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A Study of Central Nervous System CNS Effect of Xanthium Strumarium in Swiss Albino Mice

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Xanthium strumarium L. Family Asteraceae, a common weed in North America, Brazil, China, Malaysia, and the drier regions of India, is a medicinal plant. The herb has historically been used to treat a variety of illnesses. Traditional medicine has used extracts of the entire plant, particularly the leaves, roots, fruits, and seeds, to treat conditions like leucoderma, epilepsy, salivation, chronic malaria, rheumatism, tuberculosis, allergic rhinitis, sinitis, urticaria, rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diarrhoea, leprosy, lumbago, pruritis, bacterial infections, and fungal infections. In this present study, we investigated neurobehavioral activity of ethanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L in mice as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The effects of the plant extract on CNS were studied by using Elevated plus maze test, Hole board test, Hole cross test, open field test. The overall results suggest that the ethanol extract of Xanthium strumarium have significant effect on CNS. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies in order to confirm traditional insight in the light of a rational phytotherapy. Majedul Hoque | Md Mahabur Rahman | Md Nasir Uddin "A Study of Central Nervous System (CNS) Effect of Xanthium Strumarium in Swiss Albino Mice" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-7 | Issue-4, August 2023, URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59832.pdf Paper Url:https://www.ijtsrd.com/pharmacy/pharmacognosy-/59832/a-study-of-central-nervous-system-cns-effect-of-xanthium-strumarium-in-swiss-albino-mice/majedul-hoque

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)
Volume 7 Issue 4, July-August 2023 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 936
A Study of Central Nervous System (CNS)
Effect of Xanthium Strumarium in Swiss Albino Mice
Majedul Hoque, Md Mahabur Rahman, Md Nasir Uddin
PG Student, Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
ABSTRACT
Xanthium strumarium L. (Family: Asteraceae), a common weed in
North America, Brazil, China, Malaysia, and the drier regions of
India, is a medicinal plant. The herb has historically been used to
treat a variety of illnesses. Traditional medicine has used extracts of
the entire plant, particularly the leaves, roots, fruits, and seeds, to
treat conditions like leucoderma, epilepsy, salivation, chronic
malaria, rheumatism, tuberculosis, allergic rhinitis, sinitis, urticaria,
rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diarrhoea, leprosy, lumbago,
pruritis, bacterial infections, and fungal infections. In this present
study, we investigated neurobehavioral activity of ethanol extract of
Xanthium strumarium L in mice as a part of a
psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The effects of the
plant extract on CNS were studied by using Elevated plus maze test,
Hole board test, Hole cross test, open field test. The overall results
suggest that the ethanol extract of Xanthium strumarium have
significant effect on CNS. However, future efforts should concentrate
more on in vitro and in vivo studies in order to confirm traditional
insight in the light of a rational phytotherapy.
KEYWORDS: Xanthium strumarium, statistical analysis, EPM test,
effect, CNS
How to cite this paper: Majedul Hoque |
Md Mahabur Rahman | Md Nasir Uddin
"A Study of Central Nervous System
(CNS) Effect of Xanthium Strumarium
in Swiss Albino Mice" Published in
International
Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research
and Development
(ijtsrd), ISSN:
2456-6470,
Volume-7 | Issue-4,
August 2023,
pp.936-945, URL:
www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59832.pdf
Copyright © 2023 by author (s) and
International Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research and Development
Journal. This is an
Open Access article
distributed under the
terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
1. INTRODUCTION
Since the start of time, nature has been the most
reliable source of possible pharmacological
ingredients. The enormous structural variety of
molecules derived from natural sources is used as a
"lead" source for the creation of novel medications
that have better pharmacological action and fewer
negative effects. Now it is clear that neurological
conditions are major global health issues. This is
reflected in the Global Burden of Disease Study,
jointly published by the World Health Organization
and othergroups. Therefore, there is a strong need of
new antioxidants, anti- nociceptives, and CNS
depressants from natural sources for the development
of novel drug products. The word "xanthium" refers to
the seedpods, which change from green to yellow as
they ripen (later they become deep yellow to brown),
and is derived from the ancient Greek words
"xanthos," which means yellow, and "strumarium,"
which means "cushionlike swelling."[1]. Because of
the way its fruit, which resembles a cow's toe, is
shaped, it is frequently referred to as chotagokhru.
Due to its usage in treating the common condition
hemicrania, this weed is known as adhasisi in various
parts of India. There are 25 species in the genus
Xanthium, all of which are native to America. In
Europe, North America, and Brazil, Xanthium
spinosum Linn. and X. strumarium Linn. are used as
medicines; Xanthium canadens Mill. is used in North
America and Brazil, and X. strumarium Linn. in
China, India, and Malaysia[2]. More than 170
chemical compounds, including sesquiterpene
lactones, phenols, glycosides, alkaloids, fatty acids,
and others, have been extracted and identified from
the plant X. strumarium as a result of the numerous
research that have been done thus far on its
pharmacology and phytochemistry[3]. Additionally,
growing proof suggests that X. strumarium has a
broad range of pharmacological effects, including
effects on the nervous and digestive systems, as well
as analgesic and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant,
hypoglycemic, anti-cancer, antibacterial and
antifungal, anti-trypanosomal, and anti-tussive
activities[4]. The herb itself is thought to be harmful,
however washing and cooking get rid ofthe poisonous
IJTSRD59832
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elements[5]. Attractyloside and chlorogenic acid are
employed as the quality indicator substances for
evaluating the quality of the fruits of X. strumarium,
which are still often used in Traditional Chinese
Medicine (TCM) and are mentioned in the CHP[6].In
this present study, we investigated neurobehavioral
activity of ethanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L
in mice as a part of a psychopharmacological
screening of this plant. The effects of the plant extract
on CNS were studied by using Elevated plus maze
test, Hole board test, Hole cross test, open field test.
The overall results suggest that the ethanol extract of
X. strumarium have significant effect on CNS.
However, future efforts should concentrate more on in
vitro and in vivo studies in order to confirm traditional
wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy.
1.1. Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiosperms
Sub-Division: Eudicots
Class: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Xanthium
Species: X. strumarium
2. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM SIDE
EFFECTS
X. strumarium is poisonous to mammals. It is
reported to have medium to strong allergenic effects.
The toxic principle is a sulphated glycoside,
carboxyatractyloside, found in the seeds and during
the two-leaf seedling stage. The mature plant is
reported as non-toxic, although toxicosis has been
reported in cattle which had ingested mature plants
with burs despite the general belief that ingestion of
burs should be limited by mechanical injury during
mastication[7-8]. It is known to result in losses in
cattle, horses, goats, pigs, sheep, and swine, as well as
reduced weight gain in poultry[8-9]. The plant is a
potential cause of sudden death in pigs extensively
reared in Zimbabwe, which is revealed by an
investigation in which six healthy porkers of the
Mukota breed were fed and libitum either crushed
burs (fruits) or the two-leaf seedling stage of
Xanthium.
3. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
Warmer climates are where X. strumarium typically
thrives. It is an annual herb that can grow up to 1 m
tall and has a short, sturdy, hairy stem. The leaves are
broadly alternating and triangular-ovate or
suborbicular in shape, with irregular lobes and rather
inconspicuous teeth. They are 5–15 cm long,
frequently three-lobed, have prominent veins, a long
petiole, and are scabrous on both sides. Fruits have
two hooked beaks and hooked bristles and are
obovoid in shape. They are surrounded in a hardened
involucre. August through September are India's
flowering months. Due to the fruits' hooked bristles
and two robust hooked beaks, this plant is easily
spread by animals. The seeds ripen from August to
October, and it blooms from July to October. Insects
fertilise the monoecious flowers, which are. The plant
reproduces on its own. When the fruits are ready, they
are picked and dried for use[10].
Figure 1. Xanthium strumarium L. A–D
represent the whole plants (A), leaves (B),
inflorescence (C) and fruits (D) of X. strumarium
L.
4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.1. Plant material
The plant samples were collected from the fruit of
Xanthium strumarium .
4.2. Preparation of the extract
We dried The fruits parts at room temperature under
shade for between 9 - 14 days and thencrushed into
coarse powder with a pestle and mortal. The powdered
fruit was exhaustively extracted with methanol using
soxhlet apparatus. The solvent in both cases were
removed at reduced pressure.
4.3. Animals
We used Swiss albino mice (28-35g) of male sex for
the study. The animals were kept and maintained
under laboratory conditions of temperature, humidity
and light, and were allowedfree access to food and
water. All experiments were conducted in accordance
with animal use ethics as accepted internationally.
4.4. Drug
We used Benzodiazepum tablet(5mg/body weight) as
a standard.
4.5. Dose and Route of Administration
The mice were administered at a dose o 250 gm/kg
body weight of Xanthium strumarium which
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considered as 1X dose and another 500 gm/kg body
weight of Xanthium strumarium which considered as
2X dose.
The route of administration was per oral (p.o)
Location and duration: This study conducted at
pharmacology lab of Jahangirnagar University from
october 2022 to march 2023.
5. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES FOR CNS
ACTIVITY TEST
5.1. Elevated plus Maze Test:
The elevated plus maze (EPM) is a test that assesses
anxiety in lab animals that often employs rats as a
screening test for potential anxiolytic or anxiogenic
substances and as a general research tool in studies of
neurobiological anxiety, includingPTSD and TBI[11].
Principle: The general principle is that the more
“anxious” the subject are, the less likely they will be
to explore and uncomfortable, risky or threatening
environment.
Procedure: The elevated plus maze (EPM) is an
anxiety test for lab animals that often employs mice
as a screening test for potential anxiolytic or
anxiogenic substances and as a general research tool
in studies of neurobiological anxiety, such as PTSD
and TBI. The model is based on the test animal's
aversion to open spaces and tendency to be
thigmotaxic. In the EPM, this anxiety is expressed by
the animal spending more time in the enclosed arms.
5.2. Hole Board Test
Principle: The basic idea behind the test is that
unfamiliar outdoor situations cause animals to exhibit
a pattern of behaviour that includes emotional
defecation, movement, and exploration (head dipping
through the hole during exploration).
Procedure: The holeboard test is mainly used for
assessing exploratory behaviors in rodents. The
animal is placed on an arena with regularly arranged
holes on the floor Then, over a brief period of time,
the frequency and duration of spontaneously evoked
hole-poking behaviour was measured.
5.3. Hole cross test
Principle: This study examines the effects of the
medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium on the central
nervous system by measuring locomotor activity. The
experiment shows the impact on the animals'
locomotor activity.
Procedure: Each mouse was immediately placed on
one side of the specified instrument, after oral
administration of test drugs. The spontaneous
movement of the mice from one chamber to other
through the hole was observed for 3 min. The
observation was conducted at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120
min.
5.4. Open field test
Principle: The test is set up so that the test animals
are not given any pacific tasks to complete. It has been
reported that in absence of any specific task to
perform, the behavior of a given animal tends to
maintain that inner activation level that is at precise
times in consistence with theactual level of activation
of animals.
Procedure: In rodent models of CNS diseases, the
Open Field task is a straightforward sensorimotor test
used to assess general activity levels, gross locomotor
activity, and exploratory preferences. An evaluation is
conducted in a box made of square, white Plexiglas.
The animal is placed in the arena and allowed to freely
move about for 10 minutes while being recorded by an
overhead camera. The footage is then analyzed by an
automated tracking system for the following
parameters: distance moved, velocity, and time spent
in pre-defined zones. The Open Field test can be used
to phenotype transgenic mouse strains and assess how
new chemical substances affect overall activity.
Statistical Analysis
Data were analyzed by One way ANOVA following
Dunnet’s post hoc test using SPSS 16.0 and presented
as Mean±SEM, (n=6). * (p<0.05) = significance, **
(p<0.01) = highly significance, and *** (p<0.001) =
very highly significance as compared to control group.
6. RESULT AND DISCUSSION ON CENTRAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM PROPERTY
6.1. Elevated plus maze test:
The elevated plus maze test is based on mice's innate
dislike of elevated and open spaces as well as on their
spontaneous natural exploration of new environments.
6.1.1. in open arm:
During 1 hour later for standard dose, the result was
highly significant.
And during 2 hours and 3 hours later for standard
doses, the result was very highly significant. This
indicates, it has better effects on CNS system.
During 2 hours and 3 hours later for 1X and 2X
doses, the result was very highly significant. This
also indicates, the medicinal plant Xanthium
strumarium has the best effects on CNS system.
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Table 1: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the time spent in Open arm in Elevated plus Maze test inmice.
Group
Time Spent in Open Arm (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 1 Hour 2 Hours 3 Hours
Control 61.33±4.49 52.67±1.87 49.33±2.03 60.0±1.88
STD (Benzodiazepum 5mg/kg) 59.33±2.87 175.0±45.83** 13.33±4.90*** 16.33±4.98***
XS 1x 57.00±7.57 18.67±4.49 11.67±2.68*** 9.50±1.73***
XS 2x 57.83±3.55 28.17±5.08 21.67±5.19*** 30.17±6.37***
Figure 2: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the time spent in Open arm in Elevated Plus Maze test in mice.
6.1.2. In closed arm:
During 2 hours and 3 hours later for Standard dose, the result was very highly significant. Thisindicates the
best CNS effects of the plant extract.
During 2 hours and 3 hours later for 1X and 2X doses, the result was also very highly significant. This also
indicates the best CNS effects of the plant extract.
Table 2: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the time spent in Close arm in Elevated Plus Maze test inmice
Group
Time Spent in Close Arm (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 1 Hour 2 Hours 3 Hours
Control 118.67±4.49 127.33±1.87 130.67±2.03 120.0±1.88
STD (Benzodiazepum 5 mg/kg) 120.67±2.87 160.33±2.75 166.67±4.90*** 162.0±4.32***
XS 1x 121.33±8.04 161.33±4.49 168.33±2.68*** 170.50±1.73***
XS 2x 122.17±3.55 153.50±5.16 158.33±5.19*** 149.83±6.37***
Figure 3: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the time spent in Close arm in Elevated Plus Maze test in mice.
6.2. Hole board test
This experiment is carried out to get a clear picture of the CNS effect under consideration on the pattern of
behaviour by spontaneous ambulatory activity, exploratory activity and emotional defecation of animals. This
experiment present with a different and more complex environment to explore.
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6.2.1. Area Exploration:
There is no significance result for area exploration for total time periods for control, standard, 1X and 2X doses.
This indicates there have no effect of the plant extract on CNS system.
Table 3: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “Ambulation” in Hole Board test in mice.
Group
Number of travel of “Ambulation” (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min 180 min
Control 9.67±1.20 11.00±2.67 10.67±2.59 12.17±4.16 10.50±3.73
STD (Benzodiazepum5mg/kg) 12.00±2.58 9.67±3.44 5.50±2.77 4.5±1.11 6.0±1.0
XS 1x 10.83±3.27 10.67±3.91 13.50±4.63 11.00±3.68 10.17±3.22
XS 2x 8.50±3.19 9.33±3.30 13.17±3.98 12.33±5.93 12.33±5.58
Figure 4: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “A” in Hole Board test in mice.
6.2.2. Head Dipping:
There is moderate significant result for Head dipping for total time periods for control, standard,1X and2X doses.
Table 4: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “Head Dipping” in Hole Board test in mice.
Group
Number of “Head Dipping” (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min 180 min
Control 11.17±5.15 7.33±3.66 7.67±2.66 8.83±3.42 8.33±2.80
STD (Benzodiazepum5 mg/kg) 9.17±2.21 1.33±0.42 0.33±0.21 0.83±0.31 1.33±0.42
XS 1x 8.33±3.33 5.50±2.17 7.50±3.06 6.83±3.26 4.83±2.03
XS 2x 12.00±4.31 5.33±1.89 6.50±2.95 6.50±3.94 5.33±3.03
Figure 5: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “HD” in Hole Board test in mice.
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6.2.3. Defecation:
In that cases, there is significant result in defecation for total time periods for control, standard, 1X and 2X
doses. So we cannot expect positive result from that.
Table 5: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “D” in Hole Board test in mice.
Group
Number of “D” (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min 180 min
Control 0.83±0.31 0.83±0.31 0.50±0.22 0.50±0.22 0.50±0.22
STD (Benzodiazepum5mg/kg) 0.33±0.21 0.33±0.21 1.83±0.60 1.50±0.62 0.33±0.21
XS 1x 1.17±0.41 0.17±0.17 0.83±0.48 0.50±0.22 0.67±0.21
XS 2x 1.17±0.67 1.50±0.56 1.83±0.70 1.0±0.52 1.17±0.48
Figure 6: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “D” in Hole Board test in mice
6.3. Hole cross test:
The experiment was designed to find out whether the drugs under consideration have any effect on exploratory
behavior or not. In that cases, there is also moderate significant result for total time periods for control, standard,
1X and 2X doses. So we can expect positive result from that.
Table 6: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the number of Hole Cross test in mice.
Group
Number of Hole Cross (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min 180 min
Control 0.17±0.17 0.33±0.21 0.33±0.00 0.17±0.17 0.17±0.17
STD (Benzodiazepum5mg/kg) 0.17±0.17 0.50±0.34 2.37±1.76 1.50±1.31 0.56±0.00
XS 1x 0.33±0.21 1.0±0.52 1.67±0.67 1.83±0.87 1.17±0.54
XS 2x 0.17±0.17 0.17±0.17 1.0±0.82 1.0±1.0 0.67±0.67
Figure 7: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the number of Hole Cross test in mice.
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6.4. Open field test
The test was designed in such a manner so that the test animal was not assigned to performed any specific task. it
has been reported that in the absence of any specific task to perform, the behaviors of a given animal tends to
maintain that inner activation level that is at precise time in consistence with the actual level of activation of the
animal. The open field test was designed to assess the effect of any each substance on the exploratory activity of
the animals.
6.4.1. Center Tendency:
There is no significant result for control, standard, 1x and 2X doses during the total period of time.
Table 7: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “Number of move to the center”in Open Field test in mice.
Group
Number of travel to center (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min
Control 0.17±0.17 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00
STD (Benzodiazepum5 mg/kg) 0.00±0.00 0.17±0.17 0.50±0.34 0.00±0.00
XS 1x 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00 0.33±0.33 0.33±0.33
XS 2x 0.17±0.17 0.00±0.00 0.17±0.17 0.00±0.00
Figure 8: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “C” in Open Field test in mice.
6.4.2. Stool:
There is significant result for control, standard, 1x and 2X doses during the total period of time.
Table 8: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “S” in Open Field test in mice.
Group
Number of travel in “S” (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min
Control 0.83±0.40 0.67±0.67 0.17±0.17 0.83±0.40
STD (Benzodiazepum 5 mg/kg) 1.0±0.63 0.67±0.67 0.83±0.31 0.00±0.00
XS 1x 1.17±0.48 1.17±0.60 0.83±0.66 0.33±0.33
XS 2x 0.67±0.50 0.67±0.33 0.33±0.21 0.00±0.00
Figure 9: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “S” in Open Field test in mice.
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6.4.3. Stand:
There is significant result for control, standard 1X and 2X doses during the total period oftime.
Table 9: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “St” in Open Field test in mice.
Group
Number of travel in “St” (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min
Control 3.17±0.54 3.17±0.48 2.50±0.57 2.67±0.50
STD (Benzodiazepum5 mg/kg) 2.67±0.33 5.00±0.63 4.17±0.75 4.17±0.66
XS 1x 2.33±0.21 4.83±0.48 3.67±0.21 3.83±0.48
XS 2x 3.17±0.31 3.50±0.56 3.50±0.76 3.17±0.48
Figure 10: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “St” in Open Field test in mice.
6.4.4. Movement:
In that cases, there is also moderate significant result for total time periods for control, standard,1X and 2X
doses. So we can expect positive result from that.
Table 10: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the square crossed in Open Field test in mice.
Group
Number of square crossed (Mean±SEM)
-30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min
Control 52.83±10.16 44.83±11.30 34.17±10.05 31.83±9.09
STD (Benzodiazepum5 mg/kg) 58.00±20.04 57.17±16.70 65.33±26.56 61.54±16.82
XS 1x 41.17±15.59 55.50±12.11 56.33±15.52 60.50±21.61
XS 2x 48.50±15.07 53.17±16.08 42.33±13.10 26.67±7.40
Figure 11: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “M” in Open Field test in mice.
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7. DISCUSSION
X. strumarium has been widely used in clinical
practise in various nations due to its anti-AR, anti-
inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-tumor activities. In
the meanwhile, numerous contemporary investigations
into X. strumarium were also conducted, and its
pharmacological functions and chemical make-up
have been preliminary examined. However, it is still
very important to figure out how to assure
pharmaceutical safety, develop clinical efficacy of X.
strumarium, and determine the mechanism of
pharmacological activities and its related substances.
This study examined some neuropharmacological
effects of X. strumarium and established that it has
anxiogenic- and antidepressant-like activities. One of
the most extensively used tests with the highest level
of sensitivity to the effects of both anxiolytic and
anxiogenic medications is the EPM[12]. Normal mice
prefer to spend the majority of their allowed time in
the closed arms during EPM tests. This predilection
seems to reflect a dislike of open arms that is brought
on by apprehensions about wide-open areas. Drugs
like diazepam that promote open arm exploration are
referred to as anxiolytics, while anxiogenics are the
opposite[13]. In this study, we observed that the
administration of different doses of test extract of X.
stramonium induced an anxiogenic-like effect inmice,
as it decreased open arm entries and the time spent in
the open arms of the EPM when compared to the
control animals. In addition, the study on locomotors
activity, as measured by hole cross and open field
tests, showed that both doses of extract from X.
strumarium have significant effect on movements of
treated mice.
8. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES AND
CONCLUSION
Taking into account all the pharmacological data
obtained, the results suggest that the Xanthium
stramorium extract have significant effect on the CNS
except in case of area exploration test. However,
further studies will be necessary to clarify this more
evidently. Plant science, in essence the constant
increase in the scientific knowledge of plants and
their chemical activity along with interaction with the
environment, underpins modern plant science and
agriculture. More study and research needed in that
field.
Competing interests: There is no known competing
interest.
Funding: There is no funding sources.
Author contribution statement: All authors listed
have significantly contributed to the development and
the writing of this paper.
Acknowledgement: I would like give thanks to
pharmacology lab officials of Jahangirnagar
University, as he helped to manage materials to
conduct this study.
Availability of data and materials: The data and
materials used to support the findings of this study are
publicly available.
Consent: All author have read the manuscript and
given consent for publication.
Ethics approval and consent to participate: This
paper did not contain any participation of any
organization, nor did it take place on any private or
protected areas.
References
[1] Dharmananda S. Safety issues affecting
Chinese herbs: The case of Xanthium. Institute
for Tradional Medicine- European Branch, Vol.
1. 2003. p. 1-8.
[2] Caius JF. Medicinal and poisonous plants of
India. Jodhpur (India): Scientific Publishers;
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[3] Zhuang, Y.S.; Hu, J.; Cai, H.; Qin, K.M.; Yang,
B.; Liu, X.; Cai, B.C. advanced study on
chemical constituents and pharmaceutical
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(In Chinese)
[4] Kamboj, A.; Saluja, A.K.
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[6] Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese
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[7] Martin T, Stair EL, Dawson L. Cocklebur
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[8] Oelkers S, Oehme F. Cocklebur poisoning in
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[9] Goodwin MA, Mallinson ET, Brown J, Player
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 945
[10] Agharkar SP. Medicinal plants of Bombay
presidency. Jodhpur (India): Scientific
Publishers; 1991. p. 230.
[11] Ojo, J; Mouzon, B (May 2016). "Chronic
Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Results
in Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow, Axonal
Injury, Gliosis, and Increased T-Tau and Tau
Oligomers". J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 75 (7):
636–55. doi:10.1093/jnen/nlw035. PMC
4913432. PMID 27251042.
[12] Dhonnchadha BAN, Bourin M, Hascoet M.
Anxiolytic-like effects of 5-HT2 ligands on
three mouse models of anxiety. Behav Brain
Res 2011; 140: 203-214.
[13] Subramanian N, Jothimanivannan C, Kumar
RS, Kameshwaran S. Evaluation of anti-
anxiety activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm.
Pharmacology 2013; 4(5): 404-407.

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A Study of Central Nervous System CNS Effect of Xanthium Strumarium in Swiss Albino Mice

  • 1. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 7 Issue 4, July-August 2023 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 936 A Study of Central Nervous System (CNS) Effect of Xanthium Strumarium in Swiss Albino Mice Majedul Hoque, Md Mahabur Rahman, Md Nasir Uddin PG Student, Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh ABSTRACT Xanthium strumarium L. (Family: Asteraceae), a common weed in North America, Brazil, China, Malaysia, and the drier regions of India, is a medicinal plant. The herb has historically been used to treat a variety of illnesses. Traditional medicine has used extracts of the entire plant, particularly the leaves, roots, fruits, and seeds, to treat conditions like leucoderma, epilepsy, salivation, chronic malaria, rheumatism, tuberculosis, allergic rhinitis, sinitis, urticaria, rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diarrhoea, leprosy, lumbago, pruritis, bacterial infections, and fungal infections. In this present study, we investigated neurobehavioral activity of ethanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L in mice as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The effects of the plant extract on CNS were studied by using Elevated plus maze test, Hole board test, Hole cross test, open field test. The overall results suggest that the ethanol extract of Xanthium strumarium have significant effect on CNS. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies in order to confirm traditional insight in the light of a rational phytotherapy. KEYWORDS: Xanthium strumarium, statistical analysis, EPM test, effect, CNS How to cite this paper: Majedul Hoque | Md Mahabur Rahman | Md Nasir Uddin "A Study of Central Nervous System (CNS) Effect of Xanthium Strumarium in Swiss Albino Mice" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-7 | Issue-4, August 2023, pp.936-945, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59832.pdf Copyright © 2023 by author (s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) 1. INTRODUCTION Since the start of time, nature has been the most reliable source of possible pharmacological ingredients. The enormous structural variety of molecules derived from natural sources is used as a "lead" source for the creation of novel medications that have better pharmacological action and fewer negative effects. Now it is clear that neurological conditions are major global health issues. This is reflected in the Global Burden of Disease Study, jointly published by the World Health Organization and othergroups. Therefore, there is a strong need of new antioxidants, anti- nociceptives, and CNS depressants from natural sources for the development of novel drug products. The word "xanthium" refers to the seedpods, which change from green to yellow as they ripen (later they become deep yellow to brown), and is derived from the ancient Greek words "xanthos," which means yellow, and "strumarium," which means "cushionlike swelling."[1]. Because of the way its fruit, which resembles a cow's toe, is shaped, it is frequently referred to as chotagokhru. Due to its usage in treating the common condition hemicrania, this weed is known as adhasisi in various parts of India. There are 25 species in the genus Xanthium, all of which are native to America. In Europe, North America, and Brazil, Xanthium spinosum Linn. and X. strumarium Linn. are used as medicines; Xanthium canadens Mill. is used in North America and Brazil, and X. strumarium Linn. in China, India, and Malaysia[2]. More than 170 chemical compounds, including sesquiterpene lactones, phenols, glycosides, alkaloids, fatty acids, and others, have been extracted and identified from the plant X. strumarium as a result of the numerous research that have been done thus far on its pharmacology and phytochemistry[3]. Additionally, growing proof suggests that X. strumarium has a broad range of pharmacological effects, including effects on the nervous and digestive systems, as well as analgesic and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-cancer, antibacterial and antifungal, anti-trypanosomal, and anti-tussive activities[4]. The herb itself is thought to be harmful, however washing and cooking get rid ofthe poisonous IJTSRD59832
  • 2. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 937 elements[5]. Attractyloside and chlorogenic acid are employed as the quality indicator substances for evaluating the quality of the fruits of X. strumarium, which are still often used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and are mentioned in the CHP[6].In this present study, we investigated neurobehavioral activity of ethanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L in mice as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The effects of the plant extract on CNS were studied by using Elevated plus maze test, Hole board test, Hole cross test, open field test. The overall results suggest that the ethanol extract of X. strumarium have significant effect on CNS. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies in order to confirm traditional wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy. 1.1. Scientific Classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Angiosperms Sub-Division: Eudicots Class: Asterids Order: Asterales Family: Asteraceae Genus: Xanthium Species: X. strumarium 2. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM SIDE EFFECTS X. strumarium is poisonous to mammals. It is reported to have medium to strong allergenic effects. The toxic principle is a sulphated glycoside, carboxyatractyloside, found in the seeds and during the two-leaf seedling stage. The mature plant is reported as non-toxic, although toxicosis has been reported in cattle which had ingested mature plants with burs despite the general belief that ingestion of burs should be limited by mechanical injury during mastication[7-8]. It is known to result in losses in cattle, horses, goats, pigs, sheep, and swine, as well as reduced weight gain in poultry[8-9]. The plant is a potential cause of sudden death in pigs extensively reared in Zimbabwe, which is revealed by an investigation in which six healthy porkers of the Mukota breed were fed and libitum either crushed burs (fruits) or the two-leaf seedling stage of Xanthium. 3. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION Warmer climates are where X. strumarium typically thrives. It is an annual herb that can grow up to 1 m tall and has a short, sturdy, hairy stem. The leaves are broadly alternating and triangular-ovate or suborbicular in shape, with irregular lobes and rather inconspicuous teeth. They are 5–15 cm long, frequently three-lobed, have prominent veins, a long petiole, and are scabrous on both sides. Fruits have two hooked beaks and hooked bristles and are obovoid in shape. They are surrounded in a hardened involucre. August through September are India's flowering months. Due to the fruits' hooked bristles and two robust hooked beaks, this plant is easily spread by animals. The seeds ripen from August to October, and it blooms from July to October. Insects fertilise the monoecious flowers, which are. The plant reproduces on its own. When the fruits are ready, they are picked and dried for use[10]. Figure 1. Xanthium strumarium L. A–D represent the whole plants (A), leaves (B), inflorescence (C) and fruits (D) of X. strumarium L. 4. MATERIALS AND METHODS 4.1. Plant material The plant samples were collected from the fruit of Xanthium strumarium . 4.2. Preparation of the extract We dried The fruits parts at room temperature under shade for between 9 - 14 days and thencrushed into coarse powder with a pestle and mortal. The powdered fruit was exhaustively extracted with methanol using soxhlet apparatus. The solvent in both cases were removed at reduced pressure. 4.3. Animals We used Swiss albino mice (28-35g) of male sex for the study. The animals were kept and maintained under laboratory conditions of temperature, humidity and light, and were allowedfree access to food and water. All experiments were conducted in accordance with animal use ethics as accepted internationally. 4.4. Drug We used Benzodiazepum tablet(5mg/body weight) as a standard. 4.5. Dose and Route of Administration The mice were administered at a dose o 250 gm/kg body weight of Xanthium strumarium which
  • 3. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 938 considered as 1X dose and another 500 gm/kg body weight of Xanthium strumarium which considered as 2X dose. The route of administration was per oral (p.o) Location and duration: This study conducted at pharmacology lab of Jahangirnagar University from october 2022 to march 2023. 5. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES FOR CNS ACTIVITY TEST 5.1. Elevated plus Maze Test: The elevated plus maze (EPM) is a test that assesses anxiety in lab animals that often employs rats as a screening test for potential anxiolytic or anxiogenic substances and as a general research tool in studies of neurobiological anxiety, includingPTSD and TBI[11]. Principle: The general principle is that the more “anxious” the subject are, the less likely they will be to explore and uncomfortable, risky or threatening environment. Procedure: The elevated plus maze (EPM) is an anxiety test for lab animals that often employs mice as a screening test for potential anxiolytic or anxiogenic substances and as a general research tool in studies of neurobiological anxiety, such as PTSD and TBI. The model is based on the test animal's aversion to open spaces and tendency to be thigmotaxic. In the EPM, this anxiety is expressed by the animal spending more time in the enclosed arms. 5.2. Hole Board Test Principle: The basic idea behind the test is that unfamiliar outdoor situations cause animals to exhibit a pattern of behaviour that includes emotional defecation, movement, and exploration (head dipping through the hole during exploration). Procedure: The holeboard test is mainly used for assessing exploratory behaviors in rodents. The animal is placed on an arena with regularly arranged holes on the floor Then, over a brief period of time, the frequency and duration of spontaneously evoked hole-poking behaviour was measured. 5.3. Hole cross test Principle: This study examines the effects of the medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium on the central nervous system by measuring locomotor activity. The experiment shows the impact on the animals' locomotor activity. Procedure: Each mouse was immediately placed on one side of the specified instrument, after oral administration of test drugs. The spontaneous movement of the mice from one chamber to other through the hole was observed for 3 min. The observation was conducted at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. 5.4. Open field test Principle: The test is set up so that the test animals are not given any pacific tasks to complete. It has been reported that in absence of any specific task to perform, the behavior of a given animal tends to maintain that inner activation level that is at precise times in consistence with theactual level of activation of animals. Procedure: In rodent models of CNS diseases, the Open Field task is a straightforward sensorimotor test used to assess general activity levels, gross locomotor activity, and exploratory preferences. An evaluation is conducted in a box made of square, white Plexiglas. The animal is placed in the arena and allowed to freely move about for 10 minutes while being recorded by an overhead camera. The footage is then analyzed by an automated tracking system for the following parameters: distance moved, velocity, and time spent in pre-defined zones. The Open Field test can be used to phenotype transgenic mouse strains and assess how new chemical substances affect overall activity. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed by One way ANOVA following Dunnet’s post hoc test using SPSS 16.0 and presented as Mean±SEM, (n=6). * (p<0.05) = significance, ** (p<0.01) = highly significance, and *** (p<0.001) = very highly significance as compared to control group. 6. RESULT AND DISCUSSION ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PROPERTY 6.1. Elevated plus maze test: The elevated plus maze test is based on mice's innate dislike of elevated and open spaces as well as on their spontaneous natural exploration of new environments. 6.1.1. in open arm: During 1 hour later for standard dose, the result was highly significant. And during 2 hours and 3 hours later for standard doses, the result was very highly significant. This indicates, it has better effects on CNS system. During 2 hours and 3 hours later for 1X and 2X doses, the result was very highly significant. This also indicates, the medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium has the best effects on CNS system.
  • 4. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 939 Table 1: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the time spent in Open arm in Elevated plus Maze test inmice. Group Time Spent in Open Arm (Mean±SEM) -30 min 1 Hour 2 Hours 3 Hours Control 61.33±4.49 52.67±1.87 49.33±2.03 60.0±1.88 STD (Benzodiazepum 5mg/kg) 59.33±2.87 175.0±45.83** 13.33±4.90*** 16.33±4.98*** XS 1x 57.00±7.57 18.67±4.49 11.67±2.68*** 9.50±1.73*** XS 2x 57.83±3.55 28.17±5.08 21.67±5.19*** 30.17±6.37*** Figure 2: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the time spent in Open arm in Elevated Plus Maze test in mice. 6.1.2. In closed arm: During 2 hours and 3 hours later for Standard dose, the result was very highly significant. Thisindicates the best CNS effects of the plant extract. During 2 hours and 3 hours later for 1X and 2X doses, the result was also very highly significant. This also indicates the best CNS effects of the plant extract. Table 2: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the time spent in Close arm in Elevated Plus Maze test inmice Group Time Spent in Close Arm (Mean±SEM) -30 min 1 Hour 2 Hours 3 Hours Control 118.67±4.49 127.33±1.87 130.67±2.03 120.0±1.88 STD (Benzodiazepum 5 mg/kg) 120.67±2.87 160.33±2.75 166.67±4.90*** 162.0±4.32*** XS 1x 121.33±8.04 161.33±4.49 168.33±2.68*** 170.50±1.73*** XS 2x 122.17±3.55 153.50±5.16 158.33±5.19*** 149.83±6.37*** Figure 3: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the time spent in Close arm in Elevated Plus Maze test in mice. 6.2. Hole board test This experiment is carried out to get a clear picture of the CNS effect under consideration on the pattern of behaviour by spontaneous ambulatory activity, exploratory activity and emotional defecation of animals. This experiment present with a different and more complex environment to explore.
  • 5. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 940 6.2.1. Area Exploration: There is no significance result for area exploration for total time periods for control, standard, 1X and 2X doses. This indicates there have no effect of the plant extract on CNS system. Table 3: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “Ambulation” in Hole Board test in mice. Group Number of travel of “Ambulation” (Mean±SEM) -30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min 180 min Control 9.67±1.20 11.00±2.67 10.67±2.59 12.17±4.16 10.50±3.73 STD (Benzodiazepum5mg/kg) 12.00±2.58 9.67±3.44 5.50±2.77 4.5±1.11 6.0±1.0 XS 1x 10.83±3.27 10.67±3.91 13.50±4.63 11.00±3.68 10.17±3.22 XS 2x 8.50±3.19 9.33±3.30 13.17±3.98 12.33±5.93 12.33±5.58 Figure 4: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “A” in Hole Board test in mice. 6.2.2. Head Dipping: There is moderate significant result for Head dipping for total time periods for control, standard,1X and2X doses. Table 4: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “Head Dipping” in Hole Board test in mice. Group Number of “Head Dipping” (Mean±SEM) -30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min 180 min Control 11.17±5.15 7.33±3.66 7.67±2.66 8.83±3.42 8.33±2.80 STD (Benzodiazepum5 mg/kg) 9.17±2.21 1.33±0.42 0.33±0.21 0.83±0.31 1.33±0.42 XS 1x 8.33±3.33 5.50±2.17 7.50±3.06 6.83±3.26 4.83±2.03 XS 2x 12.00±4.31 5.33±1.89 6.50±2.95 6.50±3.94 5.33±3.03 Figure 5: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “HD” in Hole Board test in mice.
  • 6. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 941 6.2.3. Defecation: In that cases, there is significant result in defecation for total time periods for control, standard, 1X and 2X doses. So we cannot expect positive result from that. Table 5: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “D” in Hole Board test in mice. Group Number of “D” (Mean±SEM) -30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min 180 min Control 0.83±0.31 0.83±0.31 0.50±0.22 0.50±0.22 0.50±0.22 STD (Benzodiazepum5mg/kg) 0.33±0.21 0.33±0.21 1.83±0.60 1.50±0.62 0.33±0.21 XS 1x 1.17±0.41 0.17±0.17 0.83±0.48 0.50±0.22 0.67±0.21 XS 2x 1.17±0.67 1.50±0.56 1.83±0.70 1.0±0.52 1.17±0.48 Figure 6: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “D” in Hole Board test in mice 6.3. Hole cross test: The experiment was designed to find out whether the drugs under consideration have any effect on exploratory behavior or not. In that cases, there is also moderate significant result for total time periods for control, standard, 1X and 2X doses. So we can expect positive result from that. Table 6: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the number of Hole Cross test in mice. Group Number of Hole Cross (Mean±SEM) -30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min 180 min Control 0.17±0.17 0.33±0.21 0.33±0.00 0.17±0.17 0.17±0.17 STD (Benzodiazepum5mg/kg) 0.17±0.17 0.50±0.34 2.37±1.76 1.50±1.31 0.56±0.00 XS 1x 0.33±0.21 1.0±0.52 1.67±0.67 1.83±0.87 1.17±0.54 XS 2x 0.17±0.17 0.17±0.17 1.0±0.82 1.0±1.0 0.67±0.67 Figure 7: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the number of Hole Cross test in mice.
  • 7. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 942 6.4. Open field test The test was designed in such a manner so that the test animal was not assigned to performed any specific task. it has been reported that in the absence of any specific task to perform, the behaviors of a given animal tends to maintain that inner activation level that is at precise time in consistence with the actual level of activation of the animal. The open field test was designed to assess the effect of any each substance on the exploratory activity of the animals. 6.4.1. Center Tendency: There is no significant result for control, standard, 1x and 2X doses during the total period of time. Table 7: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “Number of move to the center”in Open Field test in mice. Group Number of travel to center (Mean±SEM) -30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min Control 0.17±0.17 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00 STD (Benzodiazepum5 mg/kg) 0.00±0.00 0.17±0.17 0.50±0.34 0.00±0.00 XS 1x 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00 0.33±0.33 0.33±0.33 XS 2x 0.17±0.17 0.00±0.00 0.17±0.17 0.00±0.00 Figure 8: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “C” in Open Field test in mice. 6.4.2. Stool: There is significant result for control, standard, 1x and 2X doses during the total period of time. Table 8: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “S” in Open Field test in mice. Group Number of travel in “S” (Mean±SEM) -30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min Control 0.83±0.40 0.67±0.67 0.17±0.17 0.83±0.40 STD (Benzodiazepum 5 mg/kg) 1.0±0.63 0.67±0.67 0.83±0.31 0.00±0.00 XS 1x 1.17±0.48 1.17±0.60 0.83±0.66 0.33±0.33 XS 2x 0.67±0.50 0.67±0.33 0.33±0.21 0.00±0.00 Figure 9: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “S” in Open Field test in mice.
  • 8. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 943 6.4.3. Stand: There is significant result for control, standard 1X and 2X doses during the total period oftime. Table 9: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “St” in Open Field test in mice. Group Number of travel in “St” (Mean±SEM) -30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min Control 3.17±0.54 3.17±0.48 2.50±0.57 2.67±0.50 STD (Benzodiazepum5 mg/kg) 2.67±0.33 5.00±0.63 4.17±0.75 4.17±0.66 XS 1x 2.33±0.21 4.83±0.48 3.67±0.21 3.83±0.48 XS 2x 3.17±0.31 3.50±0.56 3.50±0.76 3.17±0.48 Figure 10: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “St” in Open Field test in mice. 6.4.4. Movement: In that cases, there is also moderate significant result for total time periods for control, standard,1X and 2X doses. So we can expect positive result from that. Table 10: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the square crossed in Open Field test in mice. Group Number of square crossed (Mean±SEM) -30 min 30 min 60 min 120 min Control 52.83±10.16 44.83±11.30 34.17±10.05 31.83±9.09 STD (Benzodiazepum5 mg/kg) 58.00±20.04 57.17±16.70 65.33±26.56 61.54±16.82 XS 1x 41.17±15.59 55.50±12.11 56.33±15.52 60.50±21.61 XS 2x 48.50±15.07 53.17±16.08 42.33±13.10 26.67±7.40 Figure 11: Effect of XS 1x and XS 2x on the “M” in Open Field test in mice.
  • 9. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 944 7. DISCUSSION X. strumarium has been widely used in clinical practise in various nations due to its anti-AR, anti- inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-tumor activities. In the meanwhile, numerous contemporary investigations into X. strumarium were also conducted, and its pharmacological functions and chemical make-up have been preliminary examined. However, it is still very important to figure out how to assure pharmaceutical safety, develop clinical efficacy of X. strumarium, and determine the mechanism of pharmacological activities and its related substances. This study examined some neuropharmacological effects of X. strumarium and established that it has anxiogenic- and antidepressant-like activities. One of the most extensively used tests with the highest level of sensitivity to the effects of both anxiolytic and anxiogenic medications is the EPM[12]. Normal mice prefer to spend the majority of their allowed time in the closed arms during EPM tests. This predilection seems to reflect a dislike of open arms that is brought on by apprehensions about wide-open areas. Drugs like diazepam that promote open arm exploration are referred to as anxiolytics, while anxiogenics are the opposite[13]. In this study, we observed that the administration of different doses of test extract of X. stramonium induced an anxiogenic-like effect inmice, as it decreased open arm entries and the time spent in the open arms of the EPM when compared to the control animals. In addition, the study on locomotors activity, as measured by hole cross and open field tests, showed that both doses of extract from X. strumarium have significant effect on movements of treated mice. 8. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES AND CONCLUSION Taking into account all the pharmacological data obtained, the results suggest that the Xanthium stramorium extract have significant effect on the CNS except in case of area exploration test. However, further studies will be necessary to clarify this more evidently. Plant science, in essence the constant increase in the scientific knowledge of plants and their chemical activity along with interaction with the environment, underpins modern plant science and agriculture. More study and research needed in that field. Competing interests: There is no known competing interest. Funding: There is no funding sources. Author contribution statement: All authors listed have significantly contributed to the development and the writing of this paper. Acknowledgement: I would like give thanks to pharmacology lab officials of Jahangirnagar University, as he helped to manage materials to conduct this study. Availability of data and materials: The data and materials used to support the findings of this study are publicly available. Consent: All author have read the manuscript and given consent for publication. Ethics approval and consent to participate: This paper did not contain any participation of any organization, nor did it take place on any private or protected areas. References [1] Dharmananda S. Safety issues affecting Chinese herbs: The case of Xanthium. Institute for Tradional Medicine- European Branch, Vol. 1. 2003. p. 1-8. [2] Caius JF. Medicinal and poisonous plants of India. Jodhpur (India): Scientific Publishers; 1986. p. 375-6. [3] Zhuang, Y.S.; Hu, J.; Cai, H.; Qin, K.M.; Yang, B.; Liu, X.; Cai, B.C. advanced study on chemical constituents and pharmaceutical activities of Xanthium strumarium. J. Nanjing Univ. Tradit. Chin. Med. 2017, 33, 428–432. (In Chinese) [4] Kamboj, A.; Saluja, A.K. Phytopharmacological review of Xanthium strumarium L. (Cocklebur). Int. J. Green Pharm. 2010, 4, 129–139. [CrossRef] [5] Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1945. p. 259. [6] Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine Dictionary; Shanghai Science and Technology Press: Shanghai, China, 1986; p. 1071. (In Chinese) [7] Martin T, Stair EL, Dawson L. Cocklebur poisoning in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986;189:562-3. [8] Oelkers S, Oehme F. Cocklebur poisoning in swine (Xanthium). Bov Pract. 1982;3:11-4. [9] Goodwin MA, Mallinson ET, Brown J, Player EC, Latimer KS, Dale N, et al. Toxicological pathology of cockleburs (Xanthium spp) for broiler chickens. Avian Dis 1992;36:444-6.
  • 10. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD55832 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 945 [10] Agharkar SP. Medicinal plants of Bombay presidency. Jodhpur (India): Scientific Publishers; 1991. p. 230. [11] Ojo, J; Mouzon, B (May 2016). "Chronic Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow, Axonal Injury, Gliosis, and Increased T-Tau and Tau Oligomers". J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 75 (7): 636–55. doi:10.1093/jnen/nlw035. PMC 4913432. PMID 27251042. [12] Dhonnchadha BAN, Bourin M, Hascoet M. Anxiolytic-like effects of 5-HT2 ligands on three mouse models of anxiety. Behav Brain Res 2011; 140: 203-214. [13] Subramanian N, Jothimanivannan C, Kumar RS, Kameshwaran S. Evaluation of anti- anxiety activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Pharmacology 2013; 4(5): 404-407.