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A Comparative Study of Human Resource Practices between Private and Public Sector Hospitals at Ranchi City A Road Map Analysis

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Human resources are the various categories of clinical and nonclinical staff members who are in charge of intervening in peoples and the publics health. The performance and benefits that the health system can provide depend in significant part on the knowledge, abilities, and motivation of the people who are in charge of providing health services, who are probably the most crucial of the systems inputs. Despite the extensive public healthcare system, the private sector still provides the majority of services, providing 60 of inpatient and 70 of outpatient services today. A variety of employees from many categories can be found working in hospitals that require multidisciplinary competency and knowledge. The paramedical personnel, nursing staff, and managerial cadre staff have all been observed to play a significant part in providing healthcare services. A hospital manager must be aware of the qualitative cum quantitative requirements of various departments and manage various aspects of people management in the appropriate way. However, the shrinking occupancy rates, increasing excess capacity, shorter patient hospital stays, and deterioration of the hospitals once holy image are all effects of the dynamic and complicated healthcare environment. Last but not least, quality of care is the most important issue facing the hospital sector in relation to insufficient and inappropriate patient treatment, healthcare customers preferences and choices, and is inextricably linked to concerns about organisational growth and performance. Pankaj Chatterjee | Dr. Somnath Roy Choudhury "A Comparative Study of Human Resource Practices between Private and Public Sector Hospitals at Ranchi City: A Road Map Analysis" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-7 | Issue-4, August 2023, URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59828.pdf Paper Url:https://www.ijtsrd.com/management/hrm-and-retail-business/59828/a-comparative-study-of-human-resource-practices-between-private-and-public-sector-hospitals-at-ranchi-city-a-road-map-analysis/pankaj-chatterjee

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)
Volume 7 Issue 4, July-August 2023 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 909
A Comparative Study of Human Resource Practices between
Private and Public Sector Hospitals at Ranchi City:
A Road Map Analysis
Pankaj Chatterjee1, Dr. Somnath Roy Choudhury2
1
Research Scholar, Department of Management, RKDF University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Management, RKDF University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
ABSTRACT
Human resources are the various categories of clinical and
nonclinical staff members who are in charge of intervening in
people's and the public's health. The performance and benefits that
the health system can provide depend in significant part on the
knowledge, abilities, and motivation of the people who are in charge
of providing health services, who are probably the most crucial of the
system's inputs. Despite the extensive public healthcare system, the
private sector still provides the majority of services, providing 60%
of inpatient and 70% of outpatient services today. A variety of
employees from many categories can be found working in hospitals
that require multidisciplinary competency and knowledge. The
paramedical personnel, nursing staff, and managerial cadre staff have
all been observed to play a significant part in providing healthcare
services. A hospital manager must be aware of the qualitative-cum
quantitative requirements of various departments and manage various
aspects of people management in the appropriate way. However, the
shrinking occupancy rates, increasing excess capacity, shorter patient
hospital stays, and deterioration of the hospitals' once-holy image are
all effects of the dynamic and complicated healthcare environment.
Last but not least, "quality of care" is the most important issue facing
the hospital sector in relation to insufficient and inappropriate patient
treatment, healthcare customers' preferences and choices, and is
inextricably linked to concerns about organisational growth and
performance.
KEYWORDS: Job satisfaction, Promotion, Remuneration, Hinge
benefits, Training & Development
How to cite this paper: Pankaj
Chatterjee | Dr. Somnath Roy
Choudhury "A Comparative Study of
Human Resource Practices between
Private and Public Sector Hospitals at
Ranchi City: A Road Map Analysis"
Published in
International
Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research
and Development
(ijtsrd), ISSN:
2456-6470,
Volume-7 | Issue-4,
August 2023, pp.909-914, URL:
www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59828.pdf
Copyright © 2023 by author (s) and
International Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research and Development
Journal. This is an
Open Access article
distributed under the
terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
INTRODUCTION
Examining the major problems and concerns relating
to human resources as well as researching the effects
of The identification of the trend in India's health
industry as well as the use of human resources by
health care organizations been a major topic of this
study's attention. These tendencies include
impartiality, efficiency, and quality goals. After all
when it comes to providing health care, effective
human resources management will be crucial
contribution to the success of health care sector
transformation. Despite the fact that HRM procedures
have been adopted in the corporate sector and the
health care industry, where poor HRM procedures
could have fatal consequences, have not yet adopt
them entirely. The goal of human resource
management (HRM), which is the core and essential
concept, is to achieve a sustained competitive
advantage achieved by efficient use of human
resources. Most common resources, including money,
since anyone may purchase the necessary tools and
locations, they are not as important as achieving a
certain level of success. Finding a ready pool of
highly skilled and motivated workers is challenging,
if not impossible. A dedicated and engaged workforce
is a priceless asset that the participants are unlikely to
be able to duplicate or copy. Commitment throughout
the 1980s has been a careful component of HRM
literature. This is due to Harvard academics including
it in the field. When compared to Western
organizations, Japanese organizations have benefited
IJTSRD59828
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 910
from HRM Organizations. Three characteristics of
organization commitment (OC) include a strong
belief in the Employees' desire to use significant
effort, as well as their participation in and
understanding of organisational goals and principles
on behalf of the company and their great desire to
keep a working partnership. Using human resources
been acknowledged as a crucial component for this
organization's performance and efficient
administration resources now play a crucial part in the
effectiveness and success of the companies. Its
efficiency in Management depends on making the
best use of many resources, including people, money,
materials, machines, marketing, strategies, etc.
Among the numerous criteria mentioned above,
human resources are crucial because it can
successfully plan, organize, and think in order to
achieve the planned goals and objectives. The human
resources not only a significant component of
management, but they are also crucial to carrying out
various tasks. like arranging for personnel, directing,
coordinating, and controlling. These processes
collectively comprise the managerial procedure.
Human resources with motivation are essential to an
organization's success. Optimum Utilizing this
priceless resource leads to the development of a
specialist field of management, i.e. Management of
human resources. The most straightforward definition
of management is to procure labour from others.
Thus, in order to complete the task, one the workforce
must respond favorably to it. A highly motivated
workforce may do wonders for the company. Any
industry shares a common aspect called human
resources.
Hospital sector is a service industry. The success of
the hospital industry is significantly influenced by
resources. The human organization at the hospital
Resources are in high demand in the service sector
and cannot be replaced by machinery or technology.
Taking care of the patient is crucial to the
management of any healthcare organization. HRM
encompasses a variety of management tasks including
hiring, training, developing, and paying employees,
administration, labour conflicts, social security and
welfare for the working class, and promotions.
Instead of being limited to the conventional method
of human resource management, these approaches are
increasingly being employed as a tool for achieving
the organisational goals in recent years. This has
grown to be one of the key roles in every business.
This implies targeted planning for recruitment,
selection, placement, training, development, and
performance evaluation of human resources,
incentives, employee benefits, social security, labour
relations, and pay administration complaints, labour
negotiations, employee records, bookkeeping, and
numerous other disciplines, either directly or
indirectly connected to human resource management.
Any field in which human resources can be used
regardless of the industry, an organization's
operations are in motion. The HRM's function, as
briefly discussed, a variety of roles in the
management of health care, such as legal and ethical
concerns regarding treatment, health care careers,
health care labour unions, job analysis and design,
patient and employee safety, obtaining and choosing
personnel, providing them with benefits, educating
and inspiring them. Due to the involvement of
strategic planning, including labour budgeting and
forecasting successful strategy planning requires
HRM. Current and emerging trends in the
management of human resources like more patient
and workforce diversity, the impact of technology,
and the globalization of the growing medical tourism
trend, the impact of the economics on healthcare
delivery, and the greater emphasis on responsibility in
the exciting improvements in health care are
teamwork education and service delivery, which
ultimately improve patient care. The management
role of human resources focuses on recruiting,
training, and developing, inspiring and keeping
employees in a company. It focuses on the individuals
within organizations. Human Resource management
is the application of cunning management techniques
to make sure that human potential is utilized
efficiently and effectively to accomplish company’s
objectives. HRM is therefore the arranging, directing,
coordinating, and controlling of how those operating
duties are carried out.
Private Sector & Public Sector Hospitals in
Ranchi:
Private Sector Hospitals: There are end numbers of
private hospitals in Ranchi catering to the needs of
the people but the researcher has taken 3 private
sector hospitals due to several constraints.
Raj Hospital: Raj Hospitals has been providing
medical care to residents of Ranchi and the
neighboring areas since it opened its doors in 1991.
Under one roof, the 100+ bed hospital offers a rare
combination of the best medical expertise, cutting-
edge diagnostic and therapeutic infrastructure, and
best practices and methods for providing high-quality
patient care. We make sure that our top-notch hospital
is accessible to all facets of society while maintaining
the highest standards of patient care and treatment.
The Hospitals are conveniently located in the centre
of Ranchi and are reachable by all forms of
transportation. The Hospital also features a rooftop
helipad and a capability for emergency medical
evacuation.
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 911
Orchid Hospital: The Orchid hospital established in
August 2009 strives to offer high-quality patient care
at a reasonable cost with unwavering focus on clinical
excellence and patient comfort. Orchid Medical
Centre, a 135-bed, super specialty hospital with 7
floors that competes with some of India's best
medical facilities, is equipped to handle all medical
needs and treatments for cardiology, critical care,
nephrology & urology, general surgery, neurology,
neurosurgery, orthopedics, pulmonology,
gastroenterology & hepatology, and gynecology etc.
Bhagwan Mahavir Medica Super specialty
Hospital: A multispecialty hospital run by Medica
Hospitals is Bhagwan Mahavir Medica Super
specialty Hospital. Cardiac Sciences, Neurosciences,
Orthopaedics, Kidney Diseases, General Surgery,
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Critical Care,
Emergency, Internal Medicine, General Surgery,
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation are all services
offered at the 300-bed BMMSH. With Medica North
Bengal Clinic, a 150-bed multispecialty hospital in
Siliguri, the Medica chain of hospitals got its start. In
2010, the Kantilal Gandhi Memorial Hospital in
Jamshedpur and the Bhagwan Mahavir Medica Super
specialty Hospital in Ranchi both opened their doors,
making the 400-bed Medica Super specialty Hospital
in Kolkata one of the biggest and finest equipped
hospitals in eastern India. The healthcare organisation
also operates hospitals in Burdwan Kalinganagar,
Tinsukia, Siliguri, another hospital in Kolkata, heart
institutes in Dhanbad and Patna, and a cancer hospital
in Rangapani, Siliguri.
Public Sector Hospitals:
Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS): In
Ranchi, the Indian state of Jharkhand's capital, Ranchi
University is home to the Rajendra Institute of
Medical Sciences (RIMS). One of India's top medical
schools, the college was founded as an autonomous
entity by an act of the Jharkhand Assembly.
Originally named Rajendra Medical College Hospital
in honour of Rajendra Prasad, India's first President,
the institution was founded in 1960. In February
1965, the Medical College Hospital was founded.
Along with necessary medications, the Institute offers
patients free medical care. The college is a multi-
specialty hospital with 1500 beds and advanced
diagnostic equipment. A 100-seat dental college and
an oncology centre with the newest radiation
equipment are both present. Additionally, the college
has a trauma centre with 14 beds—the first of its type
in Eastern India.
Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP): One of
India's top facilities for treating diseases connected to
mental health is the Central Institute of Psychiatry in
Ranchi, Jharkhand. This hospital was founded by the
British on May 17, 1918. Initially, it went by the
name Ranchi European Lunatic Asylum. CIP Ranchi
has experienced various changes over the course of its
100-year history and has grown into a centre for the
delivery of comprehensive mental health services. It
is the driving force behind numerous advancements in
the fields of mental health and neuroscience,
including the nation's clinical services, cutting-edge
research, and personnel training. There are currently
17 wards in all, including a Family Unit, an
Emergency Ward, one for children and adolescents,
six for female patients, seven for male patients, one
for addiction psychiatry, and one for general patients.
Sadar Medical College and Hospital: After
Jharkhand separated from Bihar, the city's capital
needed a facility to meet the people's demands for
medical and health care. As a result, the Sadar
Hospital was built in Ranchi. Before the appropriate
number of doctors and paramedical healthcare
professionals were hired in the year 2017, the unit
was managed for a while by 14 doctors and 41 nurses.
The hospital site encompasses 210 acres of natural
greenery. There are 643 beds available in total.
Currently in the planning stages, Ranchi, Jharkhand,
India's Sadar Medical College and Hospital would be
a coeducational medical school. The other medical
college in Ranchi is RIMS, making this the second.
Objectives of the study:
 To find out the satisfaction level of employees
between Private and Public sector hospitals
 To examine the trends of HR practices in selected
hospitals in Ranchi city.
 To make recommendations to these selected
hospitals in order to increase the efficiency and
effectiveness of its human resources
 To establish Relationship between HR practices
and satisfaction levels.
Review of Literature:
Literature review helps researcher to get the research
gaps from the existing data or from literature which
help to find out the objectives and help in formulated
hypothesis which shoe the researcher in right
direction to work for final outcomes. Review of
literature is mentioned below:
Ivy Philip (2007) as per the findings of the researcher
the human being is the most important element and is
crucial for both production and quality. While
ignoring non-living components may to some extent
reduce effectiveness, failing to pay attention to human
resources can have disastrous effects on an individual,
an organization, and ultimately the country.
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 912
According to Seethalakshmi, R. (2012), one of the
major problems facing all healthcare organizations is
a lack of human resource management capacity. It is
essential to advance HR Management if hospitals are
to be able to deliver high-quality, safe medical care.
There is a need for a team of HR managers who are
fully capable of carrying out these duties and who can
consistently work on the problem with representatives
at their associations by really putting HRM Practices
into practice. A skilled HR professional will
genuinely desire to implement sound HRM practices
that increase employee motivation and job
satisfaction, which in turn encourages organisational
performance.
As per the findings of Diraviam A. (2015), an
establishment can only grow if it has a sufficient
number of knowledgeable and skilled workers, as the
success or failure of any establishment depends
mostly on its devoted workforce. In any firm, having
appropriate HR policies is essential for the efficient
operation of the human resources department.
According to Deepa E. (2017) study and analysis of
the socio-demographic characteristics of hospital
employees, private hospitals' attrition rates have
increased and doubled over the past few years due to
subpar pay structures, delayed paychecks, job
insecurity, a lack of employee welfare, and subpar
HR practices. In the absence of appropriate HR rules,
it has become difficult for the hospitals to maintain
the professional workforce.
Rimjhim (2020) has mentioned in her thesis –
“Human Resource Management Practices and Job
Satisfaction A Comparative Study Of Private And
Public Sector Hospitals Of Gwalior And Chambal
Region” that proper Human Resource practices plays
a vital role in the development of any organization
and achieving its goals. Proper HRM practices create
a congenial atmosphere between employees and the
organization and give the job satisfaction to the
employees.
Human Resource Practices Between Private And
Public Sector Hospitals:
Human Resource is one of the most important factors
for the development of any organization and
achieving its goals. There has always been a conflict
between the HRM practices between Public sector
and Private sector organizations and all the times
different views have been recorded. Some of the
respondents advocated the public sectors and some of
them advocated public sectors in terms of best HR
practices. No matter which industry or organization is
this but when we talk of Human Resource
Procurement in public sector hospitals employees are
more satisfied with the procurement process than
those in private sector hospitals. Since public sectors
hospitals do this in a proper process and without any
partiality. Since they are liable and answerable to the
Government officials for their workings they keep the
things and processes very clear and transparent.
Medical staff in private sector hospitals is more
satisfied with the development of human resources
than their counterparts in public sector hospitals
because mostly private sector hospitals hire a
professional HR team who keep the staff motivated
and update them time to time by providing proper
training on current trends and developments taking
place in the industry. This increases the sense of
healthy competition and employees get ready to meet
with any unforeseen circumstances related to job or
operations. As far as Human Resource Compensation
is concerned Medical professionals in the private
sector are more satisfied with their pay than those in
the public sector since they are paid highly. Now a
days hospitals are no more considered as a place of
getting cured as the case was in old hospitals rather it
provides various facilities to its patients like a hotel
and charge hugely. The income generated from these
patients help the hospital administration to offer a
handsome remuneration and retain the talent in their
organization which is not possible in the public sector
hospitals. Medical tourism is one the best example of
this which is growing rapidly in India also especially
in south like Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Apart from this compared to public sector hospitals,
private sector hospitals have a higher level of
integration among their medical staff. Maintenance of
Human Resources are really very well in private
sector hospitals and medical professionals working in
the private sector are more satisfied with maintenance
than those working in the public sector. The
opportunities and chances of promotions are always
very high in private sector hospitals and employees
are always allured for this. Moreover the private
sector hospitals offer many hinge benefits to its
employees which public sector hospitals don’t and
this has a great impact on the employees making them
more committed, satisfied, happier and efficient
worker.
Research Methodology:
The research work is an Exploratory Research and
descriptive in nature. It aims at finding human
resource practices between private and public sector
hospitals in Ranchi city. Researcher study is based on
descriptive in nature and aims at finding out the
satisfaction level of employees between Private and
Public sector hospitals and to examine the trends of
HR practices in selected hospitals in Ranchi city. The
primary data has been collected through conducting a
survey on employees of selected private and public
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 913
sectors hospitals in Ranchi city with population
sample of 100 respondents. Simple questionnaire has
been formed to collect the data from respondents.
Whereas, secondary data has been collected through
different sources viz; Internet, Articles, Research
papers, e-books, books, Newspapers and magazines,
etc.
Findings:
A research has been carried out on the employees of
selected hospitals at Ranchi to know the HR practices
between private and public sector hospitals. The
research was carried out on 100 employees of the
hospital and their answers were recorded and
analyzed on 5 points liker’s scale to reach the desired
answer. The Researcher found the following:
 Out of 100 respondents 71% respondents believe
that Recruitment and Selection process is more
transparent and apt in public sector hospitals in
comparison to private sector hospitals where as
29% respondents believe the just opposite to this.
 83% respondents admitted that there are proper
Training and development opportunities in private
sector hospitals and rest 17% opposed.
 79% respondents said that Performance appraisal
is proper and apt in private sector hospitals where
as rest 21% respondents said that it is practiced
better in public sector hospitals.
 76% respondents believe that Career development
opportunities are more in private sector hospitals
and rest 24% believe that it is in public sector
hospitals.
 65% respondents said that Interpersonal
relationships are more better in private sector
hospitals and rest 35% opposed to this.
 89% respondents said that they get timely and
proper remuneration in private sector hospitals
whereas rest 11% said that it is much better in
public sector hospitals.
 61% respondents believe the fact that Hinge
benefits are more in private sector hospitals
whereas rest 39% believe that its better in public
sector hospitals.
 70% respondents said that Employee welfare and
job security is more in public sector hospitals
whereas rest 21% said its better in private sector
hospitals and rest 9% were neutral.
 77% respondents believe the fact that Grievances
handling is taken care of quickly in private sector
hospitals and rest 23% believe that its quickly
taken care of in public sector hospitals.
 69% respondents said that Managerial & HR
policies are followed properly in private sector
hospitals whereas rest 31% said that its followed
properly in public sector hospitals.
Suggestions & Conclusion:
By rapidly resolving issues relating to the workplace,
hospital management should ensure that its policies
and processes are friendly. All employees should
have equal opportunities to advance, and management
should set up a system to support those opportunities.
The administration shouldn't treat employees unfairly
with regard to wages. Employees should receive their
salaries on time. The employees' current wage should
be sufficient to cover their regular expenses. Men and
women should be treated equally, and there should be
no discrimination in pay or any other related matter, it
is proposed for the hospital management.
In order to increase their prospects of advancement,
supervisors should motivate their employees to
develop their personal abilities. If training
programmes are created, they will aid in the best
possible use of the workforce, thereby assisting the
workers in achieving both the organisational and
personal objectives.
Reference:
[1] Rimjhim (2020) Human Resource Management
Practices And Job Satisfaction A Comparative
Study Of Private And Public Sector Hospitals
Of Gwalior And Chambal Region,
http://hdl.handle.net/10603/309938
[2] Ivy Philip (2007) Human resource management
in the public sector and private sector hospitals
in Keralahttp://hdl.handle.net/10603/402857
[3] Siddiqui, J. and Kleiner, B.H. (1998), "Human
resource management in the health care
industry", Health Manpower Management, Vol.
24 No. 4, pp. 143-147.
https://doi.org/10.1108/09552069810215746
[4] Mrs. Mohana Pillai, Dr. Oviya Senthilraj & Dr.
Swaminathan.S, “Role of Human Resources
Management in Healthcare Organizations: A
Review”, International Journal of Health
Sciences & Research (www.ijhsr.org), Vol.9;
Issue: 1; January 2019.
[5] Hassan, M. M., Alam, M. N., Campbell, N.,
Bowyer, D., & Reaz, M. (2022). Human
Resource Management in Health Care
Industries for Generation Y: Challenges of 21st
Century. Australasian Accounting, Business
and Finance Journal, 16(1), 2.
[6] Srinivasan, V., & Chandwani, R. (2014). HRM
innovations in rapid growth contexts: the
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 914
healthcare sector in India. The International
Journal of Human Resource Management,
25(10), 1505-1525.
[7] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/5436
[8] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/217860
[9] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/245207
[10] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/336561
[11] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/245054
[12] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/207044
[13] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/362056

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A Comparative Study of Human Resource Practices between Private and Public Sector Hospitals at Ranchi City A Road Map Analysis

  • 1. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 7 Issue 4, July-August 2023 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 909 A Comparative Study of Human Resource Practices between Private and Public Sector Hospitals at Ranchi City: A Road Map Analysis Pankaj Chatterjee1, Dr. Somnath Roy Choudhury2 1 Research Scholar, Department of Management, RKDF University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, RKDF University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India ABSTRACT Human resources are the various categories of clinical and nonclinical staff members who are in charge of intervening in people's and the public's health. The performance and benefits that the health system can provide depend in significant part on the knowledge, abilities, and motivation of the people who are in charge of providing health services, who are probably the most crucial of the system's inputs. Despite the extensive public healthcare system, the private sector still provides the majority of services, providing 60% of inpatient and 70% of outpatient services today. A variety of employees from many categories can be found working in hospitals that require multidisciplinary competency and knowledge. The paramedical personnel, nursing staff, and managerial cadre staff have all been observed to play a significant part in providing healthcare services. A hospital manager must be aware of the qualitative-cum quantitative requirements of various departments and manage various aspects of people management in the appropriate way. However, the shrinking occupancy rates, increasing excess capacity, shorter patient hospital stays, and deterioration of the hospitals' once-holy image are all effects of the dynamic and complicated healthcare environment. Last but not least, "quality of care" is the most important issue facing the hospital sector in relation to insufficient and inappropriate patient treatment, healthcare customers' preferences and choices, and is inextricably linked to concerns about organisational growth and performance. KEYWORDS: Job satisfaction, Promotion, Remuneration, Hinge benefits, Training & Development How to cite this paper: Pankaj Chatterjee | Dr. Somnath Roy Choudhury "A Comparative Study of Human Resource Practices between Private and Public Sector Hospitals at Ranchi City: A Road Map Analysis" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-7 | Issue-4, August 2023, pp.909-914, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd59828.pdf Copyright © 2023 by author (s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) INTRODUCTION Examining the major problems and concerns relating to human resources as well as researching the effects of The identification of the trend in India's health industry as well as the use of human resources by health care organizations been a major topic of this study's attention. These tendencies include impartiality, efficiency, and quality goals. After all when it comes to providing health care, effective human resources management will be crucial contribution to the success of health care sector transformation. Despite the fact that HRM procedures have been adopted in the corporate sector and the health care industry, where poor HRM procedures could have fatal consequences, have not yet adopt them entirely. The goal of human resource management (HRM), which is the core and essential concept, is to achieve a sustained competitive advantage achieved by efficient use of human resources. Most common resources, including money, since anyone may purchase the necessary tools and locations, they are not as important as achieving a certain level of success. Finding a ready pool of highly skilled and motivated workers is challenging, if not impossible. A dedicated and engaged workforce is a priceless asset that the participants are unlikely to be able to duplicate or copy. Commitment throughout the 1980s has been a careful component of HRM literature. This is due to Harvard academics including it in the field. When compared to Western organizations, Japanese organizations have benefited IJTSRD59828
  • 2. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 910 from HRM Organizations. Three characteristics of organization commitment (OC) include a strong belief in the Employees' desire to use significant effort, as well as their participation in and understanding of organisational goals and principles on behalf of the company and their great desire to keep a working partnership. Using human resources been acknowledged as a crucial component for this organization's performance and efficient administration resources now play a crucial part in the effectiveness and success of the companies. Its efficiency in Management depends on making the best use of many resources, including people, money, materials, machines, marketing, strategies, etc. Among the numerous criteria mentioned above, human resources are crucial because it can successfully plan, organize, and think in order to achieve the planned goals and objectives. The human resources not only a significant component of management, but they are also crucial to carrying out various tasks. like arranging for personnel, directing, coordinating, and controlling. These processes collectively comprise the managerial procedure. Human resources with motivation are essential to an organization's success. Optimum Utilizing this priceless resource leads to the development of a specialist field of management, i.e. Management of human resources. The most straightforward definition of management is to procure labour from others. Thus, in order to complete the task, one the workforce must respond favorably to it. A highly motivated workforce may do wonders for the company. Any industry shares a common aspect called human resources. Hospital sector is a service industry. The success of the hospital industry is significantly influenced by resources. The human organization at the hospital Resources are in high demand in the service sector and cannot be replaced by machinery or technology. Taking care of the patient is crucial to the management of any healthcare organization. HRM encompasses a variety of management tasks including hiring, training, developing, and paying employees, administration, labour conflicts, social security and welfare for the working class, and promotions. Instead of being limited to the conventional method of human resource management, these approaches are increasingly being employed as a tool for achieving the organisational goals in recent years. This has grown to be one of the key roles in every business. This implies targeted planning for recruitment, selection, placement, training, development, and performance evaluation of human resources, incentives, employee benefits, social security, labour relations, and pay administration complaints, labour negotiations, employee records, bookkeeping, and numerous other disciplines, either directly or indirectly connected to human resource management. Any field in which human resources can be used regardless of the industry, an organization's operations are in motion. The HRM's function, as briefly discussed, a variety of roles in the management of health care, such as legal and ethical concerns regarding treatment, health care careers, health care labour unions, job analysis and design, patient and employee safety, obtaining and choosing personnel, providing them with benefits, educating and inspiring them. Due to the involvement of strategic planning, including labour budgeting and forecasting successful strategy planning requires HRM. Current and emerging trends in the management of human resources like more patient and workforce diversity, the impact of technology, and the globalization of the growing medical tourism trend, the impact of the economics on healthcare delivery, and the greater emphasis on responsibility in the exciting improvements in health care are teamwork education and service delivery, which ultimately improve patient care. The management role of human resources focuses on recruiting, training, and developing, inspiring and keeping employees in a company. It focuses on the individuals within organizations. Human Resource management is the application of cunning management techniques to make sure that human potential is utilized efficiently and effectively to accomplish company’s objectives. HRM is therefore the arranging, directing, coordinating, and controlling of how those operating duties are carried out. Private Sector & Public Sector Hospitals in Ranchi: Private Sector Hospitals: There are end numbers of private hospitals in Ranchi catering to the needs of the people but the researcher has taken 3 private sector hospitals due to several constraints. Raj Hospital: Raj Hospitals has been providing medical care to residents of Ranchi and the neighboring areas since it opened its doors in 1991. Under one roof, the 100+ bed hospital offers a rare combination of the best medical expertise, cutting- edge diagnostic and therapeutic infrastructure, and best practices and methods for providing high-quality patient care. We make sure that our top-notch hospital is accessible to all facets of society while maintaining the highest standards of patient care and treatment. The Hospitals are conveniently located in the centre of Ranchi and are reachable by all forms of transportation. The Hospital also features a rooftop helipad and a capability for emergency medical evacuation.
  • 3. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 911 Orchid Hospital: The Orchid hospital established in August 2009 strives to offer high-quality patient care at a reasonable cost with unwavering focus on clinical excellence and patient comfort. Orchid Medical Centre, a 135-bed, super specialty hospital with 7 floors that competes with some of India's best medical facilities, is equipped to handle all medical needs and treatments for cardiology, critical care, nephrology & urology, general surgery, neurology, neurosurgery, orthopedics, pulmonology, gastroenterology & hepatology, and gynecology etc. Bhagwan Mahavir Medica Super specialty Hospital: A multispecialty hospital run by Medica Hospitals is Bhagwan Mahavir Medica Super specialty Hospital. Cardiac Sciences, Neurosciences, Orthopaedics, Kidney Diseases, General Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Critical Care, Emergency, Internal Medicine, General Surgery, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation are all services offered at the 300-bed BMMSH. With Medica North Bengal Clinic, a 150-bed multispecialty hospital in Siliguri, the Medica chain of hospitals got its start. In 2010, the Kantilal Gandhi Memorial Hospital in Jamshedpur and the Bhagwan Mahavir Medica Super specialty Hospital in Ranchi both opened their doors, making the 400-bed Medica Super specialty Hospital in Kolkata one of the biggest and finest equipped hospitals in eastern India. The healthcare organisation also operates hospitals in Burdwan Kalinganagar, Tinsukia, Siliguri, another hospital in Kolkata, heart institutes in Dhanbad and Patna, and a cancer hospital in Rangapani, Siliguri. Public Sector Hospitals: Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS): In Ranchi, the Indian state of Jharkhand's capital, Ranchi University is home to the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS). One of India's top medical schools, the college was founded as an autonomous entity by an act of the Jharkhand Assembly. Originally named Rajendra Medical College Hospital in honour of Rajendra Prasad, India's first President, the institution was founded in 1960. In February 1965, the Medical College Hospital was founded. Along with necessary medications, the Institute offers patients free medical care. The college is a multi- specialty hospital with 1500 beds and advanced diagnostic equipment. A 100-seat dental college and an oncology centre with the newest radiation equipment are both present. Additionally, the college has a trauma centre with 14 beds—the first of its type in Eastern India. Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP): One of India's top facilities for treating diseases connected to mental health is the Central Institute of Psychiatry in Ranchi, Jharkhand. This hospital was founded by the British on May 17, 1918. Initially, it went by the name Ranchi European Lunatic Asylum. CIP Ranchi has experienced various changes over the course of its 100-year history and has grown into a centre for the delivery of comprehensive mental health services. It is the driving force behind numerous advancements in the fields of mental health and neuroscience, including the nation's clinical services, cutting-edge research, and personnel training. There are currently 17 wards in all, including a Family Unit, an Emergency Ward, one for children and adolescents, six for female patients, seven for male patients, one for addiction psychiatry, and one for general patients. Sadar Medical College and Hospital: After Jharkhand separated from Bihar, the city's capital needed a facility to meet the people's demands for medical and health care. As a result, the Sadar Hospital was built in Ranchi. Before the appropriate number of doctors and paramedical healthcare professionals were hired in the year 2017, the unit was managed for a while by 14 doctors and 41 nurses. The hospital site encompasses 210 acres of natural greenery. There are 643 beds available in total. Currently in the planning stages, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India's Sadar Medical College and Hospital would be a coeducational medical school. The other medical college in Ranchi is RIMS, making this the second. Objectives of the study:  To find out the satisfaction level of employees between Private and Public sector hospitals  To examine the trends of HR practices in selected hospitals in Ranchi city.  To make recommendations to these selected hospitals in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of its human resources  To establish Relationship between HR practices and satisfaction levels. Review of Literature: Literature review helps researcher to get the research gaps from the existing data or from literature which help to find out the objectives and help in formulated hypothesis which shoe the researcher in right direction to work for final outcomes. Review of literature is mentioned below: Ivy Philip (2007) as per the findings of the researcher the human being is the most important element and is crucial for both production and quality. While ignoring non-living components may to some extent reduce effectiveness, failing to pay attention to human resources can have disastrous effects on an individual, an organization, and ultimately the country.
  • 4. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 912 According to Seethalakshmi, R. (2012), one of the major problems facing all healthcare organizations is a lack of human resource management capacity. It is essential to advance HR Management if hospitals are to be able to deliver high-quality, safe medical care. There is a need for a team of HR managers who are fully capable of carrying out these duties and who can consistently work on the problem with representatives at their associations by really putting HRM Practices into practice. A skilled HR professional will genuinely desire to implement sound HRM practices that increase employee motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn encourages organisational performance. As per the findings of Diraviam A. (2015), an establishment can only grow if it has a sufficient number of knowledgeable and skilled workers, as the success or failure of any establishment depends mostly on its devoted workforce. In any firm, having appropriate HR policies is essential for the efficient operation of the human resources department. According to Deepa E. (2017) study and analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of hospital employees, private hospitals' attrition rates have increased and doubled over the past few years due to subpar pay structures, delayed paychecks, job insecurity, a lack of employee welfare, and subpar HR practices. In the absence of appropriate HR rules, it has become difficult for the hospitals to maintain the professional workforce. Rimjhim (2020) has mentioned in her thesis – “Human Resource Management Practices and Job Satisfaction A Comparative Study Of Private And Public Sector Hospitals Of Gwalior And Chambal Region” that proper Human Resource practices plays a vital role in the development of any organization and achieving its goals. Proper HRM practices create a congenial atmosphere between employees and the organization and give the job satisfaction to the employees. Human Resource Practices Between Private And Public Sector Hospitals: Human Resource is one of the most important factors for the development of any organization and achieving its goals. There has always been a conflict between the HRM practices between Public sector and Private sector organizations and all the times different views have been recorded. Some of the respondents advocated the public sectors and some of them advocated public sectors in terms of best HR practices. No matter which industry or organization is this but when we talk of Human Resource Procurement in public sector hospitals employees are more satisfied with the procurement process than those in private sector hospitals. Since public sectors hospitals do this in a proper process and without any partiality. Since they are liable and answerable to the Government officials for their workings they keep the things and processes very clear and transparent. Medical staff in private sector hospitals is more satisfied with the development of human resources than their counterparts in public sector hospitals because mostly private sector hospitals hire a professional HR team who keep the staff motivated and update them time to time by providing proper training on current trends and developments taking place in the industry. This increases the sense of healthy competition and employees get ready to meet with any unforeseen circumstances related to job or operations. As far as Human Resource Compensation is concerned Medical professionals in the private sector are more satisfied with their pay than those in the public sector since they are paid highly. Now a days hospitals are no more considered as a place of getting cured as the case was in old hospitals rather it provides various facilities to its patients like a hotel and charge hugely. The income generated from these patients help the hospital administration to offer a handsome remuneration and retain the talent in their organization which is not possible in the public sector hospitals. Medical tourism is one the best example of this which is growing rapidly in India also especially in south like Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Apart from this compared to public sector hospitals, private sector hospitals have a higher level of integration among their medical staff. Maintenance of Human Resources are really very well in private sector hospitals and medical professionals working in the private sector are more satisfied with maintenance than those working in the public sector. The opportunities and chances of promotions are always very high in private sector hospitals and employees are always allured for this. Moreover the private sector hospitals offer many hinge benefits to its employees which public sector hospitals don’t and this has a great impact on the employees making them more committed, satisfied, happier and efficient worker. Research Methodology: The research work is an Exploratory Research and descriptive in nature. It aims at finding human resource practices between private and public sector hospitals in Ranchi city. Researcher study is based on descriptive in nature and aims at finding out the satisfaction level of employees between Private and Public sector hospitals and to examine the trends of HR practices in selected hospitals in Ranchi city. The primary data has been collected through conducting a survey on employees of selected private and public
  • 5. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 913 sectors hospitals in Ranchi city with population sample of 100 respondents. Simple questionnaire has been formed to collect the data from respondents. Whereas, secondary data has been collected through different sources viz; Internet, Articles, Research papers, e-books, books, Newspapers and magazines, etc. Findings: A research has been carried out on the employees of selected hospitals at Ranchi to know the HR practices between private and public sector hospitals. The research was carried out on 100 employees of the hospital and their answers were recorded and analyzed on 5 points liker’s scale to reach the desired answer. The Researcher found the following:  Out of 100 respondents 71% respondents believe that Recruitment and Selection process is more transparent and apt in public sector hospitals in comparison to private sector hospitals where as 29% respondents believe the just opposite to this.  83% respondents admitted that there are proper Training and development opportunities in private sector hospitals and rest 17% opposed.  79% respondents said that Performance appraisal is proper and apt in private sector hospitals where as rest 21% respondents said that it is practiced better in public sector hospitals.  76% respondents believe that Career development opportunities are more in private sector hospitals and rest 24% believe that it is in public sector hospitals.  65% respondents said that Interpersonal relationships are more better in private sector hospitals and rest 35% opposed to this.  89% respondents said that they get timely and proper remuneration in private sector hospitals whereas rest 11% said that it is much better in public sector hospitals.  61% respondents believe the fact that Hinge benefits are more in private sector hospitals whereas rest 39% believe that its better in public sector hospitals.  70% respondents said that Employee welfare and job security is more in public sector hospitals whereas rest 21% said its better in private sector hospitals and rest 9% were neutral.  77% respondents believe the fact that Grievances handling is taken care of quickly in private sector hospitals and rest 23% believe that its quickly taken care of in public sector hospitals.  69% respondents said that Managerial & HR policies are followed properly in private sector hospitals whereas rest 31% said that its followed properly in public sector hospitals. Suggestions & Conclusion: By rapidly resolving issues relating to the workplace, hospital management should ensure that its policies and processes are friendly. All employees should have equal opportunities to advance, and management should set up a system to support those opportunities. The administration shouldn't treat employees unfairly with regard to wages. Employees should receive their salaries on time. The employees' current wage should be sufficient to cover their regular expenses. Men and women should be treated equally, and there should be no discrimination in pay or any other related matter, it is proposed for the hospital management. In order to increase their prospects of advancement, supervisors should motivate their employees to develop their personal abilities. If training programmes are created, they will aid in the best possible use of the workforce, thereby assisting the workers in achieving both the organisational and personal objectives. Reference: [1] Rimjhim (2020) Human Resource Management Practices And Job Satisfaction A Comparative Study Of Private And Public Sector Hospitals Of Gwalior And Chambal Region, http://hdl.handle.net/10603/309938 [2] Ivy Philip (2007) Human resource management in the public sector and private sector hospitals in Keralahttp://hdl.handle.net/10603/402857 [3] Siddiqui, J. and Kleiner, B.H. (1998), "Human resource management in the health care industry", Health Manpower Management, Vol. 24 No. 4, pp. 143-147. https://doi.org/10.1108/09552069810215746 [4] Mrs. Mohana Pillai, Dr. Oviya Senthilraj & Dr. Swaminathan.S, “Role of Human Resources Management in Healthcare Organizations: A Review”, International Journal of Health Sciences & Research (www.ijhsr.org), Vol.9; Issue: 1; January 2019. [5] Hassan, M. M., Alam, M. N., Campbell, N., Bowyer, D., & Reaz, M. (2022). Human Resource Management in Health Care Industries for Generation Y: Challenges of 21st Century. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 16(1), 2. [6] Srinivasan, V., & Chandwani, R. (2014). HRM innovations in rapid growth contexts: the
  • 6. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD59828 | Volume – 7 | Issue – 4 | Jul-Aug 2023 Page 914 healthcare sector in India. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(10), 1505-1525. [7] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/5436 [8] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/217860 [9] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/245207 [10] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/336561 [11] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/245054 [12] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/207044 [13] http://hdl.handle.net/10603/362056