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E Education An Introduction

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E education or e Learning is the process of sharing knowledge through various channels such as e books, CDs, webinars, etc. Its main aim is to use digital technologies to enhance education. This new model of learning is radically changing our concept of education. It has revolutionized the conventional method of chalk and board style of learning. Today, e Learning is adopted in almost all training institutions, in both the public and private sectors. This article provides an introduction to e Education Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Paul A. Adekunte | Janet O. Sadiku "E-Education: An Introduction" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-7 | Issue-4, August 2023, URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59812.pdf Paper Url:https://www.ijtsrd.com/humanities-and-the-arts/education/59812/eeducation-an-introduction/matthew-n-o-sadiku

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)
Volume 7 Issue 4, July-August 2023 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 813
E-Education: An Introduction
Matthew N. O. Sadiku1, Paul A. Adekunte2, Janet O. Sadiku3
1
Roy G. Perry College of Engineering, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA
2
International Institute of Professional Security, Lagos, Nigeria
3
Juliana King University, Houston, Texas, USA
ABSTRACT
E-education or e-Learning is the process of sharing knowledge
through various channels such as e-books, CDs, webinars, etc. Its
main aim is to use digital technologies to enhance education. This
new model of learning is radically changing our concept of
education. It has revolutionized the conventional method of chalk and
board style of learning. Today, e-Learning is adopted in almost all
training institutions, in both the public and private sectors. This
article provides an introduction to e-Education.
KEYWORDS: electronic learning, e-learning, e-teaching, electronic
education, e-education, online education, distance learning
How to cite this paper: Matthew N. O.
Sadiku | Paul A. Adekunte | Janet O.
Sadiku "E-Education: An Introduction"
Published in
International
Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research
and Development
(ijtsrd), ISSN:
2456-6470,
Volume-7 | Issue-4,
August 2023, pp.813-820, URL:
www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59812.pdf
Copyright © 2023 by author (s) and
International Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research and Development
Journal. This is an
Open Access article
distributed under the
terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
INTRODUCTION
A global revolution is currently taking place in
education at all levels. It is driven by the changing
nature of work, the realities of the information age,
new global partnerships and the growing awareness
of the need for equal distribution of educational
opportunities. The 21st century has been declared to
be the age of information and communication
technology (ICT). Educational systems worldwide
insist on using information and communication
technologies (ICT) to teach students. Our world is
changing, and information and communication
technology (ICT) is central to this change.
The expansion of ICTs is driving significant changes
in many aspects of human endeavor throughout the
world. Digital media has-revolutionized the
information society-and advances in ICTs have
dramatically changed the learning and teaching
process. The introduction of ICT to our schools will
create new possibilities for learners and teachers to
engage in new ways of selecting, gathering, sorting,
and analyzing information.
WHAT IS E-EDUCATION?
The concept of e-education revolves around the-use
of ICTs to accelerate the achievement of education
goals. e-education is about connecting learners and
teachers to each other and to professional support
services, and providing platforms for learning. It is
more than developing computer literacy and the skills
necessary to operate various types of information and
communication technologies. It is the ability to apply
ICT skills to access, analyze, evaluate, integrate,
present, and create new knowledge and information
[1].
Developments in Internet and multimedia
technologies are the basic enabler of e-Education,
with content, technologies, and services being
identified as the three key sectors of the e-Education
industry. Many technologies are being used in e-
Education: screencasts, ePortfolios, EPSS (electronic
performance support system), web-based teaching
materials, hypermedia, web sites and web 2.0
communities. discussion boards, collaborative
software, e-mail, blogs, wikis, text chat, computer
aided assessment, animation, simulations and games,
electronic voting systems, etc. Most e-education
IJTSRD59812
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 814
situations use combination of these techniques. Web-
based training frequently includes interactive
methods, such as bulletin boards, chat rooms, instant
messaging, and videoconferencing [2].
Communication technologies used in e-learning are
generally categorized as asynchronous or
synchronous. Asynchronous activities use
technologies such as blogs, wikis, and discussion
boards. The participants may engage in the exchange
of ideas or information without the dependency of
other participants involvement at the same time.
Synchronous activities occur with all participants
joining in at once, as with an online chat session or a
virtual classroom or meeting. Virtual classrooms and
meetings can often use a combination of
communication technologies.
The concept of digital natives has become popular,
and there are certainly likely to be generational
influences on the future of e-Education. Digital
natives are those born after 1980. They are actively
involved in performing day-to-day activities and
learning using technology. Figure 1 shows digital
natives experiencing e-learning over their laptops [3].
TYPES OF E-EDUCATION
E-education is the delivery of education or any type
of training by electronic teaching methods. There are
several terms used today to describe e-education.
These include e-learning, e-teaching, online learning,
Internet learning, online education, distance
education, etc. Let us take a closer look at online
education, e-learning, e-teaching, and distance
education.
1. Online Education: Virtually all public higher
education institutions and a vast majority private
for-profit institutions now offer online classes. By
2003, more than 1.9 million students were
participating in online Education at institutions of
higher education in the United States.
Independent Student Media has developed a
working curriculum that instructs students
through an Interactive online textbook. Students
generally appear to be satisfied with their online
classes as they are with traditional ones. Online
education inherits many of the advantages and
disadvantages of textbooks and conventional
teaching, but also introduces some of its own. A
typical example of online education is shown in
Figure 2 [4]. Technology has allowed for the
development of various methods of delivery for e-
learning to suit the various preferences and needs
of learners. Companies have heavily invested in
developing technology to improve e-learning
methods. These companies are involved in the e-
education market, including companies such as
New Horizons, SkillSoft, Knowledge Anywhere,
Epic, LearnKey, TATA Interactive Systems,
Transversale Network-TeN, Semanoor, BlueU,
and LearningSteps.com. These companies are
developing e-education products and leading
innovators in the design and development of e-
Education in the commercial world.
Online education has seen dramatic growth over
the past two decades. An online course should
have course rigor and coverage equivalent to a
course taught in a traditional format. Perhaps the
best example of this democratization of education
is the provision of Massive Open Online Courses
(MOOCs) in the early 2000s. These are free
courses that several colleges offer and allow for
unlimited participation by anyone worldwide.
There are over 16,000 MOOCs and they have
crossed 180 million learners worldwide.
2. E-Learning: In the beginning of the third
millennium, a new form of learning called e-
learning was introduced. E-learning (sometimes
called web-based training, online learning, or
technology enhanced learning) is anywhere,
anytime instruction delivered over the Internet. It
focuses on the electronic networks that allow
learners to receive individualized support and
have separate, flexible learning schedules. In e-
learning, learners and instructors can be together
in one place while using digital tools to enhance
the learning experience. The term “elearning” was
coined by Elliot Masie at his TechLearn
Conference in 1999. The term can be used
synonymously with web-based training or online
tutoring. There are two types of e-learning:
synchronous -- instructor-facilitated -- and
asynchronous -- self-directed and self-paced. The
e-learning decreases the educational costs and it is
more effective learning than traditional learning.
Globally, it allows the fast dissemination of new
techniques and processes, canceling geographic
challenges. Users can conveniently access
training materials from home via the Internet. E-
learning tools can provide training and education
to large number of students with diverse cultural
backgrounds and educational levels. In USA, e-
learning has been more widely spread than in the
rest of the world, and in Europe e-learning has
tended to be focused in some European nations
such as the UK, France, and Germany. Numerous
universities worldwide are now offering e-
learning sites (portal) for academic and
administrative purposes. Blackboard and
MOODLE are two popular web-based learning
management systems widely used in education.
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 815
Blackboard is a hybrid teaching tool. It can be
used by lecturers throughout the lecture to discuss
ideas or identify main points. MOODLE stands
for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning
Environment, built by Martin Douglas at Curtin
University, Australia. It is a free software package
designed to help lecturers and students as a tool to
provide in creation of quality teaching [5].
3. E-Teaching: Teaching and learning discourse has
been changed. It is necessary for teachers in e-
education environment to acquire sufficient
knowledge about e-teaching and e-learning.
While e-learning is centered on learner, e-
teaching focuses on teachers. The term “teaching”
is used in two ways: teaching as the teacher
activities and teaching as the system of
instructional activities. E-teaching is the system
designed to improve teachers’ performance, and
their self-regulation and motivation. It is the
instructional system of processes and activities
designed according to the ICT development,
characteristics, and models of e-learning. Its
service designs are aimed at supporting teachers
to teach effectively in an e-learning environment.
As shown in Figure 3, realization of e-teaching
requires that the teacher has mastered the wide
repertoires of knowledge and skills involved in
the fundamental categories of professional
competencies [6]. Teaching and learning activities
can be done easily by students anytime and
anywhere.
4. Distance Learning: Distance learning or learning
from the distance has been introduced in medical
curriculum and training. This is any educational
or learning process in which the teacher and
instructor are separated geographically or in time.
It enables permanent learning or lifelong learning,
where students can improve themselves
professionally at place and time. Distance
learning does not preclude traditional learning
processes; it is used in conjunction with in-person
classroom or professional training. Distance
learning compared to the traditional way of
learning have many advantages as well as
disadvantages. Advantages of distance learning
include: students have 24 hour access to needed
information; they are given the opportunity to
learn the subject in their own time and speed.
Distance learning is a trend used in many
developed countries [7].
APPLICATIONS
Applying e-education or e-learning to all levels of
schooling has helped to ensure students grasp the
lessons adequately at a faster pace. It has worked
towards bringing together learners, tutors, experts,
practitioners, and other interest groups. E-learning is
an essential opportunity for many pre-primary and
kindergarten kids to learn valuable lessons through
the medium of online technology. Schools are also an
ideal place for free e-learning for kids and distance
learning in preschool, as they offer highly qualified
educational experiences. We consider medical
education and higher education as two common areas
of application of e-education.
 Medical education: E-learning can be used to
teach various topics in medical education, such as
research, clinical skills, ethics, and
professionalism. A wide range of e-learning
modalities are widely integrated in medical
education, which is considered a very significant
strategy in ensuring the quality of health
protection. This includes education leading to the
first professional degree, clinical education which
is the preparation for general medical, and
obligatory continuous, life-long education of each
doctor. The major aim of medical education is to
educate doctors who are entitled to practice their
profession with no restrictions, based on what
they learned. Medical education process should
include both biological and social sciences as a
social/economic aspect of health care. Doctors are
destined to lifelong learning. Expansion of
Internet use in medicine is truly spectacular.
Information technologies are becoming a tool
today without which further education of both
medical students and doctors is not possible.
Within medical education, digital libraries have
been established to manage access to e-learning
materials. Some medical schools and healthcare
organizations are already producing high-fidelity
e-learning materials. Distance learning has been
introduced in medical curriculum and training. It
enables permanent learning or lifelong learning,
where students can improve themselves
professionally at place and time. Distance
learning in medicine has impact on telemedicine
and practicing medicine as well [7]. Figure 4
shows an example of using e-learning in medical
training [8].
 Higher Education: E-learning is becoming
increasingly prominent in higher education, with
universities increasing provision and more
students signing up. Higher education institutions
worldwide have been pushed to experiment e-
learning as the traditional class-based learning
during Covid-19. Currently, higher education
around the world is experiencing a major
transformation, considering increased
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 816
accessibility. Knowledge is being created and
implemented to the higher education setting with
innovative ways to obtain and share information
and changes in technology at a rapid rate.
Flexibility is another major advantage of e-
learning as it provides learners the benefit to take
classes anywhere and anytime. It also provides
equal access to the information regardless of the
users’ locations, their ethnic origins, races, and
ages. E-learning ensures that students are
completely involved as learning takes place
together with texts, videos, sounds, collaborative
sharing, and interactive graphics [9].
BENEFITS
The popularity of e-learning or e-education has
skyrocketed over the past decade. Developments in e-
learning and technologies are creating the
groundwork for a revolution in education. There are
many potential benefits: teachers can reuse
collaboratively prepared course materials; students
can schedule their studies at their own convenience;
and employees can participate in selected subunits for
refreshers. Other advantages of e-learning are the
ability to communicate with fellow classmates, a
greater adaptability to learner's needs, more variety in
learning experience with the non-verbal presentation
of teaching material. Other benefits include the
following [10-12]:
 Convenience: E-learning provides flexibility,
convenience, and the ability to work at any place
where an Internet connection is available and at
one’s own pace.
 Student’s Benefits: The main advantages
students get from e-learning include learner
control, accessibility, availability, and
personalization. E-learning ensures quick delivery
of lessons. E-classes are asynchronous which
allows learners to participate and complete
coursework in accordance with their personal
commitments. Students can take online sessions
after work, in the evening, on the weekends, or
whenever they are free. All they need is a proper
Internet facility, computer or laptop,
microphones, and headphones
 Teacher’s Benefits: E-learning has become an
important tool for teachers worldwide.
 Cost Saving: It is cheaper to study online. There
are no traveling costs, there are no costs of
relocating, and there is no need for expensive
textbooks. All you need is your laptop or PC, and
a good Internet connection.
 Time Saving: E-Learning saves time when
compared to traditional ways of learning. Take
classroom-based learning, a lecture may be held
for an hour a week, and students have to wait
until another week for the next class. With e-
learning, you can study when you want, as often
as you want, in your own time. Also, e-learning
courses can be much more fast-paced when
compared to traditional forms of learning.
 Broader Society: Benefits to the broader society
include increased opportunities for lifelong
learning, communication and exchange essential
to democratic living, and the creation of a pool of
globally competitive human resources.
 Literacy: Society at large will benefit from an
overall increase in literacy and perhaps even
computer literacy. Female literacy remains low in
developing nations.
 Updated Content: Everything changes with
time. Online content can be updated and refreshed
quickly and instantly. This way, learners can be
updated with current trends.
 Time-efficient: Time is precious. It is estimated
that e-learning can reduce learning time by
between 25 and 60% compared to physical in-
person learning. This is due to the fact that
learners can fit learning around their own
schedules and are not slowed down by the needs
of other learners.
 Everywhere Learning: This separation of
learning and geography is what defines eLearning
and makes everything else possible. E-learning
makes it easy for users to learn anytime,
anywhere.
 Affordable: For employers, e-education offers an
affordable, time-efficient way to train employees.
In return, employees benefit from convenient
training that enhances their skills and knowledge.
The digital devices required for e-learning are
affordable.
CHALLENGES
E-education has its own pitfalls or challenges that
must be considered. Critics of e-learning argue that
the process is no longer "educational" in the highest
philosophical sense. They also argue that technical
issues with e-learning and the need for human contact
limit its usefulness for students with other learning
styles. To obtain the desired results online courses
may require more time to prepare than traditional
offline courses. For many courses, online materials
must be updated regularly to remain timely. The
challenge is to transcend the mere exchange of
information and to transform e-education into a range
of learning activities that meet educational objectives.
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 817
Although complex pedagogical approaches have the
potential to provide more engaging learning
experiences for students, they can be difficult to setup
and slow to develop. Othe challenges include the
following [14]:
 Internet Connection: Technological failures can
affect the performance in the course. Reliable
access and a good Internet connection allow a
positive experience in online training and make
the most of the course.
 Investment: The challenge of providing modern
technologies to schools in order to enhance the
quality of learning and teaching will require a
significant investment. The public and private
sectors must join hands to ensure that our children
receive high-quality learning and teaching. We
want all learners to benefit from this investment.
 Digital Divide: This occurs in a world
experiencing increasing disparities between the
rich and poor, between developed and developing
nations. This challenge presents itself within the
context of globalization and polarization. It can be
regarded as an opportunity to take best practices
to the rest of the world and make it applicable in
the best possible ways for the people. Figure 5
shows some of those living in digital divide [15].
 Cheating is Unavoidable: E-learning includes
assessment, just like in a regular classroom
setting. However, there are no teachers or
proctors to watch over the student during exams.
It is easy for online students to cheat and share
answers knowing there is nobody watching.
 Isolation: Among the students, the lack of face-
to-face interaction in their studies is the major
disadvantage of e-learning, There is no
socializing included in digital learning several
students who study through digital mode. Many
students feel a sense of isolation and become
depressed. This is due to little to no human
contact and socializing with peers. Both students
and teachers alike are prone to loneliness in
virtual learning.
 Lack of Basic Needs: Lack of access to basic
needs such as food, shelter, clean water,
electricity, and security has effect on student’s
ability to fully participate in online learning while
at home, especially in developing countries.
CONCLUSION
Electronic learning is used to offer instructional
programs to distant learners. It has been viewed as the
ability to focus on the requirements of individual
learners. The implementation of e-learning or e-
education in education has been favorable. E-learning
is an effective and affordable tool to transfer
knowledge and it has the potential for overtaking the
traditional teaching method.
The future of e-education or e-learning is very bright.
It has many benefits and holds great promise for the
future of training and education. Its demand will
increase as more people realize how convenient it can
be to study or advance their education. Future
education can be expected to require a deeper
technological connection between students and
learning environments, in a manner requiring
significant use of sensors, mobile devices, cloud
computing and rich-media visualization [16]. More
information about e-education can be found in the
books in [17-26] and the following related journals:
 Journal of Education and e-Learning Research
 The Turkish Online Journal of Educational
Technology
 Electronic Journal of e-Learning
 The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning
 International Journal of e-Education, e-Business,
e-Management and e-Learning
 International Journal of Innovative Science and
Research Technology
 International Journal on New Trends in Education
and Their Implications
 International Journal of E-Learning & Distance
Education
REFERENCES
[1] “Draft white paper on e-education,” August
2003,
https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_doc
ument/201409/e-education1.pdf
[2] “e-Education or e-Learning,”
http://www.sneakerala.com/ldce/IT/11c-e-
Learning.phttp://www.sneakerala.com/ldce/IT/
11c-e-Learning.pdf
[3] https://www.crushpixel.com/stock-
photo/digital-native-students-elearning-over-
4882954.html
[4] I. Bouchrika, “What is elearning? types,
advantages, and drawbacks,”
https://research.com/education/what-is-
elearning
[5] S. Aljawarneh et al., “E-learning tools and
technologies in education: A perspective,”
https://linc.mit.edu/linc2010/proceedings/sessio
n16Aljawarneh.pdf
[6] D. Bjekić, R. Krneta, and D. Milošević,
“Teacher education from e-learner to e-teacher:
Master curriculum,” The Turkish Online
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 818
Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 9, no.
1, January 2010, pp. 202-212.
[7] I. Masic, “E-learning as new method of medical
education,” Acta Informatica Media, vol.16, no.
2, 2008, pp. 102–117.
[8] “How e-learning can improve medical
education and patient outcomes,” May 2023,
https://www.healthsoul.com/blog/how-e-
learning-can-improve-medical-education-and-
patient-outcomes
[9] A. Z. Al Rawashdeh et al., “Advantages and
disadvantages of using e-learning in university
education: Analyzing students’ perspectives,”
The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, vol. 19,
no. 3, 2021, pp. 107-117.
[10] “What is E-learning and know the importance
of elearning in education,”
https://www.digitalclassworld.com/blog/import
ance-of-elearning-in-education/
[11] “Importance of eLearning,”
https://www.cae.net/e-learning-education-10-
tips-to-get-the-most-out-of-it/
[12] L. Hurley, “Benefits of eLearning,”
https://learnopoly.com/benefits-of-elearning/
[13] “E-learning education: 10 tips to get the most
out of it,” https://www.cae.net/e-learning-
education-10-tips-to-get-the-most-out-of-it/
[14] “Helping people get computers &
connectivity,” Unknown Source.
[15] A. M. Thomas et al., E-Education 3.0:
Challenges and Opportunities for the Future of
iCampuses,” Proceedings of 2012 Sixth
International Conference on Complex,
Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems,
July 2012.
[16] F. Lang et al. (eds.), E-Learning, E-Education,
and Online Training: 5th EAI International
Conference, ELEOT 2019, Kunming, China,
August 18–19, 2019, Proceedings. Springer,
2019.
[17] W. Horton, E-Learning by Design. Wiley,
2011.
[18] J. Herrington, T. C. Reeves, and R. Oliver, A
Guide to Authentic E-Learning. Taylor &
Francis, 2009.
[19] R. Ellis and P. Goodyear, Students' Experiences
of E-Learning in Higher Education: The
Ecology of Sustainable Innovation. Taylor &
Francis, 2013.
[20] A. Bucciero, C. Vaz de Carvalho, and G.
Vincenti (eds.), E-Learning, E-Education, and
Online Training: Second International
Conference, ELEOT 2015, Novedrate, Italy,
September 16-18, 2015, Revised Selected
Papers. Springer 2016.
[21] M. Foox and J. M. Broekman, E-education and
the Web: E-education Brochures NR. I.
iUniverse, 2006.
[22] G. I. Maeroff, A Classroom of One: How
Online Learning Is Changing Our Schools and
Colleges. St. Martin's Press, 2004.
[23] B. H. Khan et al. (eds.), Challenges and
Opportunities for the Global Implementation of
E-Learning Frameworks. IGI Global, 2021.
[24] J. E. Pelet (ed.), E-learning 2.0 Technologies
and Web Applications in Higher Education.
Information Science Reference, 2013.
[25] C. Ghaoui, E-education Applications: Human
Factors and Innovative Approaches.
Information Science Pub., 2004.
Figure 1 Digital natives experiencing e-learning over their laptops [3].

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E Education An Introduction

  • 1. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 7 Issue 4, July-August 2023 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 813 E-Education: An Introduction Matthew N. O. Sadiku1, Paul A. Adekunte2, Janet O. Sadiku3 1 Roy G. Perry College of Engineering, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA 2 International Institute of Professional Security, Lagos, Nigeria 3 Juliana King University, Houston, Texas, USA ABSTRACT E-education or e-Learning is the process of sharing knowledge through various channels such as e-books, CDs, webinars, etc. Its main aim is to use digital technologies to enhance education. This new model of learning is radically changing our concept of education. It has revolutionized the conventional method of chalk and board style of learning. Today, e-Learning is adopted in almost all training institutions, in both the public and private sectors. This article provides an introduction to e-Education. KEYWORDS: electronic learning, e-learning, e-teaching, electronic education, e-education, online education, distance learning How to cite this paper: Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Paul A. Adekunte | Janet O. Sadiku "E-Education: An Introduction" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-7 | Issue-4, August 2023, pp.813-820, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59812.pdf Copyright © 2023 by author (s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) INTRODUCTION A global revolution is currently taking place in education at all levels. It is driven by the changing nature of work, the realities of the information age, new global partnerships and the growing awareness of the need for equal distribution of educational opportunities. The 21st century has been declared to be the age of information and communication technology (ICT). Educational systems worldwide insist on using information and communication technologies (ICT) to teach students. Our world is changing, and information and communication technology (ICT) is central to this change. The expansion of ICTs is driving significant changes in many aspects of human endeavor throughout the world. Digital media has-revolutionized the information society-and advances in ICTs have dramatically changed the learning and teaching process. The introduction of ICT to our schools will create new possibilities for learners and teachers to engage in new ways of selecting, gathering, sorting, and analyzing information. WHAT IS E-EDUCATION? The concept of e-education revolves around the-use of ICTs to accelerate the achievement of education goals. e-education is about connecting learners and teachers to each other and to professional support services, and providing platforms for learning. It is more than developing computer literacy and the skills necessary to operate various types of information and communication technologies. It is the ability to apply ICT skills to access, analyze, evaluate, integrate, present, and create new knowledge and information [1]. Developments in Internet and multimedia technologies are the basic enabler of e-Education, with content, technologies, and services being identified as the three key sectors of the e-Education industry. Many technologies are being used in e- Education: screencasts, ePortfolios, EPSS (electronic performance support system), web-based teaching materials, hypermedia, web sites and web 2.0 communities. discussion boards, collaborative software, e-mail, blogs, wikis, text chat, computer aided assessment, animation, simulations and games, electronic voting systems, etc. Most e-education IJTSRD59812
  • 2. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 814 situations use combination of these techniques. Web- based training frequently includes interactive methods, such as bulletin boards, chat rooms, instant messaging, and videoconferencing [2]. Communication technologies used in e-learning are generally categorized as asynchronous or synchronous. Asynchronous activities use technologies such as blogs, wikis, and discussion boards. The participants may engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. Synchronous activities occur with all participants joining in at once, as with an online chat session or a virtual classroom or meeting. Virtual classrooms and meetings can often use a combination of communication technologies. The concept of digital natives has become popular, and there are certainly likely to be generational influences on the future of e-Education. Digital natives are those born after 1980. They are actively involved in performing day-to-day activities and learning using technology. Figure 1 shows digital natives experiencing e-learning over their laptops [3]. TYPES OF E-EDUCATION E-education is the delivery of education or any type of training by electronic teaching methods. There are several terms used today to describe e-education. These include e-learning, e-teaching, online learning, Internet learning, online education, distance education, etc. Let us take a closer look at online education, e-learning, e-teaching, and distance education. 1. Online Education: Virtually all public higher education institutions and a vast majority private for-profit institutions now offer online classes. By 2003, more than 1.9 million students were participating in online Education at institutions of higher education in the United States. Independent Student Media has developed a working curriculum that instructs students through an Interactive online textbook. Students generally appear to be satisfied with their online classes as they are with traditional ones. Online education inherits many of the advantages and disadvantages of textbooks and conventional teaching, but also introduces some of its own. A typical example of online education is shown in Figure 2 [4]. Technology has allowed for the development of various methods of delivery for e- learning to suit the various preferences and needs of learners. Companies have heavily invested in developing technology to improve e-learning methods. These companies are involved in the e- education market, including companies such as New Horizons, SkillSoft, Knowledge Anywhere, Epic, LearnKey, TATA Interactive Systems, Transversale Network-TeN, Semanoor, BlueU, and LearningSteps.com. These companies are developing e-education products and leading innovators in the design and development of e- Education in the commercial world. Online education has seen dramatic growth over the past two decades. An online course should have course rigor and coverage equivalent to a course taught in a traditional format. Perhaps the best example of this democratization of education is the provision of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the early 2000s. These are free courses that several colleges offer and allow for unlimited participation by anyone worldwide. There are over 16,000 MOOCs and they have crossed 180 million learners worldwide. 2. E-Learning: In the beginning of the third millennium, a new form of learning called e- learning was introduced. E-learning (sometimes called web-based training, online learning, or technology enhanced learning) is anywhere, anytime instruction delivered over the Internet. It focuses on the electronic networks that allow learners to receive individualized support and have separate, flexible learning schedules. In e- learning, learners and instructors can be together in one place while using digital tools to enhance the learning experience. The term “elearning” was coined by Elliot Masie at his TechLearn Conference in 1999. The term can be used synonymously with web-based training or online tutoring. There are two types of e-learning: synchronous -- instructor-facilitated -- and asynchronous -- self-directed and self-paced. The e-learning decreases the educational costs and it is more effective learning than traditional learning. Globally, it allows the fast dissemination of new techniques and processes, canceling geographic challenges. Users can conveniently access training materials from home via the Internet. E- learning tools can provide training and education to large number of students with diverse cultural backgrounds and educational levels. In USA, e- learning has been more widely spread than in the rest of the world, and in Europe e-learning has tended to be focused in some European nations such as the UK, France, and Germany. Numerous universities worldwide are now offering e- learning sites (portal) for academic and administrative purposes. Blackboard and MOODLE are two popular web-based learning management systems widely used in education.
  • 3. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 815 Blackboard is a hybrid teaching tool. It can be used by lecturers throughout the lecture to discuss ideas or identify main points. MOODLE stands for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, built by Martin Douglas at Curtin University, Australia. It is a free software package designed to help lecturers and students as a tool to provide in creation of quality teaching [5]. 3. E-Teaching: Teaching and learning discourse has been changed. It is necessary for teachers in e- education environment to acquire sufficient knowledge about e-teaching and e-learning. While e-learning is centered on learner, e- teaching focuses on teachers. The term “teaching” is used in two ways: teaching as the teacher activities and teaching as the system of instructional activities. E-teaching is the system designed to improve teachers’ performance, and their self-regulation and motivation. It is the instructional system of processes and activities designed according to the ICT development, characteristics, and models of e-learning. Its service designs are aimed at supporting teachers to teach effectively in an e-learning environment. As shown in Figure 3, realization of e-teaching requires that the teacher has mastered the wide repertoires of knowledge and skills involved in the fundamental categories of professional competencies [6]. Teaching and learning activities can be done easily by students anytime and anywhere. 4. Distance Learning: Distance learning or learning from the distance has been introduced in medical curriculum and training. This is any educational or learning process in which the teacher and instructor are separated geographically or in time. It enables permanent learning or lifelong learning, where students can improve themselves professionally at place and time. Distance learning does not preclude traditional learning processes; it is used in conjunction with in-person classroom or professional training. Distance learning compared to the traditional way of learning have many advantages as well as disadvantages. Advantages of distance learning include: students have 24 hour access to needed information; they are given the opportunity to learn the subject in their own time and speed. Distance learning is a trend used in many developed countries [7]. APPLICATIONS Applying e-education or e-learning to all levels of schooling has helped to ensure students grasp the lessons adequately at a faster pace. It has worked towards bringing together learners, tutors, experts, practitioners, and other interest groups. E-learning is an essential opportunity for many pre-primary and kindergarten kids to learn valuable lessons through the medium of online technology. Schools are also an ideal place for free e-learning for kids and distance learning in preschool, as they offer highly qualified educational experiences. We consider medical education and higher education as two common areas of application of e-education.  Medical education: E-learning can be used to teach various topics in medical education, such as research, clinical skills, ethics, and professionalism. A wide range of e-learning modalities are widely integrated in medical education, which is considered a very significant strategy in ensuring the quality of health protection. This includes education leading to the first professional degree, clinical education which is the preparation for general medical, and obligatory continuous, life-long education of each doctor. The major aim of medical education is to educate doctors who are entitled to practice their profession with no restrictions, based on what they learned. Medical education process should include both biological and social sciences as a social/economic aspect of health care. Doctors are destined to lifelong learning. Expansion of Internet use in medicine is truly spectacular. Information technologies are becoming a tool today without which further education of both medical students and doctors is not possible. Within medical education, digital libraries have been established to manage access to e-learning materials. Some medical schools and healthcare organizations are already producing high-fidelity e-learning materials. Distance learning has been introduced in medical curriculum and training. It enables permanent learning or lifelong learning, where students can improve themselves professionally at place and time. Distance learning in medicine has impact on telemedicine and practicing medicine as well [7]. Figure 4 shows an example of using e-learning in medical training [8].  Higher Education: E-learning is becoming increasingly prominent in higher education, with universities increasing provision and more students signing up. Higher education institutions worldwide have been pushed to experiment e- learning as the traditional class-based learning during Covid-19. Currently, higher education around the world is experiencing a major transformation, considering increased
  • 4. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 816 accessibility. Knowledge is being created and implemented to the higher education setting with innovative ways to obtain and share information and changes in technology at a rapid rate. Flexibility is another major advantage of e- learning as it provides learners the benefit to take classes anywhere and anytime. It also provides equal access to the information regardless of the users’ locations, their ethnic origins, races, and ages. E-learning ensures that students are completely involved as learning takes place together with texts, videos, sounds, collaborative sharing, and interactive graphics [9]. BENEFITS The popularity of e-learning or e-education has skyrocketed over the past decade. Developments in e- learning and technologies are creating the groundwork for a revolution in education. There are many potential benefits: teachers can reuse collaboratively prepared course materials; students can schedule their studies at their own convenience; and employees can participate in selected subunits for refreshers. Other advantages of e-learning are the ability to communicate with fellow classmates, a greater adaptability to learner's needs, more variety in learning experience with the non-verbal presentation of teaching material. Other benefits include the following [10-12]:  Convenience: E-learning provides flexibility, convenience, and the ability to work at any place where an Internet connection is available and at one’s own pace.  Student’s Benefits: The main advantages students get from e-learning include learner control, accessibility, availability, and personalization. E-learning ensures quick delivery of lessons. E-classes are asynchronous which allows learners to participate and complete coursework in accordance with their personal commitments. Students can take online sessions after work, in the evening, on the weekends, or whenever they are free. All they need is a proper Internet facility, computer or laptop, microphones, and headphones  Teacher’s Benefits: E-learning has become an important tool for teachers worldwide.  Cost Saving: It is cheaper to study online. There are no traveling costs, there are no costs of relocating, and there is no need for expensive textbooks. All you need is your laptop or PC, and a good Internet connection.  Time Saving: E-Learning saves time when compared to traditional ways of learning. Take classroom-based learning, a lecture may be held for an hour a week, and students have to wait until another week for the next class. With e- learning, you can study when you want, as often as you want, in your own time. Also, e-learning courses can be much more fast-paced when compared to traditional forms of learning.  Broader Society: Benefits to the broader society include increased opportunities for lifelong learning, communication and exchange essential to democratic living, and the creation of a pool of globally competitive human resources.  Literacy: Society at large will benefit from an overall increase in literacy and perhaps even computer literacy. Female literacy remains low in developing nations.  Updated Content: Everything changes with time. Online content can be updated and refreshed quickly and instantly. This way, learners can be updated with current trends.  Time-efficient: Time is precious. It is estimated that e-learning can reduce learning time by between 25 and 60% compared to physical in- person learning. This is due to the fact that learners can fit learning around their own schedules and are not slowed down by the needs of other learners.  Everywhere Learning: This separation of learning and geography is what defines eLearning and makes everything else possible. E-learning makes it easy for users to learn anytime, anywhere.  Affordable: For employers, e-education offers an affordable, time-efficient way to train employees. In return, employees benefit from convenient training that enhances their skills and knowledge. The digital devices required for e-learning are affordable. CHALLENGES E-education has its own pitfalls or challenges that must be considered. Critics of e-learning argue that the process is no longer "educational" in the highest philosophical sense. They also argue that technical issues with e-learning and the need for human contact limit its usefulness for students with other learning styles. To obtain the desired results online courses may require more time to prepare than traditional offline courses. For many courses, online materials must be updated regularly to remain timely. The challenge is to transcend the mere exchange of information and to transform e-education into a range of learning activities that meet educational objectives.
  • 5. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 817 Although complex pedagogical approaches have the potential to provide more engaging learning experiences for students, they can be difficult to setup and slow to develop. Othe challenges include the following [14]:  Internet Connection: Technological failures can affect the performance in the course. Reliable access and a good Internet connection allow a positive experience in online training and make the most of the course.  Investment: The challenge of providing modern technologies to schools in order to enhance the quality of learning and teaching will require a significant investment. The public and private sectors must join hands to ensure that our children receive high-quality learning and teaching. We want all learners to benefit from this investment.  Digital Divide: This occurs in a world experiencing increasing disparities between the rich and poor, between developed and developing nations. This challenge presents itself within the context of globalization and polarization. It can be regarded as an opportunity to take best practices to the rest of the world and make it applicable in the best possible ways for the people. Figure 5 shows some of those living in digital divide [15].  Cheating is Unavoidable: E-learning includes assessment, just like in a regular classroom setting. However, there are no teachers or proctors to watch over the student during exams. It is easy for online students to cheat and share answers knowing there is nobody watching.  Isolation: Among the students, the lack of face- to-face interaction in their studies is the major disadvantage of e-learning, There is no socializing included in digital learning several students who study through digital mode. Many students feel a sense of isolation and become depressed. This is due to little to no human contact and socializing with peers. Both students and teachers alike are prone to loneliness in virtual learning.  Lack of Basic Needs: Lack of access to basic needs such as food, shelter, clean water, electricity, and security has effect on student’s ability to fully participate in online learning while at home, especially in developing countries. CONCLUSION Electronic learning is used to offer instructional programs to distant learners. It has been viewed as the ability to focus on the requirements of individual learners. The implementation of e-learning or e- education in education has been favorable. E-learning is an effective and affordable tool to transfer knowledge and it has the potential for overtaking the traditional teaching method. The future of e-education or e-learning is very bright. It has many benefits and holds great promise for the future of training and education. Its demand will increase as more people realize how convenient it can be to study or advance their education. Future education can be expected to require a deeper technological connection between students and learning environments, in a manner requiring significant use of sensors, mobile devices, cloud computing and rich-media visualization [16]. More information about e-education can be found in the books in [17-26] and the following related journals:  Journal of Education and e-Learning Research  The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology  Electronic Journal of e-Learning  The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning  International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning  International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology  International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications  International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education REFERENCES [1] “Draft white paper on e-education,” August 2003, https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_doc ument/201409/e-education1.pdf [2] “e-Education or e-Learning,” http://www.sneakerala.com/ldce/IT/11c-e- Learning.phttp://www.sneakerala.com/ldce/IT/ 11c-e-Learning.pdf [3] https://www.crushpixel.com/stock- photo/digital-native-students-elearning-over- 4882954.html [4] I. Bouchrika, “What is elearning? types, advantages, and drawbacks,” https://research.com/education/what-is- elearning [5] S. Aljawarneh et al., “E-learning tools and technologies in education: A perspective,” https://linc.mit.edu/linc2010/proceedings/sessio n16Aljawarneh.pdf [6] D. Bjekić, R. Krneta, and D. Milošević, “Teacher education from e-learner to e-teacher: Master curriculum,” The Turkish Online
  • 6. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 818 Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, January 2010, pp. 202-212. [7] I. Masic, “E-learning as new method of medical education,” Acta Informatica Media, vol.16, no. 2, 2008, pp. 102–117. [8] “How e-learning can improve medical education and patient outcomes,” May 2023, https://www.healthsoul.com/blog/how-e- learning-can-improve-medical-education-and- patient-outcomes [9] A. Z. Al Rawashdeh et al., “Advantages and disadvantages of using e-learning in university education: Analyzing students’ perspectives,” The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, vol. 19, no. 3, 2021, pp. 107-117. [10] “What is E-learning and know the importance of elearning in education,” https://www.digitalclassworld.com/blog/import ance-of-elearning-in-education/ [11] “Importance of eLearning,” https://www.cae.net/e-learning-education-10- tips-to-get-the-most-out-of-it/ [12] L. Hurley, “Benefits of eLearning,” https://learnopoly.com/benefits-of-elearning/ [13] “E-learning education: 10 tips to get the most out of it,” https://www.cae.net/e-learning- education-10-tips-to-get-the-most-out-of-it/ [14] “Helping people get computers & connectivity,” Unknown Source. [15] A. M. Thomas et al., E-Education 3.0: Challenges and Opportunities for the Future of iCampuses,” Proceedings of 2012 Sixth International Conference on Complex, Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems, July 2012. [16] F. Lang et al. (eds.), E-Learning, E-Education, and Online Training: 5th EAI International Conference, ELEOT 2019, Kunming, China, August 18–19, 2019, Proceedings. Springer, 2019. [17] W. Horton, E-Learning by Design. Wiley, 2011. [18] J. Herrington, T. C. Reeves, and R. Oliver, A Guide to Authentic E-Learning. Taylor & Francis, 2009. [19] R. Ellis and P. Goodyear, Students' Experiences of E-Learning in Higher Education: The Ecology of Sustainable Innovation. Taylor & Francis, 2013. [20] A. Bucciero, C. Vaz de Carvalho, and G. Vincenti (eds.), E-Learning, E-Education, and Online Training: Second International Conference, ELEOT 2015, Novedrate, Italy, September 16-18, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Springer 2016. [21] M. Foox and J. M. Broekman, E-education and the Web: E-education Brochures NR. I. iUniverse, 2006. [22] G. I. Maeroff, A Classroom of One: How Online Learning Is Changing Our Schools and Colleges. St. Martin's Press, 2004. [23] B. H. Khan et al. (eds.), Challenges and Opportunities for the Global Implementation of E-Learning Frameworks. IGI Global, 2021. [24] J. E. Pelet (ed.), E-learning 2.0 Technologies and Web Applications in Higher Education. Information Science Reference, 2013. [25] C. Ghaoui, E-education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches. Information Science Pub., 2004. Figure 1 Digital natives experiencing e-learning over their laptops [3].
  • 7. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 819 Figure 2 A typical example of online education [4]. Figure 3 Structure of teachers’ competence [6]. Figure 4 An example of using e-learning in medical training [8].
  • 8. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59812 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 820 Figure 5 Those living in digital divide [15].