! If anything is spilled on your leather furniture, wipe it up as quickly as possible. No special chemicals or combinations are required here. Simply use a dry cloth or sponge to soak up as much of the liquid as possible. The only time your cloth or sponge should be moistened is if the spill could result in a stain. If you were unable to absorb all the liquid that was spilled with a dry cloth or sponge, introduce a little bit of water. Clean the affected area, and then be sure to dry the surface of your leather immediately afterwards. Whatever you do, never rub leather aggressively with a wet cloth or sponge.You will do more harm than good.
  34. 34. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 35 #5 Avoid Chemicals & Soap To the point above, never use chemicals or any type of soap when cleaning leather. The resulting damage from prolonged exposure to soap could cause more damage and discoloration to your leather than the original spill would have. Your reaction when there is a spill on your leather will be to scrub it furiously with any cleaning agent you can find – but please don’t. If you’re really in a panic after a spill, and you aren’t sure what to do, contact us at LoveYour Leather. Our team of professionals has been working tirelessly for nearly two decades, ensuring that leather products throughout the Greater Toronto Area are properly cared for. To learn more about what Love Your Leather can do for you and your regular leather maintenance, please visit our services page. You’re also welcome to review customer testimonials as well as a portfolio of work we have completed. #6 Read the Labels Carefully The only cleaning products that should be used in regular leather maintenance should explicitly say so on the labels or packaging. For instance, detergents, solvents, soap, bleach, and various types of furniture polish can be damaging to leather products. In the event of a spill, follow the instructions in steps four and five. Use dry cloths, spongers, or towels as much as possible, and only introduce more moisture if absolutely necessary.
  35. 35. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 36 #7 Buff Gently & Often It is natural over time for leather to develop small cracks. This may happen if the leather furniture is not regularly re- moisturized, as described in step three. Leather is made from animal hides, so it is prone to drying, cracking, and possibly scratching. The good news is that those scratches can generally be removed by including a buffing program in your regular leather maintenance. Use a microfiber cloth, and rub affected areas repeatedly until the scratches are coaxed into healing themselves. #8 Avoid Bright Lighting To preserve the life of your leather furniture, keep it out of the direct sunlight. Not only will the additional light cause your leather to dry out faster, but it could fade it, too. This point has less to do with maintenance, and more to do with placing your leather furniture in an ideal position from the first day you get it. Keep your leather away from windows and sunlight.
  36. 36. 5/12/2017 Compiled & Created By Junaid Bhat 37 14. Handmade leather mugs were once popular in England. Back in the 16th century, the English knew a lot of fun facts about leather. For example, they used to bring their own handmade leather mugs to enjoy a pint at a local pub. 15. Leather was once used as a very stylish wallpaper. In the 17th century, it was considered very fashionable to have your home wallpapered with leather in Florence and Venice, Italy. Facts About Leather

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