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Preserving Malaysia’s Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Gasing Leper Terengganu | IJRISS

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS)International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS)

Malaysia is not only unique country with a multicultural diversity but also has a rich and numerous culture and heritage treasures. Therefore, as technology growth across world, many cultural heritages might become missing without any effective efforts in preservation and conservation of the culture and heritage. Within this scenario, the qualitative study was conducted through documents review, a field observation followed by a face-to-face interview with corresponding respondents to empirically ascertain the narrative history and uniqueness of Gasing Leper Terengganu which further propose an alternative approach in preserving Gasing Leper Terengganu’s heritage.| Publisher: International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS)

Preserving Malaysia’s Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Gasing Leper Terengganu | IJRISS

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS)
ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023
Page 618
www.rsisinternational.org
Preserving Malaysia’s Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study
of Gasing Leper Terengganu
Wan Mohd Fadzli Wan Samsudin1 , Norfadilah Kamaruddin2 and Hafizah Rosli3
1Post Graduate Studies, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam,
Selangor, MALAYSIA
2,3Creative Visual Exchange Group (CREATe), College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
ABSTRACT
Malaysia is not only unique country with a multicultural diversity but also has a rich and numerous culture
and heritage treasures. Therefore, as technology growth across world, many cultural heritages might become
missing without any effective efforts in preservation and conservation of the culture and heritage. Within
this scenario, the qualitative study was conducted through documents review, a field observation followed
by a face-to-face interview with corresponding respondents to empirically ascertain the narrative history and
uniqueness of Gasing Leper Terengganu which further propose an alternative approach in preserving
Gasing Leper Terengganu’s heritage.
Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Gasing, Intangible Cultural Heritage
INTRODUCTION
Cultural Heritage is something that is very valuable in displaying identity. Today, cultural heritage is
essentially linked to the most vital challenges that humanity faces as a whole which range from climate change
and natural disasters (such as loss of biodiversity or access to safe water and food), to conflicts between
communities, education, health, migration, urbanization, marginalization or economic inequalities. And for
that reason, cultural heritage is considered essential for promoting sustainable society,environmental and
economic development (Imperiale, Fasiello and Adamo, 2021).
The importance of heritage preservation and conservation for sustainable socio economic development has
amplified in Malaysia over the past few years. When looking at the importance of heritage for culture and
development, the state of Terengganu in Malaysia is endowed with a variety of traditional arts, culture and
invaluable heritage. Among the cultural heritage remains the traditional games that are part of the life of the
previous community. Although some traditional games are no longer as popular as they used to be, they are
still played in rural areas involving various age groups.
The Gasing Leper Terengganu is one of the art heritages that have the potential to be recovered. It was a
community activity of the past to satisfy their leisure time. In addition, this game of Gasing Leper Terengganu
also measures the level of skill and speed of a person in dealing with a situation. However, as technological
advances, the traditional culture of Gasing Leper Terengganu have been threatened by the young generation.
Thus the study on Gasing Leper Terengganu aims to empirically ascertain the chronicle and uniqueness of
Gasing Leper Terengganu which futher propose a way to preserving Gasing Leper Terengganu’s heritage.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS)
ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023
Page 619
www.rsisinternational.org
LITERATURE REVIEW
The Heritage: A Brief Definition
According to UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2009), there are different types of heritage based on
UNESCO’s definition which are Cultural Heritage and Natural Heritage (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Different Types of Heritage
Cultural Heritage is further divided into tangible and intangible cultural heritage (Christoph Brumann,2015).
Specifically, Intangible Cultural Heritage generally refers to subjective aspect such as tradition, ethnic
groups rituals, nations, and the international community. In other words, Tangible cultural heritage can be seen
in many forms including buildings, sites areas, food, dress, and handicrafts. Besides, Natural Heritageis
definable as locations or areas of land (might include national parks, marine protected areas, other
reserves, botanic gardens and private conservancies, significant fauna and flora habitats, and geological
sites) and sea that can be formally recognized for conservation purposes as heritage values by applying specific
assessment criteria (N M Suaib et al, 2020).
Below is some of the examples of cultural and natural heritage in Malaysia those recognized in the UNESCO
World Heritage list (Table 1).
Table 1. The examples of cultural, natural and indigenous heritage in Malaysia
Categories / Types Examples
Cultural Heritage
Tangible cultural
heritage
Historic Cities of Straits of Malacca Archaeological Heritage
of the Lenggong Valley, Perak
Intangible Cultural
Heritage
Mak Yong
Gasing
Natural Heritage
Sites (natural)
Taman Negara (National Forest – Peninsular Malaysia)
Kinabalu National Park, Sabah
Objects
Tengkolok Diraja (Royal headgear),
Perahu Kemajuan (boat)
Geopark Langkawi Geopark, Kedah
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS)
ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023
Page 620
www.rsisinternational.org
The Heritage: A Values
Both Cultural Heritage and Natural Heritage moreover provides different values including historical,
informational, aesthetic and economic.
Table 2. The Cultural Heritage Values
Values Brief Explanation
Historical Can provide value
Informational Can provide public education and the greatest informational value for scholarly research
Aesthetic Can provide emotional experience and serve as a creative inspiration for the viewer
Economic Can generates employment and revenue by local, national, or international
The Heritage: Research Done in Preserving Malaysian Cultural Heritage
Based on the literatures review, there are a numbers of efforts done by various researchers related to cultural
heritage preservation in Malaysia reported that were mostly centred around tangible cultural heritage.Among
those, study on the conservation and preservation of Wayang Kulit is the most popular study done toward those
efforts. In particular, there are a study on the visual styles of the Wayang Kulit Kelantan (Khor, K.-K. and
Y.M. Chan, 2009), design and development of interactive virtual Wayang Kulit (Talib, A.Z., etal., 2012),
Wayang Kulit preservation using multimedia technology (Dahlan Abdul, G.,2011) into an interactive game
(Ghani, D.B.A., 2015) and emulating the visuals of Wayang Kulit with Computer Generated Imaginary (Khor,
K.-K., 2018).
Other than Wayang Kulit research, studies on the food heritage through food identity and based on age of
public perceptions were also done to preserve local food heritage and identity (Md Ramli, A., et al., 2016,
2020). Beside, preserving an iconic heritage buildings through virtual reconstruction (Esmaeili, H., P.C.
Woods, and H. Thwaites , 2015), digital preservation of Rumah Tok Su – a traditional Malay house in
Kedah (Ibrahim, N. and K.A. Azmi, 2013) and 3D model of Teratak Zaaba- traditional Malay house
(Ibrahim, N., et al., 2009). A part of that, a study on virtual preservation of panoramic Kota Kuala Kedah
(Jabbar and Jusof, 2014) and digitising facial expressions for preservation of a Malay folkdance called Mak
Yong ( Idris and Musa, 2020) are among efforts done in using computer graphics and media technology in
preservation of cultural heritage.
METHODOLOGY
This qualitative study was conducted through documents review ( secondary data) , field observation and face-
to-face interview with respondents (primary data). Library research was conducted to analyse the
contents of selected articles comprising journal articles, books, book chapters, and newspaper clippings. The
literature review referred to this study considered three main keywords namely heritage, culture and
preservation. The relevance of all keywords is linkage to the importance of physical attributes as well as issues
and problems related to the cultural heritage preservation.
The sites
The inventory data collected by the field observation and face to face interview taken in the sites studies
focused on selected traditional villages, Kuala Nerus District in Terengganu, Malaysia. All information’s
and identities of respondents was kept confidential and only be disclosed with their consent. In general, the
presence of traditional villages around the city of Kuala Terengganu conveys the socio-cultural identities of
genuine Malay communities.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS)
ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023
Page 621
www.rsisinternational.org
DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
History of Gasing Leper Terengganu
The word Gasing comes from two words, ‘Gah’ and ‘Berpusing,’ which means to turn swiftly and upright.
Some say the word gasing is derived from the syllables ‘Ka’ and ‘Sing.’ ‘Ka’ is an abbreviation of wood, while
‘sing’ is an abbreviation for a twist following its twisting nature (Informasi Kraf Malaysia, 2013). Historically,
gasing was originated made from a game that used a fruit from Berembang tree. This tree species is easily
found in river areas and areas that are constantly flooded by the tide at all times. Along with the changes in
time, the manufacturing of modern gasing has been developed using various types of wood, such as Meranti,
Cengal Merbau, and Keranji. However, it still maintains the shape of the Berembang fruit, which is round,
flat, and axial. And the Gasing Leper Terengganu was introduced around 1890s by the late Che Hussin Zainal,
a carpenter and also a farmer. His carpentry skills allowed him to be inspired to create gasing according to his
creativity.
Figure 2: Fruit of Berembang tree
The gasing has three main parts which are the head, body and stern of the gasing. There is a slight
depression at the bottom of the gasing head and this part is called the gasing neck. Its purpose is to wrap the
gasing rope. The axis is placed at the stern of the gasing to maintain the balance of the gasing ‘s rotation on
the floor. The diagram of the basic structure for gasing Leper Terengganu as presented in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Diagram of Gasing Leper Terengganu
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS)
ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023
Page 622
www.rsisinternational.org
The Uniqueness of Gasing Leper Terengganu
The traditional game of Gasing Leper Terengganu is one of the unique local art heritage. Its uniqueness
commenced from the manufacturing process that combines traditional and modern elements in a production
and also the way of playing it. In particular, the size of the Gasing Leper is quite large (almost 8kg)
compared to others which about 20 inches in circumference, round and flat. Further, the Penaga wood is
most common wood be used to make Gasing Leper as the wood has a quality of hardness and different
durability from other woods. A rope using wood bark that be twisted by hand is needed in order to playing the
Gasing Leper (Figure 4).
Figure 4: The process of making a rope using wood bark twisted by hand.
The process of making ropes used wood bark for the Gasing Leper is also in contrast to other which commonly
used nylon fabric straps. Moreover, the Nisan Kerek was used to ensure that the Gasing Leper rope is sticky
and easy to grip the top body of Gasing Leper, which is one of the unusual elements that notbe used by other
(Figure 5).
Figure 5: Tools used in the Gasing Leper game.
Another uniqueness of Gasing Leper is the way it is be played although it looks similar to other especially
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS)
ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023
Page 623
www.rsisinternational.org
after rotated. Firstly, the player needs to release the Gasing Leper from the rope and make sure the Gasing
Leper spinning. Then, the palyer will scooped the Gasing Leper using a ” kayu penyokak” ( Figure 6) and
placed Gasing Leper on a glass plate. When the Gasing Leper spins on the glass, the “Tukang Bela” will
ensures that the Gasing Leper continues to rotate. The player of Gasing Leper methods commoly put
cooking oil or lubricating oil on the surface of the plate in ensuring the Gasing Leper spinning longer
(Figure 7).
Figure 6: Gasing Leper is scooped using a “kayu penyokak” before being placed on a glass plate.
Figure 7: “Tukang Bela” puts cooking oil or lubricating oil on the surface of the plate to ensure that the top continues to rotate.
There are also several terms used for equipment, courts, and games of Gasing Leper Terengganu. The terms
that was first introduced and still used till today are listed in Table 2 below. Most of the terms used in the
Gasing Leper Terengganu games are taken from the local community dialect.

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Preserving Malaysia’s Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Gasing Leper Terengganu | IJRISS

  • 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 618 www.rsisinternational.org Preserving Malaysia’s Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Gasing Leper Terengganu Wan Mohd Fadzli Wan Samsudin1 , Norfadilah Kamaruddin2 and Hafizah Rosli3 1Post Graduate Studies, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA 2,3Creative Visual Exchange Group (CREATe), College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. ABSTRACT Malaysia is not only unique country with a multicultural diversity but also has a rich and numerous culture and heritage treasures. Therefore, as technology growth across world, many cultural heritages might become missing without any effective efforts in preservation and conservation of the culture and heritage. Within this scenario, the qualitative study was conducted through documents review, a field observation followed by a face-to-face interview with corresponding respondents to empirically ascertain the narrative history and uniqueness of Gasing Leper Terengganu which further propose an alternative approach in preserving Gasing Leper Terengganu’s heritage. Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Gasing, Intangible Cultural Heritage INTRODUCTION Cultural Heritage is something that is very valuable in displaying identity. Today, cultural heritage is essentially linked to the most vital challenges that humanity faces as a whole which range from climate change and natural disasters (such as loss of biodiversity or access to safe water and food), to conflicts between communities, education, health, migration, urbanization, marginalization or economic inequalities. And for that reason, cultural heritage is considered essential for promoting sustainable society,environmental and economic development (Imperiale, Fasiello and Adamo, 2021). The importance of heritage preservation and conservation for sustainable socio economic development has amplified in Malaysia over the past few years. When looking at the importance of heritage for culture and development, the state of Terengganu in Malaysia is endowed with a variety of traditional arts, culture and invaluable heritage. Among the cultural heritage remains the traditional games that are part of the life of the previous community. Although some traditional games are no longer as popular as they used to be, they are still played in rural areas involving various age groups. The Gasing Leper Terengganu is one of the art heritages that have the potential to be recovered. It was a community activity of the past to satisfy their leisure time. In addition, this game of Gasing Leper Terengganu also measures the level of skill and speed of a person in dealing with a situation. However, as technological advances, the traditional culture of Gasing Leper Terengganu have been threatened by the young generation. Thus the study on Gasing Leper Terengganu aims to empirically ascertain the chronicle and uniqueness of Gasing Leper Terengganu which futher propose a way to preserving Gasing Leper Terengganu’s heritage.
  • 2. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 619 www.rsisinternational.org LITERATURE REVIEW The Heritage: A Brief Definition According to UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2009), there are different types of heritage based on UNESCO’s definition which are Cultural Heritage and Natural Heritage (Figure 1). Figure 1. Different Types of Heritage Cultural Heritage is further divided into tangible and intangible cultural heritage (Christoph Brumann,2015). Specifically, Intangible Cultural Heritage generally refers to subjective aspect such as tradition, ethnic groups rituals, nations, and the international community. In other words, Tangible cultural heritage can be seen in many forms including buildings, sites areas, food, dress, and handicrafts. Besides, Natural Heritageis definable as locations or areas of land (might include national parks, marine protected areas, other reserves, botanic gardens and private conservancies, significant fauna and flora habitats, and geological sites) and sea that can be formally recognized for conservation purposes as heritage values by applying specific assessment criteria (N M Suaib et al, 2020). Below is some of the examples of cultural and natural heritage in Malaysia those recognized in the UNESCO World Heritage list (Table 1). Table 1. The examples of cultural, natural and indigenous heritage in Malaysia Categories / Types Examples Cultural Heritage Tangible cultural heritage Historic Cities of Straits of Malacca Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley, Perak Intangible Cultural Heritage Mak Yong Gasing Natural Heritage Sites (natural) Taman Negara (National Forest – Peninsular Malaysia) Kinabalu National Park, Sabah Objects Tengkolok Diraja (Royal headgear), Perahu Kemajuan (boat) Geopark Langkawi Geopark, Kedah
  • 3. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 620 www.rsisinternational.org The Heritage: A Values Both Cultural Heritage and Natural Heritage moreover provides different values including historical, informational, aesthetic and economic. Table 2. The Cultural Heritage Values Values Brief Explanation Historical Can provide value Informational Can provide public education and the greatest informational value for scholarly research Aesthetic Can provide emotional experience and serve as a creative inspiration for the viewer Economic Can generates employment and revenue by local, national, or international The Heritage: Research Done in Preserving Malaysian Cultural Heritage Based on the literatures review, there are a numbers of efforts done by various researchers related to cultural heritage preservation in Malaysia reported that were mostly centred around tangible cultural heritage.Among those, study on the conservation and preservation of Wayang Kulit is the most popular study done toward those efforts. In particular, there are a study on the visual styles of the Wayang Kulit Kelantan (Khor, K.-K. and Y.M. Chan, 2009), design and development of interactive virtual Wayang Kulit (Talib, A.Z., etal., 2012), Wayang Kulit preservation using multimedia technology (Dahlan Abdul, G.,2011) into an interactive game (Ghani, D.B.A., 2015) and emulating the visuals of Wayang Kulit with Computer Generated Imaginary (Khor, K.-K., 2018). Other than Wayang Kulit research, studies on the food heritage through food identity and based on age of public perceptions were also done to preserve local food heritage and identity (Md Ramli, A., et al., 2016, 2020). Beside, preserving an iconic heritage buildings through virtual reconstruction (Esmaeili, H., P.C. Woods, and H. Thwaites , 2015), digital preservation of Rumah Tok Su – a traditional Malay house in Kedah (Ibrahim, N. and K.A. Azmi, 2013) and 3D model of Teratak Zaaba- traditional Malay house (Ibrahim, N., et al., 2009). A part of that, a study on virtual preservation of panoramic Kota Kuala Kedah (Jabbar and Jusof, 2014) and digitising facial expressions for preservation of a Malay folkdance called Mak Yong ( Idris and Musa, 2020) are among efforts done in using computer graphics and media technology in preservation of cultural heritage. METHODOLOGY This qualitative study was conducted through documents review ( secondary data) , field observation and face- to-face interview with respondents (primary data). Library research was conducted to analyse the contents of selected articles comprising journal articles, books, book chapters, and newspaper clippings. The literature review referred to this study considered three main keywords namely heritage, culture and preservation. The relevance of all keywords is linkage to the importance of physical attributes as well as issues and problems related to the cultural heritage preservation. The sites The inventory data collected by the field observation and face to face interview taken in the sites studies focused on selected traditional villages, Kuala Nerus District in Terengganu, Malaysia. All information’s and identities of respondents was kept confidential and only be disclosed with their consent. In general, the presence of traditional villages around the city of Kuala Terengganu conveys the socio-cultural identities of genuine Malay communities.
  • 4. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 621 www.rsisinternational.org DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS History of Gasing Leper Terengganu The word Gasing comes from two words, ‘Gah’ and ‘Berpusing,’ which means to turn swiftly and upright. Some say the word gasing is derived from the syllables ‘Ka’ and ‘Sing.’ ‘Ka’ is an abbreviation of wood, while ‘sing’ is an abbreviation for a twist following its twisting nature (Informasi Kraf Malaysia, 2013). Historically, gasing was originated made from a game that used a fruit from Berembang tree. This tree species is easily found in river areas and areas that are constantly flooded by the tide at all times. Along with the changes in time, the manufacturing of modern gasing has been developed using various types of wood, such as Meranti, Cengal Merbau, and Keranji. However, it still maintains the shape of the Berembang fruit, which is round, flat, and axial. And the Gasing Leper Terengganu was introduced around 1890s by the late Che Hussin Zainal, a carpenter and also a farmer. His carpentry skills allowed him to be inspired to create gasing according to his creativity. Figure 2: Fruit of Berembang tree The gasing has three main parts which are the head, body and stern of the gasing. There is a slight depression at the bottom of the gasing head and this part is called the gasing neck. Its purpose is to wrap the gasing rope. The axis is placed at the stern of the gasing to maintain the balance of the gasing ‘s rotation on the floor. The diagram of the basic structure for gasing Leper Terengganu as presented in Figure 3. Figure 3: Diagram of Gasing Leper Terengganu
  • 5. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 622 www.rsisinternational.org The Uniqueness of Gasing Leper Terengganu The traditional game of Gasing Leper Terengganu is one of the unique local art heritage. Its uniqueness commenced from the manufacturing process that combines traditional and modern elements in a production and also the way of playing it. In particular, the size of the Gasing Leper is quite large (almost 8kg) compared to others which about 20 inches in circumference, round and flat. Further, the Penaga wood is most common wood be used to make Gasing Leper as the wood has a quality of hardness and different durability from other woods. A rope using wood bark that be twisted by hand is needed in order to playing the Gasing Leper (Figure 4). Figure 4: The process of making a rope using wood bark twisted by hand. The process of making ropes used wood bark for the Gasing Leper is also in contrast to other which commonly used nylon fabric straps. Moreover, the Nisan Kerek was used to ensure that the Gasing Leper rope is sticky and easy to grip the top body of Gasing Leper, which is one of the unusual elements that notbe used by other (Figure 5). Figure 5: Tools used in the Gasing Leper game. Another uniqueness of Gasing Leper is the way it is be played although it looks similar to other especially
  • 6. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 623 www.rsisinternational.org after rotated. Firstly, the player needs to release the Gasing Leper from the rope and make sure the Gasing Leper spinning. Then, the palyer will scooped the Gasing Leper using a ” kayu penyokak” ( Figure 6) and placed Gasing Leper on a glass plate. When the Gasing Leper spins on the glass, the “Tukang Bela” will ensures that the Gasing Leper continues to rotate. The player of Gasing Leper methods commoly put cooking oil or lubricating oil on the surface of the plate in ensuring the Gasing Leper spinning longer (Figure 7). Figure 6: Gasing Leper is scooped using a “kayu penyokak” before being placed on a glass plate. Figure 7: “Tukang Bela” puts cooking oil or lubricating oil on the surface of the plate to ensure that the top continues to rotate. There are also several terms used for equipment, courts, and games of Gasing Leper Terengganu. The terms that was first introduced and still used till today are listed in Table 2 below. Most of the terms used in the Gasing Leper Terengganu games are taken from the local community dialect.
  • 7. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 624 www.rsisinternational.org Table 3. Terms in the Gasing Leper game. TERM MEANING ALIK : Spinning. LAWAN ALIK : Opponents turn around. EMBAK : Victory is based on the top of the rudder. EMBAK KENA : Reciprocate the opponent’s victory. DEBUS : The tops do not hit between the opponent’s tops. MEDANG : The ring. BELAH MEDANG : Division of corners in the ring. NOBAT : The striker is allowed to striking three times in a row in order to gets an embak. PENALTI : Punishment if breaking the rules. GOLEK : Tops that do not twist swiftly on the base. KUBU : Pile of soil to place the spinning tops on a plate. SERKUP KUBU : Windbreaker. LOH LAH : Pangkah allowed. GABUS : The trial round before starting the pangkah. NAIK : The winning spinner will be allowed to pangkah to the opponent. BONG : A small circle in the middle of the field is made of pusu soil. BELA : The process of balancing the tops on a plate. Each terms cannot be changed to another term even if it has the same meaning. For example, the word “alik,” which carries the meaning of turning, cannot be referred to as “berpusing,” while the term “lawan alik” cannot use the term “lawan berpusing.” Types of Gasing Leper Terengganu Gasing Leper is divided into three types that have the same shape and properties which distinguished by size. They are Gasing Leper Kemudi, Gasing Leper Menekok and Gasing Leper Haluan. The Gasing Leper Kemudi has a circumference of 20 inches, the Gasing Leper Menekok is 19.5 inches, and the Gasing Leper Haluan is 19 inches. The permissible weight of these three different gasing is not more than 2 kilograms. For each games, this three gasing must be used every time the games be held. If the number and type of tops are not sufficient, then the top games cannot be held. TYPES OF GASING LEPER TERENGGANU Gasing Leper Kemudi Gasing Leper Menekok Gasing Leper Haluan Figure 8: 3 Types of Gasing Leper Terengganu
  • 8. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 625 www.rsisinternational.org DIY Gasing Leper Terengganu With the empirical datathat covered history, uniqueness and types of Gasing Leper Terengganu, thisresearch proposed a new approach in preserving the heritage of Gasing Leper Terengganu which is DIY set kits of Gasing Leper Terengganu. The DIY kits can easily play by the public and also helping the young generation aware of this local heritage. Figure 9: DIY kits of Gasing Leper Terengganu CONCLUSION In today’s era of gadgets and technology, traditional games known as folk sports are getting less and less attention among the community. Today’s new generation can’t enjoy the thrill of running around in a wide field and sweating. The constraints of playing space and the fear of social crime cause children to not be free to play like previous generations. Within this, preserving the cultural heritage for the enrichment and education of present and future generations is crucial. Gasing Leper Terengganu is a unique and artisticlocal cultural heritage. Seeing the high potential of Gasing Leper Terengganu, it needs to be developed and
  • 9. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 626 www.rsisinternational.org fought to become a significant art heritage in this era of modern technology. Interest in Gasing Leper Terengganu must be instilled in the souls of the younger generation. Efforts in preserving the art of local heritage need to be intensified and implemented so that the origin of a nation can be known, appreciated, and inherited fully. Programs to educate and publicize the game of Gasing Leper Terengganu among the youth should be given more emphasis by holding various programs extended to all districts in Terengganu. Hopefully, the effort to lift the Gasing Leper Terengganu game again gets cooperation and opens the eyes of all parties to come forward to raise this tops game back to the proper level. The commercial value of this traditional game is very high and a thousand times more dear if left alone. REFERENCES 1. Christoph Brumann, (2015). Cultural Heritage. International Encyclopaedia of the Social & Behavioural Sciences (Second Edition), pp. 414-419 2. Dahlan Abdul, G., (2011). Preserving Wayang Kulit for Future Generations, I. Mohd Sidin Bin Ahmad, Editor. 2011. p. 70-74. 3. Esmaeili, H., P.C. Woods, and H. Thwaites (2015). Virtual Preservation of Contemporary ArchitecturalHeritage in Developing Countries in Absence of Protection: Digital Reconstruction, Recording, and Archiving before Complete Disappearance, in Proceedings of the 2015 11th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS). 2015, IEEE Computer Society. p. 796-803. 4. Ferero, Juliana (2012). Where is the Culture?: Cultural Heritage Trends and Challenges. IPEDR, vol. 34. IACSIT Press, Singapore. 5. Ghani, D.B.A., (2015). Wayang fighters: preserving the art of wayang kulit (shadow puppets) through game application, in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication. 2015, ACM: Bali, Indonesia. p. 1-7. 6. Ibrahim, N. and K.A. Azmi (2013). Preserving Malay architectural heritage through virtual reconstruction in Digital Heritage International Congress (Digital Heritage), 2013. 7. Ibrahim, N., et al. (2009).Cultural Heritage Preservation: 3D Modelling of Traditional Malay House using Hidden Surface Removal Approach. in Proceeding of International Conference on Software Engineering and Computer Systems, ICSECS, 2009. 8. Imperiale, F.; Fasiello, R.; Adamo, S. (2021). Sustainability Determinants of Cultural and Creative Industries in Peripheral Areas. Journal of Risk Finance and Management, Vol. 14(9), 438, https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14090438 9. Jabbar, E.A. and M.J. Jusof (2014).Virtual heritage interpretation through animated panoramic illustration of Kota Kuala Kedah. in 2014 International Conference on Virtual Systems & Multimedia (VSMM). 10. Khor, K.-K. and Y.M. Chan (2009). A Study on the Visual Styles of Wayang Kulit Kelantan and Its Capturing Methods. in Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization, 2009. CGIV ’09. Sixth International Conference on. 11. Khor, K.-K., (2018). A Methodological Framework to Emulate the Visual of Malaysian Shadow Play With Computer-Generated Imagery, in Innovative Computing, Optimization and Its Applications: Modelling and Simulations, I. Zelinka, et al., Editors. 2018, Springer International Publishing: Cham. p. 321-336. 12. Md Ramli, A., et al., (2016). Determinants of Food Heritage towards Food Identity. Environment- Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 2016. 1(1): p. 207-216. 13. Md Ramli, A., D. Khairunisa, and M. Salehuddin (2020). The determinants of food heritage based on age in Klang Valley. 12: p. 396-411. 14. N M Suaib et al (2020). Cultural heritage preservation efforts in Malaysia: A survey. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2020. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/979/1/012008 15. Salbiah Abd Rahman, (2010). Malay Cultural and Heritage Tourism at Bukit Chandan, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia. UNITAR E-Jornal. Vol. 6, No. 2.
  • 10. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRISS) ISSN No. 2454-6186 | DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS |Volume VII Issue II February 2023 Page 627 www.rsisinternational.org 16. Talib, A.Z., et al.,( 2012). Design and Development of an Interactive Virtual Shadow Puppet Play, in Arts and Technology: Second International Conference, ArtsIT 2011, Esbjerg, Denmark, December 10- 11, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, A.L. Brooks, Editor. 2012, Springer Berlin Heidelberg: Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 118-126. 17. UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2009). https://uis.unesco.org/en/glossary-term/cultural-heritage.