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A SURVEY ON IRIS RECOGNITION FOR AUTHENTICATION

Iris recognition is a method of biometric identification. Biometric identification provides automatic recognition of an individual based on the unique feature of physiological characteristics or behavioral characteristic. Iris recognition is a method of recognizing a person by analyzing the iris pattern. This survey paper covers the different iris recognition techniques and methods.

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International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,
www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2015), PP. 148-151
148 | P a g e
A SURVEY ON IRIS RECOGNITION FOR
AUTHENTICATION
Nirali M. Bhagwagar, Yagnik A. Rathod
Department of Computer Engineering
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Institute of Technology
Vasad-388306, Gujarat, India
niralibhagwagar@gmail.com, rathodyagnik@yahoo.com
Abstract—Iris recognition is a method of biometric identification.
Biometric identification provides automatic recognition of an
individual based on the unique feature of physiological
characteristics or behavioral characteristic. Iris recognition is a
method of recognizing a person by analyzing the iris pattern.
This survey paper covers the different iris recognition techniques
and methods.
Index Terms—Biometric Identification, Behavioral
Characteristics, Feature Extraction, Iris Recognition, Image
Acquisition, Iris Segmentation, Iris Pattern, Normalization,
Physiological Characteristics
I. INTRODUCTION
In today’s world security is becoming more and more
important. Authentication plays a major role in security.
Authentication is the process of verifying the claimed identity
of a person. Authentication is a means of defense against
intruders. There are of various types like authentication using
username with password, using card and using biometric.
Most commonly, username with password is used for
authentication, but Password is easily carked or stolen because
of human tendency to make password easy to remember and
also note down the password so that there is no need to
remember. Cards can be stolen and accessing by anyone.
Therefore there is no way of knowing that the claimed person
is the actual one. Biometric identification provides secure
authentication of a person as biometric data can’t be steal and
duplicated. Biometric data is unique and permanently
associated with a person.
Iris recognition is a method of biometric identification.
Biometric identification provides automatic recognition of an
individual based on the unique feature of physiological
characteristics like fingerprints, DNA, palm, face, iris, vein
and retina or behavioral characteristic like Handwriting,
speech and signature.
Iris recognition is a method of recognizing a person by
analyzing the iris pattern. Iris pattern are formed by six months
after birth. Iris pattern remains stable after a year and remain
the same for life time that means it does not have aging effect.
Iris patterns of identical twins differ and a person’s left and
right eyes have different patterns as well. This distinguishes it
from fingerprints or palm print, which can be difficult to
recognize after years of certain types of manual labor. It is
regarded as the most reliable biometric technology since iris is
highly distinctive and robust.
Iris recognition consists of five basic modules:
 Image Acquisition: Obtains an image of the eye.
 Iris Segmentation: Localizes the iris’s spatial extent
by isolating it from other structures in its vicinity,
such as the sclera, pupil, eyelids, and eyelashes.
 Normalization: A geometric normalization scheme to
transform the segmented iris image from Cartesian
coordinates to polar coordinates.
 Feature Extraction: The most discriminating
information present in an iris pattern must be
extracted.
 Matching: determines how closely the produced code
matches the encoded features stored in the database.
Fig.1 Framework for Iris Recognition
The iris feature recording is referred as an enrolment
process. The authentication system attempts to confirm an
individual’s claim identity by comparing a submitted
sample to previously enrolled templates is referred as an
identification process. A conceptual framework for iris
recognition is illustrated in Figure1.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
This section describes the studies which gives an idea
about iris recognition.
A. Accurate Iris Recognition At A Distance Using
Stabilized Iris Encoding And Zernike Moments Phase
Features[1]
Chun-Wei Tan and Ajay Kumar presented a joint strategy
that extract and combine both the global and localized iris
features for accurate iris recognition from the distantly
acquired face or eye images for both NIR and visible imaging,
under less constrained environments. For image enhancement
histogram and Binarisation are used and for coarse
segmentation random walker algorithm is used. Global iris bit
stabilization encoding and a localized ZMs phase-based
encoding strategy is used to robustly recover the iris features.
It determines the matching information from the local region
pixels and for the features for global regions. Local region
pixels are more tolerant to the distortion while global regions
are stable. Finally hamming distance is used for iris feature
similarity. The superiority of iris matching strategy is
ascertained by providing comparison with several state-of-the-
International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,
www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2015), PP. 148-151
149 | P a g e
art iris matching algorithms on three publicly available
databases: UBIRIS.v2, FRGC, CASIA v4-distance. Despite
the encouraging results obtained by the proposed iris matching
strategy, further efforts are required to improve the matching
accuracy, especially for the visible-light iris matching in order
to make any inroads to the commercial applications. Also the
time, cost and space complexity is very high of this
methodology.
B. Efficient And Accurate At-A-Distance Iris
Recognition Using Geometric Key Based Iris
Encoding[2]
Chun-Wei Tan and Ajay Kumar presented a technique in
which a geometric key which is a set of coordinated pair is
used to deal with significant image variations and influence
from multiple noise sources. Geometric key uniquely defines
the encoding of the iris features from the localized iris region
pixels. The iris encoding and matching strategy works for both
localized and global iris region pixels. The localized iris
encoding strategy has strength in better accommodating for the
imaging variations, while the global iris encoding strategy has
strength in effective encoding of less noisy iris region pixels.
Geometrical information is utilized to provide efficient
encoding from the local iris region pixels. Temples for iris
encoding are in the form of binary so similarity can be easily
measured using hamming distance. Experimental result shows
the superiority of this method by providing comparison with
several competing iris encoding and matching algorithms on
three publicly available databases: UBIRIS.v2, FRGC,
CASIA-v4-distance.
C. Iris Recognition Using Combined Support Vector
Machine And Hamming Distance Approach[3]
Himanshu Rai and Anamika Yadav used circular hough
transformation is used for segmentation. Parabolic hough
transformation and trimmed median filter is used for eyelid
detection. Haar wavelet and 1D Log gabor filter is used for
feature extraction and for recognition of iris patterns using a
combination of support vector machine and Hamming
distance. There is no information about noise for haar
decomposition feature vector and it is not suitable for
hamming distance classification. 1D log gabor wavelet the
feature vector is suitable for hamming distance but it is not
well suited for SVM based classification. Based on extensive
testing of different networks, combined SVM and Hamming
distance based classification approach is finally selected as the
combination of SVM and Hamming distance has a better
recognition accuracy than using a single method. These are the
reasons of applying two different feature extraction techniques
and two classification techniques. Experimental result shows
that the accuracy of the proposed method is excellent for the
CASIA as well as for the Check image database in term of
FAR and FRR.
D. Robust Iris Recognition Using Sparse Error
Correction Model And Discriminative Dictionary
Learning [4]
Yun Song, Wei Cao and Zunliang He presented an
approach in which all the training images are concatenated as
a dictionary and the iris recognition task is an optimization
problem to seek a sparse representation of the test sample in
terms of the dictionary and a sparse error correction is used to
deal with gross and spatially localized errors. In order to
compact the huge dictionary, we introduce a discriminative
dictionary learning framework to reduce computational
complexity. Experimental results on CASIA Iris Image
Database V3.0 show that the methods achieve competitive
performance in both recognition accuracy and efficiency.
E. Noncooperative Bovine Iris Recognition Via Sift[5]
Shengnan Sun, Shicai Yang and Lindu Zhao presented a
method in which scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and
bag-of features are used for bovine images which are usually
irregular with respect to inactive participant. To assess the
accuracy of the proposed method, we use the combination
method with Zhang's two step segmentation method and
Daugman's [1] 2-D Gabor filters feature extraction method to
carry out the comparison. First, region-based active contour is
used to detect the inner boundary. SIFT method is applied to
detect the key points in the iris image and points located in
pupil region are removed. Then, feature vocabulary is
constructed and histogram representation for each iris image is
generated. Finally, histogram distance is used for label
assigning and iris matching test by using different classifiers
such as K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Approximate Nearest
Neighbors (ANN) and multi-class SVM classifiers. Since
similar SIFT descriptors will be assigned the same “visual”
word due to SIFT quantization, the greater the number of SIFT
descriptors that can be matched, the greater similarity between
the histogram representation. Experimental results on SEU
database of bovine iris show that it is effective for
noncooperative iris recognition. As SIFT descriptor is time-
consuming, our future work will focus on improving the
performance.
F. Iris Recognition Using Possibilistic Fuzzy Matching
On Local Features [6]
Chung-Chih Tsai, Heng-Yi Lin, Jinshiuh Taur and Chin-
Wang Tao presented the possibilistic based fuzzy matching
strategy employ nonlinear normalization model and effective
iris segmentation method for accurate iris position and smooth
curves of inner and outer boundaries. The FGCT method is
then applied to extract a smooth curve of each boundary from
the gradient images Gabor filter detect local feature point and
generate a rotation-invariant descriptor for each detected point.
Then, matching algorithm compute a similarity score for two
sets of feature points from a pair of iris images. But for a fair
comparison, each wrong segmented sample was corrected
manually. The experimental results show that the performance
of our system is better than those of the systems based on the
local features.
G. Secure And Robust Iris Recognition Using Random
Projections And Sparse Representations [7]
Jaishanker K. Pillai, Vishal M. Patel, Rama Chellappa,
and Nalini K. Ratha presented a unified framework with
random projections and sparse representations, in which
quality measure handle segmentation errors and possible
artifacts arise during iris and provide accurate matching
without compromising security relative to iris biometrics. This
method can easily extended to handle alignment variations and
recognition from iris videos, for robust and accurate system.
But it doesn’t prevent the compromise of sensitive biometric
information of the users. The approach includes enhancements
to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable
iris templates. Results on ND Data Set and ICE 2005 data sets
show significant benefits of the proposed approach.
International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,
www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2015), PP. 148-151
150 | P a g e
H. Personal Identification Based On Iris Texture
Analysis[8]
Li Ma, Tieniu Tan, Yunhong Wang and Dexin Zhang
presented a new scheme for iris recognition from an image
sequence is used. First review the quality of each image in the
input sequence and select a clear iris image from such a
sequence for subsequent recognition. A bank of spatial filters
(Multi-channel Gabor filter), whose kernels are suitable for iris
recognition, is then used to capture local characteristics of the
iris so as to produce discriminating texture features.
Experimental results show that the proposed method has an
encouraging performance. In particular, a comparative study
of existing methods for iris recognition is conducted on an iris
image database including 2,255 sequences from 213 subjects.
Conclusions based on such a comparison using a
nonparametric statistical method (the bootstrap) provide useful
information for further research.
III. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
This section covers the comparative study of image
segmentation methods and feature extraction methods.
Table1. Comparative study of Image Segmentation
Methods
N
o.
Method Description Advantages Disadvanta
ges
1 Random
walker
algorithm
It produces
segmentation
based on the
separation of
quantities
defined at the
nodes.
Simple to use,
Easily handle
flows around
complicated
boundaries
It is biased
to avoid
crossing
object
boundaries
2 Circular
hough
transform
Directly
detects the
object's edges
using image
global
features and
iris regions
when a
number of
points that fall
on the
perimeter are
known.
Tolerant to the
presence of gaps
in feature
boundary
descriptions,
Relatively
unaffected by
image noise
Calculation
is very
large, Large
amount of
Storage,
High cost in
computation
3 Region
based
active
contour
Use to edge
detection
based on
deforming an
initial contour
towards the
boundary of
the object to
be detected.
Self-adapting in
their search,
Used to track
dynamic objects
Higher
accuracies
require
longer
computation
time
4 Daugman’
s Integro-
differential
operator
Used for
locating the
circular iris
and pupil
regions, and
also the arcs
of the upper
and lower
eyelids.
Does not suffer
from the
thresholding
problems
Fail where
there is
noise like
reflection in
the image
5 Canny
edge
detector
Used for
detecting
edges.
Detects edges,
Low error rate
Sensitive to
noise,
Produce
missing
edges or
extra edges
on complex
images
Table2. Comparative study of Feature Extraction Methods
N
o.
Method Descripti
on
Advantages Disadvantages
1 ZMs phase
encoding
It is based
on the
orthogona
l moments
Robust to
noise,
Minor
variations,
Rotation
invariance,
Minimum
information
redundancy
Computational
complexity
2 Geometric
key based
iris encoding
Geometric
key is for
feature
encoding
Fast and
efficient
encoding
Influenced by
noise
3 Log-gabor
filter
Extract
the texture
feature
Multi-
resolution,
Multi-
orientation
Sensitive to
noise
4 Scale
invariant
feature
transform
(SIFT)
Used to
detect and
describe
local
features in
images
Robust to
local affine
distortion
scale and
rotational
invariance
Fully affine
transformation
require
additional steps
IV. CONCLUSION
Iris recognition is automatic identification of an individual
that has been research interest for recent years. Through this
paper we can study the relevant work done in this area. We
discuss different iris segmentation and feature extraction
methods each one having its own advantages and
disadvantages. From this survey it is concluded that iris
recognition for eye images which are acquired from a distance
and under less constrained environments impose several
problems, especially for the images acquired using visible
imaging. Image quality degradation is usually undesirable in
the visible illumination eye images acquired from such
dynamic environments. Therefore the need is to develop iris
recognition algorithm that can operate on iris images acquired
under visible or near infrared illumination.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I have taken efforts in this survey. However, it would
not have been possible without the kind support and help of
many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to
all of them. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my
Guide, Mr. Yagnik Rathod, Assistant Professor of Computer
Engineering Department, SVIT for accepting my work. He has
been a great source of inspiration and we thank him for him
timely and able guidance in the conduct of my work and
constant supervision as well as for providing necessary
information regarding this work. I would like to express my
gratitude towards my parents, Mrs. Bijal Talati, Head of the
International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,
www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2015), PP. 148-151
151 | P a g e
Department and members of SVIT for their kind co-operation
and encouragement which help me in this dissertation.
REFERENCES
[1] Chun-Wei Tan; Kumar, A., "Accurate Iris Recognition at a
Distance Using Stabilized Iris Encoding and Zernike Moments
Phase Features," Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on,
vol.23, no.9, pp.3962,3974, Sept. 2014,doi:
10.1109/TIP.2014.2337714.
[2] Chun-Wei Tan, Ajay Kumar, “Efficient and Accurate at-a-
distance Iris Recognition Using Geometric Key based Iris
Encoding”, IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and
Security,2014.
[3] Himanshu Rai , Anamika Yadav, “Iris recognition using
combined support vector machine and Hamming distance
approach”, Expert Systems with Applications Volume 41, Issue
2, 1 February 2014.
[4] Yun Song, Wei Cao, Zunliang He, “Robust iris recognition
using sparse error correction model and discriminative
dictionary learning”, Neurocomputing Volume 137, 5 August
2014.
[5] Shengnan Sun, Shicai Yang, Lindu Zhao, “Noncooperative
Bovine Iris Recognition via SIFT”, Neurocomputing, Volume
120, 23 November 2013.
[6] Chung-Chih Tsai; Heng-Yi Lin; Jinshiuh Taur; Chin-Wang Tao,
"Iris Recognition Using Possibilistic Fuzzy Matching on Local
Features," Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics,
IEEE Transactions on , vol.42, no.1, pp.150,162, Feb. 2012doi:
10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2163817.
[7] Pillai, J.K.; Patel, V.M.; Chellappa, R.; Ratha, N.K., "Secure and
Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections and Sparse
Representations," Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,
IEEE Transactions on , vol.33, no.9, pp.1877,1893, Sept. 2011
doi: 10.1109/TPAMI.2011.34.
[8] Li Ma; Tieniu Tan; Yunhong Wang; Dexin Zhang, "Personal
identification based on iris texture analysis," Pattern Analysis
and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on , vol.25, no.12,
pp.1519,1533, Dec. 2003 doi: 10.1109/TPAMI.2003.1251145.
[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_recognition.

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A SURVEY ON IRIS RECOGNITION FOR AUTHENTICATION

  • 1. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163, www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2015), PP. 148-151 148 | P a g e A SURVEY ON IRIS RECOGNITION FOR AUTHENTICATION Nirali M. Bhagwagar, Yagnik A. Rathod Department of Computer Engineering Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Institute of Technology Vasad-388306, Gujarat, India niralibhagwagar@gmail.com, rathodyagnik@yahoo.com Abstract—Iris recognition is a method of biometric identification. Biometric identification provides automatic recognition of an individual based on the unique feature of physiological characteristics or behavioral characteristic. Iris recognition is a method of recognizing a person by analyzing the iris pattern. This survey paper covers the different iris recognition techniques and methods. Index Terms—Biometric Identification, Behavioral Characteristics, Feature Extraction, Iris Recognition, Image Acquisition, Iris Segmentation, Iris Pattern, Normalization, Physiological Characteristics I. INTRODUCTION In today’s world security is becoming more and more important. Authentication plays a major role in security. Authentication is the process of verifying the claimed identity of a person. Authentication is a means of defense against intruders. There are of various types like authentication using username with password, using card and using biometric. Most commonly, username with password is used for authentication, but Password is easily carked or stolen because of human tendency to make password easy to remember and also note down the password so that there is no need to remember. Cards can be stolen and accessing by anyone. Therefore there is no way of knowing that the claimed person is the actual one. Biometric identification provides secure authentication of a person as biometric data can’t be steal and duplicated. Biometric data is unique and permanently associated with a person. Iris recognition is a method of biometric identification. Biometric identification provides automatic recognition of an individual based on the unique feature of physiological characteristics like fingerprints, DNA, palm, face, iris, vein and retina or behavioral characteristic like Handwriting, speech and signature. Iris recognition is a method of recognizing a person by analyzing the iris pattern. Iris pattern are formed by six months after birth. Iris pattern remains stable after a year and remain the same for life time that means it does not have aging effect. Iris patterns of identical twins differ and a person’s left and right eyes have different patterns as well. This distinguishes it from fingerprints or palm print, which can be difficult to recognize after years of certain types of manual labor. It is regarded as the most reliable biometric technology since iris is highly distinctive and robust. Iris recognition consists of five basic modules:  Image Acquisition: Obtains an image of the eye.  Iris Segmentation: Localizes the iris’s spatial extent by isolating it from other structures in its vicinity, such as the sclera, pupil, eyelids, and eyelashes.  Normalization: A geometric normalization scheme to transform the segmented iris image from Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates.  Feature Extraction: The most discriminating information present in an iris pattern must be extracted.  Matching: determines how closely the produced code matches the encoded features stored in the database. Fig.1 Framework for Iris Recognition The iris feature recording is referred as an enrolment process. The authentication system attempts to confirm an individual’s claim identity by comparing a submitted sample to previously enrolled templates is referred as an identification process. A conceptual framework for iris recognition is illustrated in Figure1. II. LITERATURE SURVEY This section describes the studies which gives an idea about iris recognition. A. Accurate Iris Recognition At A Distance Using Stabilized Iris Encoding And Zernike Moments Phase Features[1] Chun-Wei Tan and Ajay Kumar presented a joint strategy that extract and combine both the global and localized iris features for accurate iris recognition from the distantly acquired face or eye images for both NIR and visible imaging, under less constrained environments. For image enhancement histogram and Binarisation are used and for coarse segmentation random walker algorithm is used. Global iris bit stabilization encoding and a localized ZMs phase-based encoding strategy is used to robustly recover the iris features. It determines the matching information from the local region pixels and for the features for global regions. Local region pixels are more tolerant to the distortion while global regions are stable. Finally hamming distance is used for iris feature similarity. The superiority of iris matching strategy is ascertained by providing comparison with several state-of-the-
  • 2. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163, www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2015), PP. 148-151 149 | P a g e art iris matching algorithms on three publicly available databases: UBIRIS.v2, FRGC, CASIA v4-distance. Despite the encouraging results obtained by the proposed iris matching strategy, further efforts are required to improve the matching accuracy, especially for the visible-light iris matching in order to make any inroads to the commercial applications. Also the time, cost and space complexity is very high of this methodology. B. Efficient And Accurate At-A-Distance Iris Recognition Using Geometric Key Based Iris Encoding[2] Chun-Wei Tan and Ajay Kumar presented a technique in which a geometric key which is a set of coordinated pair is used to deal with significant image variations and influence from multiple noise sources. Geometric key uniquely defines the encoding of the iris features from the localized iris region pixels. The iris encoding and matching strategy works for both localized and global iris region pixels. The localized iris encoding strategy has strength in better accommodating for the imaging variations, while the global iris encoding strategy has strength in effective encoding of less noisy iris region pixels. Geometrical information is utilized to provide efficient encoding from the local iris region pixels. Temples for iris encoding are in the form of binary so similarity can be easily measured using hamming distance. Experimental result shows the superiority of this method by providing comparison with several competing iris encoding and matching algorithms on three publicly available databases: UBIRIS.v2, FRGC, CASIA-v4-distance. C. Iris Recognition Using Combined Support Vector Machine And Hamming Distance Approach[3] Himanshu Rai and Anamika Yadav used circular hough transformation is used for segmentation. Parabolic hough transformation and trimmed median filter is used for eyelid detection. Haar wavelet and 1D Log gabor filter is used for feature extraction and for recognition of iris patterns using a combination of support vector machine and Hamming distance. There is no information about noise for haar decomposition feature vector and it is not suitable for hamming distance classification. 1D log gabor wavelet the feature vector is suitable for hamming distance but it is not well suited for SVM based classification. Based on extensive testing of different networks, combined SVM and Hamming distance based classification approach is finally selected as the combination of SVM and Hamming distance has a better recognition accuracy than using a single method. These are the reasons of applying two different feature extraction techniques and two classification techniques. Experimental result shows that the accuracy of the proposed method is excellent for the CASIA as well as for the Check image database in term of FAR and FRR. D. Robust Iris Recognition Using Sparse Error Correction Model And Discriminative Dictionary Learning [4] Yun Song, Wei Cao and Zunliang He presented an approach in which all the training images are concatenated as a dictionary and the iris recognition task is an optimization problem to seek a sparse representation of the test sample in terms of the dictionary and a sparse error correction is used to deal with gross and spatially localized errors. In order to compact the huge dictionary, we introduce a discriminative dictionary learning framework to reduce computational complexity. Experimental results on CASIA Iris Image Database V3.0 show that the methods achieve competitive performance in both recognition accuracy and efficiency. E. Noncooperative Bovine Iris Recognition Via Sift[5] Shengnan Sun, Shicai Yang and Lindu Zhao presented a method in which scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and bag-of features are used for bovine images which are usually irregular with respect to inactive participant. To assess the accuracy of the proposed method, we use the combination method with Zhang's two step segmentation method and Daugman's [1] 2-D Gabor filters feature extraction method to carry out the comparison. First, region-based active contour is used to detect the inner boundary. SIFT method is applied to detect the key points in the iris image and points located in pupil region are removed. Then, feature vocabulary is constructed and histogram representation for each iris image is generated. Finally, histogram distance is used for label assigning and iris matching test by using different classifiers such as K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) and multi-class SVM classifiers. Since similar SIFT descriptors will be assigned the same “visual” word due to SIFT quantization, the greater the number of SIFT descriptors that can be matched, the greater similarity between the histogram representation. Experimental results on SEU database of bovine iris show that it is effective for noncooperative iris recognition. As SIFT descriptor is time- consuming, our future work will focus on improving the performance. F. Iris Recognition Using Possibilistic Fuzzy Matching On Local Features [6] Chung-Chih Tsai, Heng-Yi Lin, Jinshiuh Taur and Chin- Wang Tao presented the possibilistic based fuzzy matching strategy employ nonlinear normalization model and effective iris segmentation method for accurate iris position and smooth curves of inner and outer boundaries. The FGCT method is then applied to extract a smooth curve of each boundary from the gradient images Gabor filter detect local feature point and generate a rotation-invariant descriptor for each detected point. Then, matching algorithm compute a similarity score for two sets of feature points from a pair of iris images. But for a fair comparison, each wrong segmented sample was corrected manually. The experimental results show that the performance of our system is better than those of the systems based on the local features. G. Secure And Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections And Sparse Representations [7] Jaishanker K. Pillai, Vishal M. Patel, Rama Chellappa, and Nalini K. Ratha presented a unified framework with random projections and sparse representations, in which quality measure handle segmentation errors and possible artifacts arise during iris and provide accurate matching without compromising security relative to iris biometrics. This method can easily extended to handle alignment variations and recognition from iris videos, for robust and accurate system. But it doesn’t prevent the compromise of sensitive biometric information of the users. The approach includes enhancements to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable iris templates. Results on ND Data Set and ICE 2005 data sets show significant benefits of the proposed approach.
  • 3. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163, www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2015), PP. 148-151 150 | P a g e H. Personal Identification Based On Iris Texture Analysis[8] Li Ma, Tieniu Tan, Yunhong Wang and Dexin Zhang presented a new scheme for iris recognition from an image sequence is used. First review the quality of each image in the input sequence and select a clear iris image from such a sequence for subsequent recognition. A bank of spatial filters (Multi-channel Gabor filter), whose kernels are suitable for iris recognition, is then used to capture local characteristics of the iris so as to produce discriminating texture features. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an encouraging performance. In particular, a comparative study of existing methods for iris recognition is conducted on an iris image database including 2,255 sequences from 213 subjects. Conclusions based on such a comparison using a nonparametric statistical method (the bootstrap) provide useful information for further research. III. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS This section covers the comparative study of image segmentation methods and feature extraction methods. Table1. Comparative study of Image Segmentation Methods N o. Method Description Advantages Disadvanta ges 1 Random walker algorithm It produces segmentation based on the separation of quantities defined at the nodes. Simple to use, Easily handle flows around complicated boundaries It is biased to avoid crossing object boundaries 2 Circular hough transform Directly detects the object's edges using image global features and iris regions when a number of points that fall on the perimeter are known. Tolerant to the presence of gaps in feature boundary descriptions, Relatively unaffected by image noise Calculation is very large, Large amount of Storage, High cost in computation 3 Region based active contour Use to edge detection based on deforming an initial contour towards the boundary of the object to be detected. Self-adapting in their search, Used to track dynamic objects Higher accuracies require longer computation time 4 Daugman’ s Integro- differential operator Used for locating the circular iris and pupil regions, and also the arcs of the upper and lower eyelids. Does not suffer from the thresholding problems Fail where there is noise like reflection in the image 5 Canny edge detector Used for detecting edges. Detects edges, Low error rate Sensitive to noise, Produce missing edges or extra edges on complex images Table2. Comparative study of Feature Extraction Methods N o. Method Descripti on Advantages Disadvantages 1 ZMs phase encoding It is based on the orthogona l moments Robust to noise, Minor variations, Rotation invariance, Minimum information redundancy Computational complexity 2 Geometric key based iris encoding Geometric key is for feature encoding Fast and efficient encoding Influenced by noise 3 Log-gabor filter Extract the texture feature Multi- resolution, Multi- orientation Sensitive to noise 4 Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) Used to detect and describe local features in images Robust to local affine distortion scale and rotational invariance Fully affine transformation require additional steps IV. CONCLUSION Iris recognition is automatic identification of an individual that has been research interest for recent years. Through this paper we can study the relevant work done in this area. We discuss different iris segmentation and feature extraction methods each one having its own advantages and disadvantages. From this survey it is concluded that iris recognition for eye images which are acquired from a distance and under less constrained environments impose several problems, especially for the images acquired using visible imaging. Image quality degradation is usually undesirable in the visible illumination eye images acquired from such dynamic environments. Therefore the need is to develop iris recognition algorithm that can operate on iris images acquired under visible or near infrared illumination. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I have taken efforts in this survey. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my Guide, Mr. Yagnik Rathod, Assistant Professor of Computer Engineering Department, SVIT for accepting my work. He has been a great source of inspiration and we thank him for him timely and able guidance in the conduct of my work and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding this work. I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents, Mrs. Bijal Talati, Head of the
  • 4. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163, www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2015), PP. 148-151 151 | P a g e Department and members of SVIT for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in this dissertation. REFERENCES [1] Chun-Wei Tan; Kumar, A., "Accurate Iris Recognition at a Distance Using Stabilized Iris Encoding and Zernike Moments Phase Features," Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.23, no.9, pp.3962,3974, Sept. 2014,doi: 10.1109/TIP.2014.2337714. [2] Chun-Wei Tan, Ajay Kumar, “Efficient and Accurate at-a- distance Iris Recognition Using Geometric Key based Iris Encoding”, IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and Security,2014. [3] Himanshu Rai , Anamika Yadav, “Iris recognition using combined support vector machine and Hamming distance approach”, Expert Systems with Applications Volume 41, Issue 2, 1 February 2014. [4] Yun Song, Wei Cao, Zunliang He, “Robust iris recognition using sparse error correction model and discriminative dictionary learning”, Neurocomputing Volume 137, 5 August 2014. [5] Shengnan Sun, Shicai Yang, Lindu Zhao, “Noncooperative Bovine Iris Recognition via SIFT”, Neurocomputing, Volume 120, 23 November 2013. [6] Chung-Chih Tsai; Heng-Yi Lin; Jinshiuh Taur; Chin-Wang Tao, "Iris Recognition Using Possibilistic Fuzzy Matching on Local Features," Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.42, no.1, pp.150,162, Feb. 2012doi: 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2163817. [7] Pillai, J.K.; Patel, V.M.; Chellappa, R.; Ratha, N.K., "Secure and Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections and Sparse Representations," Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on , vol.33, no.9, pp.1877,1893, Sept. 2011 doi: 10.1109/TPAMI.2011.34. [8] Li Ma; Tieniu Tan; Yunhong Wang; Dexin Zhang, "Personal identification based on iris texture analysis," Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on , vol.25, no.12, pp.1519,1533, Dec. 2003 doi: 10.1109/TPAMI.2003.1251145. [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_recognition.