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International Journal of Engineering Research and Development
E-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com
Volume 7, Issue 9 (July 2013), PP. 60-69
60
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM)
and Providing a Model for Iran
1
Dr.Sanjar Salajegheh, 2
Nasrin Pirmoradi
1
Member of scientific board, Management Department, Islamic AZAD University, Kerman Branch, Kerman
,Iran
2
Student of governmental management, PhD degree, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch ,Kerman ,Iran
Abstract:- The CBDRM course provides an opportunity for practitioners to learn essential skills and knowledge
in community based disaster risk management to address implementation challenges in a systematic manner.
CBDRM participants acquire tools and obtain knowledge on ―how to‖ design and implement programs for
reducing disaster risks and vulnerability and building community capacity to promote a ‗culture of safety.‘
Through exercises and simulations participants practice risk assessment and risk management planning. The
CBDRM course tackles the issues in disaster risk management from a developmental perspective, discusses the
issues and problems concerning sustainability, replication/ adaptation of CBDRM practice and integration of
risk management plans with government and non‐government development plans.
According to results, this research is the type of application, and has been done with descriptive method. At
first, it has paid to library study and documents including check books, scientific journals, documentation,
publications, official and written reports of responsible organizations and done researches by researchers in
disaster ,and then it has surveyed the situation of disaster management in Iran and collected necessary
information by interviewing and referring to responsible organizations such as red crescent, disaster
headquarter of ministry department and high education institute of crescent of Iran .According to obtained
information, model of community –base management is suitable for Iran and by using Delphi technique in three
stages, the comments of experts and relevant authorities were used and the final model was provided.
Keywords:- disaster management, community based view, disaster-resilient community, disaster-resistant
I. INTRODUCTION
The approach promoted under Community-based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) is to build
people‘s capacity of coping with disaster risks and reducing their vulnerability thereby developing safer and
more resilient communities. These approaches have been recognized and widely practiced by various
community groups, national and international organizations and government departments for over two decades
in South East Asia countries. The last decade showed the growing recognition of the need for shifting the
paradigm from emergency management to disaster risk management. This involved the change of focus from
emergency response to planned activities that would mitigate or prevent disasters. At the national and state
level, this approach necessitated political will and the formulation of new policies and allocation of resources to
institutional mechanisms that support risk management activities. It is at the local level, however, where
development planning and implementation of specific disaster risk management activities takes place.
Experiences highlights the importance of the role of local communities as it is an acknowledged fact
that whatever the scale of hazards, big or small, it is the local community that either suffers the brunt of or
survives from hazards‘ devastating effects. The population at the local community is the ones affected and as
such it also becomes the first responders, who manage the emergencies at the household and at the community
level. By managing emergencies well, it prevents the escalation of these emergencies into disasters. But more
than this, local communities take measures to manage risks long before the hazards strikes. In this light, disaster
risk management is most appropriate and relevant at the community level.
II. DISASTER DEFINITION: A REVIEW
Disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread
human, material, economic or environmental losses, which exceed the ability of the affected community or
society to cope, using its own resources (UNISDR 2004). A disaster happens when a hazard impacts upon a
vulnerable population and causes damage, casualties and disruption. An earthquake in an uninhabited desert
cannot be considered a disaster, no matter how strong the intensities produced. An earthquake is only disastrous
when it affects people, their property and activities.
This means that when a hazard strikes a community, the normal life of the residents is disrupted, which results
then in a crisis or emergency situation. If the community or local level government structure is able to manage
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
61
the crisis or emergency and they do not need external assistance, either from other communities or from higher
government set up, the situation remains an emergency and does not become a disaster. Only if the community
is not able to manage the crisis on their own and they need outside help, would the situation be called a disaster.
There are two levels here: managing the disaster risk before a hazard strikes or the crisis event when the hazard
does strikes so that it will not lead to disaster (disaster resistant); and managing disaster-events with outside
assistance so that people will cope, adjust and recover easily from the event (disaster resilient). CBDRM
addresses both levels.
III. AIM OF COMMUNITY-BASED DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT
The increasing human and property losses from earthquakes, cyclones and flooding and other hazards
call our attention to proper development planning that would ensure the designing and building of communities
in safe areas in the future. But since it is nearly impossible to rebuild housing and facilities and relocate
communities to safe areas, what do we do? The answer is to improve the traditional disaster risk management
program and planning –mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery that make communities more disaster
resilient. This is one aim of CBDRM: disaster resilient communities.
Disaster resilient communities are ―flexible and elastic‖. They have the ―ability to recover from
depression‖ or ―adjust, spring back easily from misfortune or change‖ (Oxford and Webster Dictionary).
Resilient communities are compared to bamboos. ―The bamboo withstands even the strongest typhoons as it
sways with storm winds. It is the characteristics of resiliency that has made us survive three waves of
colonization. It is the same resiliency that makes us rise from the ashes of Pinatubo and Mayon, and rebuild our
lives from the devastating effects of disasters‖ (Delica, 1997, p13). This means that communities that are hit by
a hazard (which then becomes a disaster) are able to spring back and resume their original form and readily
recover and adjust easily. They are able to cope. This is a result of communities disaster preparedness plan.
Another aim of CBDRM is to promote disaster resistant communities. These communities are able to prevent
hazards from reaching a disastrous proportion. Such a state comes about as a result of mitigation and
preventative measures outlined in a comprehensive plan that takes into consideration every aspect of community
existence: including primarily public safety, good health and robust socio-economic life. A disaster resistant
community can be compared with a healthy person who can resist the invasion of Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome (SARS) or some other virus because the person is well nourished and robust and in a state of well
being.
This is easier said than done. It requires political will from government leaders to formulate strategic
direction and tactical guidance to lead planners in hazardous areas. An all-inclusive approach is imperative,
participatory (bottom up) and directive (top down). A top down approach may also be necessary to enforce laws
and regulations, for example in the area of environmental protection. To aim for a disaster resistant community
is to address the vulnerability question, both the structural and nonstructural aspects of society.
The goal of disaster resistant communities is to maintain public safety and safeguard development gains.
Disaster resistant communities are difficult to attain by individual communities alone. The requirement is huge
so that advocates should involve the local government, who in turn should enlist the support of all stakeholders.
Donald Geis (Natural Hazards Review, 2000) suggests ten inherent principles as core guide in attaining a
Disaster Resistant Community.
1. The need for a holistic and integrated approach, communities that are supported by physical and
organizational structures and concerned with the overall workings – functioning, relationship, service, capacity,
scale—of all its systems and components.
2. The redevelopment of existing communities in consideration of the natural and built environment
(transportation and communication, social facilities, commercial development, etc.)
3. The process of creating Disaster Resistant Communities must be within the context of an overall larger and
integrated process of creating sustainable quality life communities.
4. The local government‘s role should be recognized as it is at this level that the planning development process
occurs.
5. A disaster Resistant Community must be built up from the grassroots level, respecting the unique qualities of
each community, and from the bottom up, not super-imposed from the top down.
6. The disaster risk management function should be enhanced by providing the best means for developing risk
reduction measures.
7. Disaster Risk Management may not be top of the agenda of a community‘s plethora of concerns. The
additional benefit of a Disaster Resistant Community – environment, social and economic opportunities can
motivate and empower communities and actually implement it.
8. Living in communities as safe as possible from natural hazards should not be considered a luxury or bonus,
but a basic necessity, as basic as a human right.
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
62
9. The process of creating a Disaster Resistant Community is the single most important tool available for
reducing the exponentially increasing cost related to natural hazards.
10. The core focus of a Disaster Resistant Community is to minimize the human, property and environmental
losses, along with the social and economic disruption associated with extreme hazards.
Currently, communities that are involved in CBDRM are in the process of attaining resiliency. A thorough study
should be undertaken to examine how far the CBDRM proponents have gone in initiating disaster resistant
communities.
IV. DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITY BASED VIEW
In 1990s, according to international decade for natural disaster reduction, changing in the patterns of
temporary alternatives and reactions to the danger were occurred on emergency times in many area of the world.
These tries are performed due to inverse process of disaster occurrence, specially the disasters in small and
medium scale. The necessity of preventive actions or preparedness against disasters, danger decrease and
forestalling of disasters also the important role of local communities in disaster management, was shown.
Using of society based methods, will develop the deficiencies of bottom to top disaster management methods
and deficiencies of planning which failed to contribute partnerships in decision making and providing the local
needs. Focusing on technical and structural alternatives will ignore the contribution of local communities,
bottom to up methods, local capacities and sources also it may lead to more vulnerability of
people(Maskery,1989;Maskery & Jegillos,1997; Kishore,2001)
In the conference of United Nation natural disaster reduction decade which placed in Yokohama of
Japan from 23 to 27 May, 1994, Extent agreement was on disaster management depend on society, so the
vulnerable people will participate in planning and executions. In article 6 of Yokohama strategy and safe world
showed that: ―when the contribution will be in all levels from local communities to national government also in
local level to international level, the preventive measures will have the most effect. Article 6 gave an
opportunity for community based management of disaster by the international decade of disaster reduction
:"Local and active contribution should encourage in order to better individual and cumulative understanding of
disaster and danger…and in order to find effective and useful ways to decrease the consequences of disasters.
The strategy of United Nations to decrease the disasters was successful so it leaded to a framework of
international decade of natural disaster reduction. The global conference of disasters consequences reduction
which holds in Cube, Hyogo of Japan at 18-22 January of 2005, 168 governments, approved Hyogo framework
it means the people and societies preparedness against disasters for execution from 2005 to 2015. The approved
framework of Hyogo included five premierships which first preference as one of key actions is so that can
grantee the local contribution to provide local needs.
Preference 1: Disaster reduction should have local and national preference with strange organizational
base for execution (International strategy for disaster reduction of United Nation, 2005).
The management of natural disaster is possible by planning a national strategy, through political intention in a
national organization such as government, stable planning and organizing so these organizations can be as
executive type. Here, the concept of contribution will perform also we show s that the first step in management
of natural disaster is contribution. If in previous national politics was performed by governmental organization
from up to bottom by rule execution and issuing of circular letter. Recently, combination of "up to bottom" with
"bottom to up‖ methods and contribution of all societies levels, will perform by a uniform and comprehensive
management (UNOCHA: 2007)
The most important and permanent issue in natural disasters which have more effect on the survivors
are psychological-social damages which are the result of disasters so we can decrease their rate by contribution
of people in all dimensions. These measures will have most efficiency by the power of all people contribution.
One of important index of development refers to people contribution rate and their abilities to solve their
problems. So society based view as most effective and best one is considered very much. Self-aiding,
association, partnership, satisfactory feeling in life, responsibility growth and society organizing are some of
purposes which are important in society based view, so in order to achieve above mentioned goals, this method
will involve most social groups in social actions and conferring some duties to them to perform the determined
duties, also the groups can contact with each other seriously and they can be responsible against issues and
problem of their community.(Moslehi, 10:2009)." The management depend on people, is a new process which
encourages a typical contribution and multi field, multi dimensional interference and it will lead to security,
confidence, independence and development"(Zenaida & Sung, 2003).
There are many views for crisis management, but they are divided into two main view; classic view and society
based view:
-In classic view which focuses on responsibility stages and recovering, there is any space for the
society as the main partnership in different stages of crisis management cycle. Programming and decision
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
63
making, organizing, confirming and controlling are in the hand of governmental organizations and if they allow
a role for the society, this role is reactive.
-In community based view, beside of introducing the dangers which threat the society, attempting to attract and
direct people and other beneficiary groups, by contributing them in different stages of disaster management also
attempting to increase the potential power of people by reinforcement the society members and participate them
in planning, organizing, decision making and controlling processes. (Jahangiri et al; 2008)
This view which is known as "citizen based and developmental reaction to disaster‖ will pay attention to the
vulnerable and divested part of society. Due to it, the development depend on contribution is a process which by
it the people can increase their abilities to produce the necessity goods and directing political and social life and
they can decrease the long and direct consequences of the events which threat their commercial, political and
social life ( specially in susceptible places).(Zenaida & Sung , 2003)
Generally important features and aims of people based management are as fallow:
1.The disasters are equal to vulnerability of people;
2.It will recognize the people abilities and trying to reinforce them;
3.The people contribution is a basic and necessary process in disaster management;
4.It will increase the organizational capacities of vulnerable parts by establishing the local organization
against disasters;
5.It seek for the roots of vulnerability and it will change or eliminate inequalities by productive structures;
6.It will connect the less vulnerable parts with more vulnerable parts;
The execution of strategies need below issues:
A. Making capabilities and developing skills in governmental and nongovernmental organizations and
equipping of theoretical and practical tools by using society based management
B. Contributing of societies and involvement of them in plans through a step by step process about
making team, making need priorities and designing of practical plan(UNOCHA:2007).
V. APPROACHES TO DISASTER MANAGEMENT
McEntire et al. (2002) reviewed the literature of disaster management and identified four models,
including the disaster-resistant community, the disaster-resilient community, sustainable
development/sustainable hazards mitigation and invulnerable development concepts.
The disaster-resistant community model is defined as a ―means to assist communities in minimizing
their vulnerability to natural hazards by maximizing the application of the principles and techniques of
mitigation to their development and/or redevelopment decision-making process‖ (Geis 2000, p. 152 cited
McEntire et al. 2002). The disaster-resistant community model is helpful in understanding how to face severe
natural disasters; however, it has its own drawbacks. The disaster-resistant community model assumes a passive
role for the community, as it is more relevant to the decision-making process than to engaging the communities.
In addition, as McEntire et al. (2002) mention, the disaster-resistant community approach is more pertinent to
disciplines such as geography, engineering, and urban planning. Consequently, it is not a holistic approach to
disaster management, as it ignores the contribution of many academic disciplines, such as public administration,
sociology, economics, political science, anthropology and psychology.
The disaster-resilient community cannot be as easily and clearly defined as the disaster-resistant
community. What is clear in the literature, however, is that the concept of resilience refers to the ability to
recover normality after a disaster. The concept of resilience, moreover, emphasizes reaction to natural disasters
at the early stage of disaster cycle. In comparison with the disaster-resistant community concept, the concept of
resilience more specifically covers the social variables. Consequently, the disaster-resilient community concept
encompasses more academic disciplines like sociology, economy, anthropology and psychology. The concept is,
however, mainly about natural disasters and adopts a reactive approach to disasters. The concept of resilience
ignores mitigation and preparedness functions, such as community education, planning, training and exercises
(McEntire et al. 2002).
The sustainable development approach to disasters is not limited to disaster management, as it places
disaster management in the wider perspective of development. The concept of sustainable development
emphasizes the needs of future generations while responding to the modern day development programs. The
sustainable hazard mitigation concept, which is very similar to sustainable development concept, appears to be
more related to disaster management in this approach. Sustainable development and sustainable hazard
mitigation view disasters from a broad perspective and connect the issue of disasters to other problems. These
concepts provide a wider approach to disaster in comparison with disaster-resistant community and disaster-
resilient community. They are not, however, holistic because they ignore man-made disasters (McEntire et al.
2002).
As already mentioned, Tables 1 to 3 compare the approaches to disaster management. McEntire et al.
(2002) introduce comprehensive vulnerability management as a holistic and complete approach to disaster
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
64
management. This approach includes all hazards, actors, phases, and disciplines. The present paper attempts to
develop another model based on lessons learned from the Bam earthquake in Iran. The proposed model is by no
means claimed to be comprehensive in terms of types of hazards and phases of disaster management.
VI. CBDRM PROCESSES FROM LOCAL AUTHORITY’S PERSPECTIVE
The disaster risk reduction process has six sequential stages, which can be implemented before a disaster occurs
or after one has happened to reduce future risks. Each stage grows out of the preceding stage and leads to further
action.
The stages in the disaster risk reduction process are given in the figure below:
Figure 1. Disaster risk reduction process (ADPC 2006)
A thorough assessment of the community‘s vulnerabilities, coping capacities and the risks is needed to start any
risk reduction activities. The active involvement of communities, subject experts and elected authorities is
important in decision-making to promote ownership and sustainability.
1. Selecting the Community
The first task of local authorities is to conduct a detailed risk assessment survey of the whole area
under its jurisdiction. The selection of communities for implementation of CBDRM activities depends upon a
number of factors and criteria, but most importantly the risk exposure of the particular community.
2. Rapport Building and Understanding
Once the most vulnerable communities are identified it would be important to understand the local
social relationships and power structures, key economic groups and to build good informal relationship with the
local people. This will be crucial in order to ensure participation of various local groups.
3. Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment
This process involves hazard assessment, vulnerability assessment and capacity assessment, and
analysis and prioritization of risks. The participatory disaster risk assessment will be conducted by the local
authorities with the involvement of local people, community leaders and subject experts.
4. Community-based Disaster Risk Management Planning
At this stage, further analysis will be conducted jointly by the local authorities and communities to
analyze the risks and identify strategies and solutions to address them. Based on this analysis, a detailed risk
reduction and response plan will be developed for the particular communities. The planning process will involve
analysis of local stakeholders and local resources. Roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders for
implementation of activities will be clarified.
5. Community Managed Implementation
The implementation of the plan should be done through the community organization at community
level with support from local authorities and technical and research institutions. The implementation process
will include various structural and non-structural activities; e.g. community training, disaster response drills,
community early warning systems, disaster resilient construction of houses, forest plantations, mangrove
plantation, diversification of crops, rainwater harvesting, construction of dykes, bridges etc for vulnerability
reduction and hazard mitigation. The community-based organization would be responsible for overall
management of the disaster reduction activities.
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
65
6. Monitoring & Evaluation
Participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) involves the local community, development agencies,
local authorities and other stakeholders in measuring the progress made, and identifying necessary follow-up
actions (ADPC 2006).
VII. SOCIETY PARTICIPATION
 According to definition of world hygiene organization (WHO) on 2002, society participation is a
process which people can participate in decision making, determining of issues and problems and effective
agents of their life also they can involve in execution of development policies, providing services and process of
changes by it. The participation is a process that the participated person can affect on development programs,
decisions and the sources which have effective role. In fact, the participation means having partnership in
decision making, decision building and social supervision. Therefore this participation includes all activities and
it means cooperation in public activities to supply today needs. Society participation, refer to using of potential
capabilities of people and working for people by them. In this way, the people can take care of their health and
organize their life effectively by acquisition of knowledge, skill and self-esteem (Sadegh Nejad, 2009:42). To
participate people in society, the different roles are determined for people which are as fallow:
- Passive role: fallowing and obeying of rules and plans of decision makers and lawmakers
- Consulting role: using of people views
- Colleague role: people cooperation in management processes
- Lerner role: learning knowledge and necessary skills for people interventions
- Active and sterling role: people cooperation as a partnership (Jahangiri, 2010: 19)
VIII. COMMUNITY BASED MANAGEMENT OF DISASTER REQUIREMENTS
The execution of society based management of crisis need providing some requirements that must supply before
performance of this special management, they are as fallow:
1. The existence of some pioneer society based and volunteer based organizations. To execution of
society based management, the existence of a society based and volunteer based organization is
necessary to settlement of an integrated and objective plan also connection and cooperation with local
organization is essential.
2. Teaching of society by priority of people who live invulnerable area: this teaching course should
include; knowledge and awareness development, skill ability. To prepare them in adventure and
disasters.
3. Approving comprehensive rules and planning a complete program: approving these rules will ease the
people participation by decreasing the unnecessary interference, so the consequences of dangers will
decrease.
Executive steps for society-oriented disaster management
1. Selection of society
2. Drawing the people confidence and participated groups, mutual understanding in the society
3. Evaluating the consequences of disasters and crisis jointly
4. Planning for management of disaster dangers by contribution
5. Organizing and teaching of society-oriented disaster management
6. Oriented motivation and directed execution of society activities
7. Participated evaluation and investigation (Jahangiri, 2010:42).
IX. COMMUNITY-BASED DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT (CBDRM) IN IRAN
Disasters can become uncontrollable, once the event has got underway. Therefore, preventive steps
need to be taken before, during and after the disaster events. If the community were not well prepared, control
over the disaster event would be usually lost during its occurrence. If each individual in the community is
familiar with ways of coping and precautionary measures, then the disruption by a disaster can be reduced
(Sampath, 2001).
Due to global report of disasters, Iran is placed at the head of vulnerable countries of the world.
According to this report during 1992 to 2001, 9.8 percent of Iran population have been killed or damaged in
accidents and disasters. Due to reported statistic about death and damages because of disasters among 150
countries of the world Iran have been had most statistic of kills after some undeveloped countries around the
world.(Global Bank, 2002) .
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
66
The collected data during 25 years and performed evaluations about comprehensive plan of flood in the
country showed that "the average of flood damages in the country is about 3.5 billion Rails daily"(Mahdavi,
2002:28).
Most parts of the country have not safety against drought. These natural disasters have been caused many
damages in recent years (Zamani and Zarafshan, 2004: 79). The vulnerability degree of other disasters is clear
too, for example the damages because of conflagration in the country after earthquake, flood and drought is
significant and car accidents which have many damages due to irreparable loss damages have significant
statistic (Ayati, 1992). The statistics of unexpected event staff reported 1146 earthquakes and 610 floods from
1991 to 2000 (Home office, 2002).
Therefore, paying attention to all kind of events is necessary in the country. One of important attention is about
taking consideration of people contribution which can be affective strategy to decrease the consequences of
probable events. This cooperation have different level for injured persons such as monetary contribution,
providing necessary goods, aiding and saving also they can be pay attention to advises and safety points during
and after disasters. The level of aiding contribution depend on the persons knowledge about disasters and safety
points which the associated organizations can develop them also the experiences of previous disasters and
knowledge about cooperation and responsibilities will help people and develop their feeling against disasters. A
documentable and applicable research did not perform about Iranian contribution to aid in disasters of Iran
(Shaditalab, 1993).
X. METHOD
According to results, this research is the type of application, and has been done with descriptive
method. At first, it has paid to library study and documents including check books, scientific journals,
documentation, publications, official and written reports of responsible organizations and done researches by
researchers in disaster ,and then it has surveyed the situation of crisis management in Iran and collected
necessary information by interviewing and referring to responsible organizations such as red crescent, disaster
headquarter of ministry department and high education institute of crescent of Iran .According to obtained
information, model of community –base management is suitable for Iran and by using Delphi technique in three
stages, the comments of experts and relevant authorities were used and the final model was provided.
XI. RESULTS
Researches and analyses that were based on the work are:
1. The results of Jahangir and others showed that in pre-disaster phase and post disaster phase, the
outcomes of intervention will be more effective if community involvements tend to active and learning
participation. But in disaster phase and rapid response, it is necessary that the role of people tends to reactive
role. Organizing in previous steps or after disaster can be based on the subject participation and have pyramidal
hierarchy bottom-up structure and or matrix structure; but in disaster phase, it should have pyramidal hierarchy
bottom-up structure (Fischer, 2001).
According to subject participation, planning in pre or post disaster phases is better to be decentralized and semi-
centralized manner and in all steps, the role of people tends to active end of spectrum (Buckle, 2001). But in
disaster phase, because of importance of time in response actions, the role of people should lead to the role of an
advisor, partners, information donor or reactive role. Coordination is also such. Due to security issues,
Management and guidance of this step should be controlled by military or paramilitary. The role of people
should be active in post disaster phases, such as risk analysis, prevention and reduction of destructive effects of
disasters, preparedness and early warnings (Jahangiri, 2007).
2. In another research, with surveying practical examples like Qeshm earthquake in 1384, it has been
showed that development of constructive relation of Qeshm red crescent with local agencies in rural
communities such as Islamic councils of these villages and formation of local relief committees that were done
before earthquake, cause acceleration and simplification of coordination and cooperation of agencies and local
people with red crescent during rescue operations.
Beside local cooperation, maximum use of unique capabilities of Islamic councils in rural and urban ,
intermediary role for agreements and understandings with red crescent in order to efficient use of existing
resources and facilities such as voluntary provision of multiple vehicles by citizens and inhabitants of
neighboring villages for transportation and contribution of relief items ,teams of volunteer distributor and
accommodation were also very effective .Where this relationship continued until after the crisis, sustainability
and institutionalization of prerequisites for community base management were provided and its positive role in
relief and rescue operation in earthquake in 2008 had more perspectives(Bazyarizadeh, 2010)
3. The results of another research show that: in proposed process of community base disaster management
in each of three main phases of crisis management, following cases should be considered. In pre-disaster phase,
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
67
there is a specific attention to identification of early data in legal , population, social, physical and
environmental fields, identification of all beneficiary groups, swot assessment in early studies, providing
community base disaster management plan ( cooperation), providing the document of making decision (big
goals, strategies, small goals), definition and providing the duty of participants groups.
In disaster phase, utilization of making decision document of pre disaster is an exact definition of doing task in
each group with integrated management approach, because one the most important problems of current
approaches of crisis management in the country is the number of responsible organizations and lack of
coordination in doing their tasks that the integrated management approach is very efficient in this field.
Supervision on tasks by independent structure of crisis management in the country is one of the most important
cases in this step, and in post disaster phase, devolution of options to local and private organizations in
reconstruction of damaged areas, empowering damaged people, control of population changes and provision on
tasks by independent structure of crisis management in the country are very important. Overview of crisis
management process and trends to community base crisis management, cause the efficiency of this strategy in
the future (Zarabadi & Dashtaki, 2012).
4. The office of United States has offered suggestions about improving of local capacity for coordination
of humanitarian affairs (Ocha) and also reduction of crisis effects that it can be a suitable field for providing
community base crisis management in Iran .these suggestions are:
-Improving of society‘s ability and stamina and increase of their response capacity against natural disaster, risk,
and basic awareness for self –reliance by training workshop.
-Involving of educational institutes, universities, Medias and governmental organizations in preparation
programs, reduction of risks and building awareness by exhibitions, festivals, cultural and literary activities.
-Support and improvement of young generation against risks and natural disasters by training, distribution and
exchange of information.
-Empowerment of women by improving of their skills, social activities and participation in decisions of
communities and strengthen them against disasters and events.
-Help to rural communities for making their capacity in order to challenge with drought and desertification and
increased capacity of product and food production.
-Improvements of community based management culture of natural disaster increase of participation in disaster
management and reduction of risk by participation in making decision in proper levels (Ocha, No.3, 5:2007).
According to above information, the proper model of community base crisis management has been presented:
XII. CONCLUSIONS
CBDRM approach is people and development oriented. It views disasters as a question of people‘s
vulnerability. It empowers people to address the root causes of vulnerabilities by transforming social, economic
and political structures that generate inequality and underdevelopment (Shaw and Kenji 2004). CBDRM
approach covers prevention and mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery.
The key aspect of community involvement is the sustainability of community level initiatives for
disaster reduction. External agencies, like government, non-government organizations may initiate and
implement community level programs before and after disasters. However, such initiatives many times
discontinue once the external support is ended. There can be many reasons behind this lack of sustainability,
some of which may be the lack of partnership, participation, empowerment and ownership of local communities.
Unless the disaster risk management efforts are sustainable at individual and community level, it would be
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
68
difficult to reduce the vulnerability and losses. It is therefore important to involve people in decision making on
policies and strategies that should be followed for their development in the community.
Community-based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) is a process in which at-risk communities are actively
engaged in the identification, analysis, treatment, monitoring and evaluation of disaster risks in order to reduce
their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities (ADPC, 2003). This means that people are at the heart of
decision-making and implementation of disaster risk management activities. The involvement of most
vulnerable social groups is considered as paramount in this process, while the support of the least vulnerable
groups is necessary for successful implementation( Abarquez $ Murshed,2004).
Iran is located among the top disaster-prone countries in the world and, therefore, disaster management is
considered to be one of the most important issues in this country. One of the existing and worldwide approaches
for managing disasters is the so-called community-based disaster management (CBDM). Community
participation means that people's contribution in the disaster management cycle can be started from the basic
steps of a process and ends in the achievement and institutionalization in the community.
The community-oriented strategy not only introduces the dangers which treat societies but will provide
the contribution of people and different groups by directing in different stages of disaster management. Also the
people potential against damageable consequences will decrease against disasters by preparing appropriate way
for development of society member's abilities and so this strategy will share people in planning, organizing,
taking policy, cooperating and controlling all operations which will decrease the dangers of disasters. Therefore,
the capacity of society against dangers will increase when a disaster occurs and the society return to previous
situation rapidly; among other things human and financial damages will reduce after disaster occurrence
(Fischer, 2001).
As mentioned above, due to ways of disaster management, the vulnerable societies can analyze the
dangers which are probable in their environment by using appropriate plans and executing them. The measures
which can decrease the dangers are some operation that preventing the disasters or reduce the severity of them
significantly. Using of this strategy will prepare societies against emergency situation and disasters properly as
well as raising their abilities in confront with accidents and disasters. The Occurrence of a disaster will lead to
human injures and financial damages for the economy of the countries. Meanwhile human and civil society can
play important role for reducing the consequences of the dangers. Paying attention to the mentioned point will
show the necessity of an appropriate insight about the role of civil society as well as understanding the
capacities and present potential to reduce the damages of disasters. Beside the importance of public contribution
for reducing the negative effects of natural disasters which is clear for every person, to perform the mentioned
strategy, whole dimensions of disaster management should be considered (prevention, preparedness,
confrontation, reconstruction and reinforcement) to ease the rapid reaction against them. There are different
strategies to reduce negative effect of disasters and unexpected events. Although the probability of natural
disasters is unavoidable but the damages of disasters in society-oriented management view will decrease by
using of scientific methods, different valuable experience of the country and world. Beside exact and correct
analysis of disasters which have been occurred but providing a complete plan about the society vulnerability
(recognizing, evaluating and supervising of the country vulnerability, rapid and effective reaction to accidents
and disasters which are impossible without the cooperation of people and public organizations), reduction of
disasters consequences through; determination of needs, priorities, situations as well as appropriate
interferences, making necessary cultures in different level, sharing the civil society in great decides, investing
and supplying of this section.
REFERENCES
[1]. Abarquez, Imelda and Zubair Murshed, 2004, Community-based Disaster Risk Management: Field
Practitioners‘ Handbook, ADPC (Adapted from CBDRM-II course materials).
[2]. ADPC, 2003, CBDRM-11 Course Reference Manual, Bangkok, Thailand.
[3]. ADPC, 2006, Authors: Shesh Kanta Kafle and Zubair Murshed, CBDRM, For local authorities ,
Bangkok, Thailand.
[4]. Ayati, E. (1992). Car accidents in Iran, Ferdousi University of Mashhad publication.
[5]. Bazyari, Y.(2010). "Society- oriented strategy in crisis management, an unavoidable necessity", a
selection of management, No 104, Moderate Farda publisher.
[6]. Buckle, P 2004, ‗A Comparative Assessment of Community based Recovery Management in England
and Australia‘, Coventry Center for Disaster Management, Coventry University.
[7]. Delica, Zenaida, 1997, Citizenry-Based Development Oriented Disaster Response, (Dissertation
presented at the Center for Development Practice, Oxford Brookes University), November, p.13.
[8]. Fischer, HW. (2001). the deconstruction of the command & control model: a post-modern analysis.
Paper Presented at the Annual Meetings of the European Sociological Association, Helsinki: Finland.
Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing…
69
[9]. Geis, Donald, 2002, By Design: The Disaster Resistant and Quality of Life Communities, Natural
Disaster Review Vol.1 #3 ISSN 1527-6985, pp. 151-159.
[10]. Home Office, 2002, organization of municipalities, Culture of Immunity Journal, First year, No2.
[11]. Jahangiri K, et al. (2008). Comparative study of society based management in collected countries and
providing a pattern for Iran, Payesh seasonal journal, First edition, Electronic publication
[12]. Jahangiri, K. & Pourheydari, G. (2010). Society-oriented management of crisis. Tehran: scientific and
applicable institute of Iran Red Crescent.
[13]. Mahdavi, M. (2002). Flood in Iran, a seminar about reduction of flood consequence and prevention of
flood.
[14]. Moslehi, M. (2009). The guidance of Moheb business design, Public communication of Behzisti
organization.
[15]. McEntire D A, Fuller C, Johnston C W & Weber R 2002, ‗A Comparison of Disaster Paradigms: The
Search for a Holistic Policy Guide‘, Public Administration Review, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 276-91.
[16]. Maskrey, A., 1998, Module on Community-based Disaster Risk Management, CBDM-2 Handout,
Bangkok, ADPC, 1998.
[17]. Sadegh Nejad, F. (2009). The contribution of society in road safety, Abrisham, No 85.
[18]. Shaditalab, Zh. (1993). Sociology of disaster: The experience of Rudbar earthquake- Manjil. Tehran:
Dwelling organization of Islamic Republic.
[19]. Sampath, Priya, Vulnerability Reduction at Community Level: The New Global Paradigm, In: Disaster
Mitigation Experiences and Reflections. Pradeep Sahni, Akka Dhameja and Uma Medury (eds),
Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, India, 2001.
[20]. Shah Rajib and Okajaki Kenji, 2004, Sustainable Community-based Disaster Management Practices in
Asia: A User‘s Guide, UNCRD, Kobe, Japan.
[21]. The office of United Nation for humanity operations (Ocha). (2007). second edition of Bolton
Electronic. Tehran.
[22]. Zamani, Gh. & Zarafshani, k. (1993). Vulnerability and necessity of farmers against drought, First
scientific conference about aiding and saving. Tehran: scientific and applicable institute of Iran Red
Crescent.
[23]. Zenaida J. & Sung D.(2003) Participation in Disaster Reduction: Eastern south Asia ch.2.CF.Internet .
[24]. Zarabadi, Zahra Sadat Saeedeh and Dashtaki, Najmeh, (1391). The pattern of community base crisis
management with emphasize on making local capacity, second national conference of crisis
management: the role of new Technology in reduction of vulnerability due to unexpected events.
[25]. UN/ISDR, Living with Risk-focus on Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol. 1, United Nations, New York,
2004.
[26]. UNCRD, Sustainability in Grassroots Initiatives Focus on Community Based Disaster Management,
Kobe, April 2013, p. 44; p. 58

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International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)

  • 1. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development E-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 7, Issue 9 (July 2013), PP. 60-69 60 Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing a Model for Iran 1 Dr.Sanjar Salajegheh, 2 Nasrin Pirmoradi 1 Member of scientific board, Management Department, Islamic AZAD University, Kerman Branch, Kerman ,Iran 2 Student of governmental management, PhD degree, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch ,Kerman ,Iran Abstract:- The CBDRM course provides an opportunity for practitioners to learn essential skills and knowledge in community based disaster risk management to address implementation challenges in a systematic manner. CBDRM participants acquire tools and obtain knowledge on ―how to‖ design and implement programs for reducing disaster risks and vulnerability and building community capacity to promote a ‗culture of safety.‘ Through exercises and simulations participants practice risk assessment and risk management planning. The CBDRM course tackles the issues in disaster risk management from a developmental perspective, discusses the issues and problems concerning sustainability, replication/ adaptation of CBDRM practice and integration of risk management plans with government and non‐government development plans. According to results, this research is the type of application, and has been done with descriptive method. At first, it has paid to library study and documents including check books, scientific journals, documentation, publications, official and written reports of responsible organizations and done researches by researchers in disaster ,and then it has surveyed the situation of disaster management in Iran and collected necessary information by interviewing and referring to responsible organizations such as red crescent, disaster headquarter of ministry department and high education institute of crescent of Iran .According to obtained information, model of community –base management is suitable for Iran and by using Delphi technique in three stages, the comments of experts and relevant authorities were used and the final model was provided. Keywords:- disaster management, community based view, disaster-resilient community, disaster-resistant I. INTRODUCTION The approach promoted under Community-based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) is to build people‘s capacity of coping with disaster risks and reducing their vulnerability thereby developing safer and more resilient communities. These approaches have been recognized and widely practiced by various community groups, national and international organizations and government departments for over two decades in South East Asia countries. The last decade showed the growing recognition of the need for shifting the paradigm from emergency management to disaster risk management. This involved the change of focus from emergency response to planned activities that would mitigate or prevent disasters. At the national and state level, this approach necessitated political will and the formulation of new policies and allocation of resources to institutional mechanisms that support risk management activities. It is at the local level, however, where development planning and implementation of specific disaster risk management activities takes place. Experiences highlights the importance of the role of local communities as it is an acknowledged fact that whatever the scale of hazards, big or small, it is the local community that either suffers the brunt of or survives from hazards‘ devastating effects. The population at the local community is the ones affected and as such it also becomes the first responders, who manage the emergencies at the household and at the community level. By managing emergencies well, it prevents the escalation of these emergencies into disasters. But more than this, local communities take measures to manage risks long before the hazards strikes. In this light, disaster risk management is most appropriate and relevant at the community level. II. DISASTER DEFINITION: A REVIEW Disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses, which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope, using its own resources (UNISDR 2004). A disaster happens when a hazard impacts upon a vulnerable population and causes damage, casualties and disruption. An earthquake in an uninhabited desert cannot be considered a disaster, no matter how strong the intensities produced. An earthquake is only disastrous when it affects people, their property and activities. This means that when a hazard strikes a community, the normal life of the residents is disrupted, which results then in a crisis or emergency situation. If the community or local level government structure is able to manage
  • 2. Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing… 61 the crisis or emergency and they do not need external assistance, either from other communities or from higher government set up, the situation remains an emergency and does not become a disaster. Only if the community is not able to manage the crisis on their own and they need outside help, would the situation be called a disaster. There are two levels here: managing the disaster risk before a hazard strikes or the crisis event when the hazard does strikes so that it will not lead to disaster (disaster resistant); and managing disaster-events with outside assistance so that people will cope, adjust and recover easily from the event (disaster resilient). CBDRM addresses both levels. III. AIM OF COMMUNITY-BASED DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT The increasing human and property losses from earthquakes, cyclones and flooding and other hazards call our attention to proper development planning that would ensure the designing and building of communities in safe areas in the future. But since it is nearly impossible to rebuild housing and facilities and relocate communities to safe areas, what do we do? The answer is to improve the traditional disaster risk management program and planning –mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery that make communities more disaster resilient. This is one aim of CBDRM: disaster resilient communities. Disaster resilient communities are ―flexible and elastic‖. They have the ―ability to recover from depression‖ or ―adjust, spring back easily from misfortune or change‖ (Oxford and Webster Dictionary). Resilient communities are compared to bamboos. ―The bamboo withstands even the strongest typhoons as it sways with storm winds. It is the characteristics of resiliency that has made us survive three waves of colonization. It is the same resiliency that makes us rise from the ashes of Pinatubo and Mayon, and rebuild our lives from the devastating effects of disasters‖ (Delica, 1997, p13). This means that communities that are hit by a hazard (which then becomes a disaster) are able to spring back and resume their original form and readily recover and adjust easily. They are able to cope. This is a result of communities disaster preparedness plan. Another aim of CBDRM is to promote disaster resistant communities. These communities are able to prevent hazards from reaching a disastrous proportion. Such a state comes about as a result of mitigation and preventative measures outlined in a comprehensive plan that takes into consideration every aspect of community existence: including primarily public safety, good health and robust socio-economic life. A disaster resistant community can be compared with a healthy person who can resist the invasion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) or some other virus because the person is well nourished and robust and in a state of well being. This is easier said than done. It requires political will from government leaders to formulate strategic direction and tactical guidance to lead planners in hazardous areas. An all-inclusive approach is imperative, participatory (bottom up) and directive (top down). A top down approach may also be necessary to enforce laws and regulations, for example in the area of environmental protection. To aim for a disaster resistant community is to address the vulnerability question, both the structural and nonstructural aspects of society. The goal of disaster resistant communities is to maintain public safety and safeguard development gains. Disaster resistant communities are difficult to attain by individual communities alone. The requirement is huge so that advocates should involve the local government, who in turn should enlist the support of all stakeholders. Donald Geis (Natural Hazards Review, 2000) suggests ten inherent principles as core guide in attaining a Disaster Resistant Community. 1. The need for a holistic and integrated approach, communities that are supported by physical and organizational structures and concerned with the overall workings – functioning, relationship, service, capacity, scale—of all its systems and components. 2. The redevelopment of existing communities in consideration of the natural and built environment (transportation and communication, social facilities, commercial development, etc.) 3. The process of creating Disaster Resistant Communities must be within the context of an overall larger and integrated process of creating sustainable quality life communities. 4. The local government‘s role should be recognized as it is at this level that the planning development process occurs. 5. A disaster Resistant Community must be built up from the grassroots level, respecting the unique qualities of each community, and from the bottom up, not super-imposed from the top down. 6. The disaster risk management function should be enhanced by providing the best means for developing risk reduction measures. 7. Disaster Risk Management may not be top of the agenda of a community‘s plethora of concerns. The additional benefit of a Disaster Resistant Community – environment, social and economic opportunities can motivate and empower communities and actually implement it. 8. Living in communities as safe as possible from natural hazards should not be considered a luxury or bonus, but a basic necessity, as basic as a human right.
  • 3. Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing… 62 9. The process of creating a Disaster Resistant Community is the single most important tool available for reducing the exponentially increasing cost related to natural hazards. 10. The core focus of a Disaster Resistant Community is to minimize the human, property and environmental losses, along with the social and economic disruption associated with extreme hazards. Currently, communities that are involved in CBDRM are in the process of attaining resiliency. A thorough study should be undertaken to examine how far the CBDRM proponents have gone in initiating disaster resistant communities. IV. DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITY BASED VIEW In 1990s, according to international decade for natural disaster reduction, changing in the patterns of temporary alternatives and reactions to the danger were occurred on emergency times in many area of the world. These tries are performed due to inverse process of disaster occurrence, specially the disasters in small and medium scale. The necessity of preventive actions or preparedness against disasters, danger decrease and forestalling of disasters also the important role of local communities in disaster management, was shown. Using of society based methods, will develop the deficiencies of bottom to top disaster management methods and deficiencies of planning which failed to contribute partnerships in decision making and providing the local needs. Focusing on technical and structural alternatives will ignore the contribution of local communities, bottom to up methods, local capacities and sources also it may lead to more vulnerability of people(Maskery,1989;Maskery & Jegillos,1997; Kishore,2001) In the conference of United Nation natural disaster reduction decade which placed in Yokohama of Japan from 23 to 27 May, 1994, Extent agreement was on disaster management depend on society, so the vulnerable people will participate in planning and executions. In article 6 of Yokohama strategy and safe world showed that: ―when the contribution will be in all levels from local communities to national government also in local level to international level, the preventive measures will have the most effect. Article 6 gave an opportunity for community based management of disaster by the international decade of disaster reduction :"Local and active contribution should encourage in order to better individual and cumulative understanding of disaster and danger…and in order to find effective and useful ways to decrease the consequences of disasters. The strategy of United Nations to decrease the disasters was successful so it leaded to a framework of international decade of natural disaster reduction. The global conference of disasters consequences reduction which holds in Cube, Hyogo of Japan at 18-22 January of 2005, 168 governments, approved Hyogo framework it means the people and societies preparedness against disasters for execution from 2005 to 2015. The approved framework of Hyogo included five premierships which first preference as one of key actions is so that can grantee the local contribution to provide local needs. Preference 1: Disaster reduction should have local and national preference with strange organizational base for execution (International strategy for disaster reduction of United Nation, 2005). The management of natural disaster is possible by planning a national strategy, through political intention in a national organization such as government, stable planning and organizing so these organizations can be as executive type. Here, the concept of contribution will perform also we show s that the first step in management of natural disaster is contribution. If in previous national politics was performed by governmental organization from up to bottom by rule execution and issuing of circular letter. Recently, combination of "up to bottom" with "bottom to up‖ methods and contribution of all societies levels, will perform by a uniform and comprehensive management (UNOCHA: 2007) The most important and permanent issue in natural disasters which have more effect on the survivors are psychological-social damages which are the result of disasters so we can decrease their rate by contribution of people in all dimensions. These measures will have most efficiency by the power of all people contribution. One of important index of development refers to people contribution rate and their abilities to solve their problems. So society based view as most effective and best one is considered very much. Self-aiding, association, partnership, satisfactory feeling in life, responsibility growth and society organizing are some of purposes which are important in society based view, so in order to achieve above mentioned goals, this method will involve most social groups in social actions and conferring some duties to them to perform the determined duties, also the groups can contact with each other seriously and they can be responsible against issues and problem of their community.(Moslehi, 10:2009)." The management depend on people, is a new process which encourages a typical contribution and multi field, multi dimensional interference and it will lead to security, confidence, independence and development"(Zenaida & Sung, 2003). There are many views for crisis management, but they are divided into two main view; classic view and society based view: -In classic view which focuses on responsibility stages and recovering, there is any space for the society as the main partnership in different stages of crisis management cycle. Programming and decision
  • 4. Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing… 63 making, organizing, confirming and controlling are in the hand of governmental organizations and if they allow a role for the society, this role is reactive. -In community based view, beside of introducing the dangers which threat the society, attempting to attract and direct people and other beneficiary groups, by contributing them in different stages of disaster management also attempting to increase the potential power of people by reinforcement the society members and participate them in planning, organizing, decision making and controlling processes. (Jahangiri et al; 2008) This view which is known as "citizen based and developmental reaction to disaster‖ will pay attention to the vulnerable and divested part of society. Due to it, the development depend on contribution is a process which by it the people can increase their abilities to produce the necessity goods and directing political and social life and they can decrease the long and direct consequences of the events which threat their commercial, political and social life ( specially in susceptible places).(Zenaida & Sung , 2003) Generally important features and aims of people based management are as fallow: 1.The disasters are equal to vulnerability of people; 2.It will recognize the people abilities and trying to reinforce them; 3.The people contribution is a basic and necessary process in disaster management; 4.It will increase the organizational capacities of vulnerable parts by establishing the local organization against disasters; 5.It seek for the roots of vulnerability and it will change or eliminate inequalities by productive structures; 6.It will connect the less vulnerable parts with more vulnerable parts; The execution of strategies need below issues: A. Making capabilities and developing skills in governmental and nongovernmental organizations and equipping of theoretical and practical tools by using society based management B. Contributing of societies and involvement of them in plans through a step by step process about making team, making need priorities and designing of practical plan(UNOCHA:2007). V. APPROACHES TO DISASTER MANAGEMENT McEntire et al. (2002) reviewed the literature of disaster management and identified four models, including the disaster-resistant community, the disaster-resilient community, sustainable development/sustainable hazards mitigation and invulnerable development concepts. The disaster-resistant community model is defined as a ―means to assist communities in minimizing their vulnerability to natural hazards by maximizing the application of the principles and techniques of mitigation to their development and/or redevelopment decision-making process‖ (Geis 2000, p. 152 cited McEntire et al. 2002). The disaster-resistant community model is helpful in understanding how to face severe natural disasters; however, it has its own drawbacks. The disaster-resistant community model assumes a passive role for the community, as it is more relevant to the decision-making process than to engaging the communities. In addition, as McEntire et al. (2002) mention, the disaster-resistant community approach is more pertinent to disciplines such as geography, engineering, and urban planning. Consequently, it is not a holistic approach to disaster management, as it ignores the contribution of many academic disciplines, such as public administration, sociology, economics, political science, anthropology and psychology. The disaster-resilient community cannot be as easily and clearly defined as the disaster-resistant community. What is clear in the literature, however, is that the concept of resilience refers to the ability to recover normality after a disaster. The concept of resilience, moreover, emphasizes reaction to natural disasters at the early stage of disaster cycle. In comparison with the disaster-resistant community concept, the concept of resilience more specifically covers the social variables. Consequently, the disaster-resilient community concept encompasses more academic disciplines like sociology, economy, anthropology and psychology. The concept is, however, mainly about natural disasters and adopts a reactive approach to disasters. The concept of resilience ignores mitigation and preparedness functions, such as community education, planning, training and exercises (McEntire et al. 2002). The sustainable development approach to disasters is not limited to disaster management, as it places disaster management in the wider perspective of development. The concept of sustainable development emphasizes the needs of future generations while responding to the modern day development programs. The sustainable hazard mitigation concept, which is very similar to sustainable development concept, appears to be more related to disaster management in this approach. Sustainable development and sustainable hazard mitigation view disasters from a broad perspective and connect the issue of disasters to other problems. These concepts provide a wider approach to disaster in comparison with disaster-resistant community and disaster- resilient community. They are not, however, holistic because they ignore man-made disasters (McEntire et al. 2002). As already mentioned, Tables 1 to 3 compare the approaches to disaster management. McEntire et al. (2002) introduce comprehensive vulnerability management as a holistic and complete approach to disaster
  • 5. Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing… 64 management. This approach includes all hazards, actors, phases, and disciplines. The present paper attempts to develop another model based on lessons learned from the Bam earthquake in Iran. The proposed model is by no means claimed to be comprehensive in terms of types of hazards and phases of disaster management. VI. CBDRM PROCESSES FROM LOCAL AUTHORITY’S PERSPECTIVE The disaster risk reduction process has six sequential stages, which can be implemented before a disaster occurs or after one has happened to reduce future risks. Each stage grows out of the preceding stage and leads to further action. The stages in the disaster risk reduction process are given in the figure below: Figure 1. Disaster risk reduction process (ADPC 2006) A thorough assessment of the community‘s vulnerabilities, coping capacities and the risks is needed to start any risk reduction activities. The active involvement of communities, subject experts and elected authorities is important in decision-making to promote ownership and sustainability. 1. Selecting the Community The first task of local authorities is to conduct a detailed risk assessment survey of the whole area under its jurisdiction. The selection of communities for implementation of CBDRM activities depends upon a number of factors and criteria, but most importantly the risk exposure of the particular community. 2. Rapport Building and Understanding Once the most vulnerable communities are identified it would be important to understand the local social relationships and power structures, key economic groups and to build good informal relationship with the local people. This will be crucial in order to ensure participation of various local groups. 3. Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment This process involves hazard assessment, vulnerability assessment and capacity assessment, and analysis and prioritization of risks. The participatory disaster risk assessment will be conducted by the local authorities with the involvement of local people, community leaders and subject experts. 4. Community-based Disaster Risk Management Planning At this stage, further analysis will be conducted jointly by the local authorities and communities to analyze the risks and identify strategies and solutions to address them. Based on this analysis, a detailed risk reduction and response plan will be developed for the particular communities. The planning process will involve analysis of local stakeholders and local resources. Roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders for implementation of activities will be clarified. 5. Community Managed Implementation The implementation of the plan should be done through the community organization at community level with support from local authorities and technical and research institutions. The implementation process will include various structural and non-structural activities; e.g. community training, disaster response drills, community early warning systems, disaster resilient construction of houses, forest plantations, mangrove plantation, diversification of crops, rainwater harvesting, construction of dykes, bridges etc for vulnerability reduction and hazard mitigation. The community-based organization would be responsible for overall management of the disaster reduction activities.
  • 6. Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing… 65 6. Monitoring & Evaluation Participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) involves the local community, development agencies, local authorities and other stakeholders in measuring the progress made, and identifying necessary follow-up actions (ADPC 2006). VII. SOCIETY PARTICIPATION  According to definition of world hygiene organization (WHO) on 2002, society participation is a process which people can participate in decision making, determining of issues and problems and effective agents of their life also they can involve in execution of development policies, providing services and process of changes by it. The participation is a process that the participated person can affect on development programs, decisions and the sources which have effective role. In fact, the participation means having partnership in decision making, decision building and social supervision. Therefore this participation includes all activities and it means cooperation in public activities to supply today needs. Society participation, refer to using of potential capabilities of people and working for people by them. In this way, the people can take care of their health and organize their life effectively by acquisition of knowledge, skill and self-esteem (Sadegh Nejad, 2009:42). To participate people in society, the different roles are determined for people which are as fallow: - Passive role: fallowing and obeying of rules and plans of decision makers and lawmakers - Consulting role: using of people views - Colleague role: people cooperation in management processes - Lerner role: learning knowledge and necessary skills for people interventions - Active and sterling role: people cooperation as a partnership (Jahangiri, 2010: 19) VIII. COMMUNITY BASED MANAGEMENT OF DISASTER REQUIREMENTS The execution of society based management of crisis need providing some requirements that must supply before performance of this special management, they are as fallow: 1. The existence of some pioneer society based and volunteer based organizations. To execution of society based management, the existence of a society based and volunteer based organization is necessary to settlement of an integrated and objective plan also connection and cooperation with local organization is essential. 2. Teaching of society by priority of people who live invulnerable area: this teaching course should include; knowledge and awareness development, skill ability. To prepare them in adventure and disasters. 3. Approving comprehensive rules and planning a complete program: approving these rules will ease the people participation by decreasing the unnecessary interference, so the consequences of dangers will decrease. Executive steps for society-oriented disaster management 1. Selection of society 2. Drawing the people confidence and participated groups, mutual understanding in the society 3. Evaluating the consequences of disasters and crisis jointly 4. Planning for management of disaster dangers by contribution 5. Organizing and teaching of society-oriented disaster management 6. Oriented motivation and directed execution of society activities 7. Participated evaluation and investigation (Jahangiri, 2010:42). IX. COMMUNITY-BASED DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT (CBDRM) IN IRAN Disasters can become uncontrollable, once the event has got underway. Therefore, preventive steps need to be taken before, during and after the disaster events. If the community were not well prepared, control over the disaster event would be usually lost during its occurrence. If each individual in the community is familiar with ways of coping and precautionary measures, then the disruption by a disaster can be reduced (Sampath, 2001). Due to global report of disasters, Iran is placed at the head of vulnerable countries of the world. According to this report during 1992 to 2001, 9.8 percent of Iran population have been killed or damaged in accidents and disasters. Due to reported statistic about death and damages because of disasters among 150 countries of the world Iran have been had most statistic of kills after some undeveloped countries around the world.(Global Bank, 2002) .
  • 7. Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing… 66 The collected data during 25 years and performed evaluations about comprehensive plan of flood in the country showed that "the average of flood damages in the country is about 3.5 billion Rails daily"(Mahdavi, 2002:28). Most parts of the country have not safety against drought. These natural disasters have been caused many damages in recent years (Zamani and Zarafshan, 2004: 79). The vulnerability degree of other disasters is clear too, for example the damages because of conflagration in the country after earthquake, flood and drought is significant and car accidents which have many damages due to irreparable loss damages have significant statistic (Ayati, 1992). The statistics of unexpected event staff reported 1146 earthquakes and 610 floods from 1991 to 2000 (Home office, 2002). Therefore, paying attention to all kind of events is necessary in the country. One of important attention is about taking consideration of people contribution which can be affective strategy to decrease the consequences of probable events. This cooperation have different level for injured persons such as monetary contribution, providing necessary goods, aiding and saving also they can be pay attention to advises and safety points during and after disasters. The level of aiding contribution depend on the persons knowledge about disasters and safety points which the associated organizations can develop them also the experiences of previous disasters and knowledge about cooperation and responsibilities will help people and develop their feeling against disasters. A documentable and applicable research did not perform about Iranian contribution to aid in disasters of Iran (Shaditalab, 1993). X. METHOD According to results, this research is the type of application, and has been done with descriptive method. At first, it has paid to library study and documents including check books, scientific journals, documentation, publications, official and written reports of responsible organizations and done researches by researchers in disaster ,and then it has surveyed the situation of crisis management in Iran and collected necessary information by interviewing and referring to responsible organizations such as red crescent, disaster headquarter of ministry department and high education institute of crescent of Iran .According to obtained information, model of community –base management is suitable for Iran and by using Delphi technique in three stages, the comments of experts and relevant authorities were used and the final model was provided. XI. RESULTS Researches and analyses that were based on the work are: 1. The results of Jahangir and others showed that in pre-disaster phase and post disaster phase, the outcomes of intervention will be more effective if community involvements tend to active and learning participation. But in disaster phase and rapid response, it is necessary that the role of people tends to reactive role. Organizing in previous steps or after disaster can be based on the subject participation and have pyramidal hierarchy bottom-up structure and or matrix structure; but in disaster phase, it should have pyramidal hierarchy bottom-up structure (Fischer, 2001). According to subject participation, planning in pre or post disaster phases is better to be decentralized and semi- centralized manner and in all steps, the role of people tends to active end of spectrum (Buckle, 2001). But in disaster phase, because of importance of time in response actions, the role of people should lead to the role of an advisor, partners, information donor or reactive role. Coordination is also such. Due to security issues, Management and guidance of this step should be controlled by military or paramilitary. The role of people should be active in post disaster phases, such as risk analysis, prevention and reduction of destructive effects of disasters, preparedness and early warnings (Jahangiri, 2007). 2. In another research, with surveying practical examples like Qeshm earthquake in 1384, it has been showed that development of constructive relation of Qeshm red crescent with local agencies in rural communities such as Islamic councils of these villages and formation of local relief committees that were done before earthquake, cause acceleration and simplification of coordination and cooperation of agencies and local people with red crescent during rescue operations. Beside local cooperation, maximum use of unique capabilities of Islamic councils in rural and urban , intermediary role for agreements and understandings with red crescent in order to efficient use of existing resources and facilities such as voluntary provision of multiple vehicles by citizens and inhabitants of neighboring villages for transportation and contribution of relief items ,teams of volunteer distributor and accommodation were also very effective .Where this relationship continued until after the crisis, sustainability and institutionalization of prerequisites for community base management were provided and its positive role in relief and rescue operation in earthquake in 2008 had more perspectives(Bazyarizadeh, 2010) 3. The results of another research show that: in proposed process of community base disaster management in each of three main phases of crisis management, following cases should be considered. In pre-disaster phase,
  • 8. Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing… 67 there is a specific attention to identification of early data in legal , population, social, physical and environmental fields, identification of all beneficiary groups, swot assessment in early studies, providing community base disaster management plan ( cooperation), providing the document of making decision (big goals, strategies, small goals), definition and providing the duty of participants groups. In disaster phase, utilization of making decision document of pre disaster is an exact definition of doing task in each group with integrated management approach, because one the most important problems of current approaches of crisis management in the country is the number of responsible organizations and lack of coordination in doing their tasks that the integrated management approach is very efficient in this field. Supervision on tasks by independent structure of crisis management in the country is one of the most important cases in this step, and in post disaster phase, devolution of options to local and private organizations in reconstruction of damaged areas, empowering damaged people, control of population changes and provision on tasks by independent structure of crisis management in the country are very important. Overview of crisis management process and trends to community base crisis management, cause the efficiency of this strategy in the future (Zarabadi & Dashtaki, 2012). 4. The office of United States has offered suggestions about improving of local capacity for coordination of humanitarian affairs (Ocha) and also reduction of crisis effects that it can be a suitable field for providing community base crisis management in Iran .these suggestions are: -Improving of society‘s ability and stamina and increase of their response capacity against natural disaster, risk, and basic awareness for self –reliance by training workshop. -Involving of educational institutes, universities, Medias and governmental organizations in preparation programs, reduction of risks and building awareness by exhibitions, festivals, cultural and literary activities. -Support and improvement of young generation against risks and natural disasters by training, distribution and exchange of information. -Empowerment of women by improving of their skills, social activities and participation in decisions of communities and strengthen them against disasters and events. -Help to rural communities for making their capacity in order to challenge with drought and desertification and increased capacity of product and food production. -Improvements of community based management culture of natural disaster increase of participation in disaster management and reduction of risk by participation in making decision in proper levels (Ocha, No.3, 5:2007). According to above information, the proper model of community base crisis management has been presented: XII. CONCLUSIONS CBDRM approach is people and development oriented. It views disasters as a question of people‘s vulnerability. It empowers people to address the root causes of vulnerabilities by transforming social, economic and political structures that generate inequality and underdevelopment (Shaw and Kenji 2004). CBDRM approach covers prevention and mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery. The key aspect of community involvement is the sustainability of community level initiatives for disaster reduction. External agencies, like government, non-government organizations may initiate and implement community level programs before and after disasters. However, such initiatives many times discontinue once the external support is ended. There can be many reasons behind this lack of sustainability, some of which may be the lack of partnership, participation, empowerment and ownership of local communities. Unless the disaster risk management efforts are sustainable at individual and community level, it would be
  • 9. Community- Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) and Providing… 68 difficult to reduce the vulnerability and losses. It is therefore important to involve people in decision making on policies and strategies that should be followed for their development in the community. Community-based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) is a process in which at-risk communities are actively engaged in the identification, analysis, treatment, monitoring and evaluation of disaster risks in order to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities (ADPC, 2003). This means that people are at the heart of decision-making and implementation of disaster risk management activities. The involvement of most vulnerable social groups is considered as paramount in this process, while the support of the least vulnerable groups is necessary for successful implementation( Abarquez $ Murshed,2004). Iran is located among the top disaster-prone countries in the world and, therefore, disaster management is considered to be one of the most important issues in this country. One of the existing and worldwide approaches for managing disasters is the so-called community-based disaster management (CBDM). Community participation means that people's contribution in the disaster management cycle can be started from the basic steps of a process and ends in the achievement and institutionalization in the community. The community-oriented strategy not only introduces the dangers which treat societies but will provide the contribution of people and different groups by directing in different stages of disaster management. Also the people potential against damageable consequences will decrease against disasters by preparing appropriate way for development of society member's abilities and so this strategy will share people in planning, organizing, taking policy, cooperating and controlling all operations which will decrease the dangers of disasters. Therefore, the capacity of society against dangers will increase when a disaster occurs and the society return to previous situation rapidly; among other things human and financial damages will reduce after disaster occurrence (Fischer, 2001). As mentioned above, due to ways of disaster management, the vulnerable societies can analyze the dangers which are probable in their environment by using appropriate plans and executing them. The measures which can decrease the dangers are some operation that preventing the disasters or reduce the severity of them significantly. Using of this strategy will prepare societies against emergency situation and disasters properly as well as raising their abilities in confront with accidents and disasters. The Occurrence of a disaster will lead to human injures and financial damages for the economy of the countries. Meanwhile human and civil society can play important role for reducing the consequences of the dangers. Paying attention to the mentioned point will show the necessity of an appropriate insight about the role of civil society as well as understanding the capacities and present potential to reduce the damages of disasters. Beside the importance of public contribution for reducing the negative effects of natural disasters which is clear for every person, to perform the mentioned strategy, whole dimensions of disaster management should be considered (prevention, preparedness, confrontation, reconstruction and reinforcement) to ease the rapid reaction against them. There are different strategies to reduce negative effect of disasters and unexpected events. Although the probability of natural disasters is unavoidable but the damages of disasters in society-oriented management view will decrease by using of scientific methods, different valuable experience of the country and world. Beside exact and correct analysis of disasters which have been occurred but providing a complete plan about the society vulnerability (recognizing, evaluating and supervising of the country vulnerability, rapid and effective reaction to accidents and disasters which are impossible without the cooperation of people and public organizations), reduction of disasters consequences through; determination of needs, priorities, situations as well as appropriate interferences, making necessary cultures in different level, sharing the civil society in great decides, investing and supplying of this section. REFERENCES [1]. 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