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  1. 1. Prof.Mathew V Karvinkoppa, Prof.Murtuza S Dholkawala, Prof. U S Gawai / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2106-2109 Applications Of The Higgs Boson Prof.Mathew V Karvinkoppa*, Prof.Murtuza S Dholkawala** Prof. U S Gawai*** (Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM’s ICOER, Pune)Abstract An overview at the development of circle the Earth twice per day, much faster thanengineering over the recent years shows us that clocks on the surface of the Earth, and Einsteinspractical applications of theoretical concepts theory of special relativity says that rapidly movinghave greatly accelerated the development of new clocks tick more slowly, by about seventechnologies. To be able to predict the direction microseconds (millionths of a second) per day. Also,technologies of the future will take, we must turn the orbiting clocks are 20,000 km above the Earth,our attention to the theoretical concepts being and experience gravity that is four times weakerdeveloped today. One of the newest than that on the ground. Einsteins general relativityconfirmations in the standard atomic model is theory says that gravity curves space and time,that of the Higgs Boson. This paper will attempt resulting in a tendency for the orbiting clocks to tickto consolidate what varied directions different slightly faster, by about 45 microseconds per day.branches of engineering would take should we be The net result is that time on a GPS satellite clockable to manipulate the Higgs field advances faster than a clock on the ground by about 38 microseconds per day. But at 38 microsecondsKeywords ; Bosons ,Heat per day, the relativistic offset in the rates of theTransfer,Manufacturing, Std Atomic model, satellite clocks is so large that, if left uncompensated, it would cause navigational errorsI. INTRODUCTION that accumulate faster than 10 km per day. GPS A brief glance at the development of accounts for relativity by electronically adjusting theengineering over the recent years shows us that rates of the satellite clocks, and by buildingpractical applications of theoretical concepts have mathematical corrections into the computer chipsgreatly accelerated our progress. This is obvious which solve for the users location. Without thefrom the earliest development of radio waves, the proper application of relativity, GPS would fail in itsdiscovery of X- rays, studies in the field of navigational functions.radioactivity, the quantum theory of solids leadingto semiconductors and computer chips, nuclearmagnetic resonance leading to MRI imaging,particle accelerators leading to beams for cancertreatment etc. Today, we can hardly imagine a worldwithout nuclear power, cell phones or fastcomputers to help us in our everyday life. All thesestem from concepts that were not even dreamt ofduring the development of the theories that formtheir bases. As an example: When Einstein finalizedhis theory of gravity and curved spacetime inNovember 1915, ending a quest which he began Fig.1 Schematic Diagram Representing GPS systemwith his 1905 special relativity, he had little concernfor practical or observable consequences. But Thus to be able to predict the directionstrangely enough, relativity plays a key role in a technologies of the future will take, we must turnmulti-billion dollar growth industry centered around our attention to the theoretical concepts beingthe Global Positioning System (GPS). The system is developed today. A theory being tested is that of thebased on an array of 24 satellites orbiting the earth, Higgs Boson. This paper will attempt to consolidateeach carrying a precise atomic clock. Using a hand- what varied directions different branches ofheld GPS receiver which detects radio emissions engineering would take should we be able tofrom any of the satellites which happen to be manipulate the field created by this particle or inoverhead, users of even moderately priced devices other words, the Higgs field.can determine latitude, longitude and altitude to an We must note, since the researches into thisaccuracy which can currently reach 15 meters, and particular field of nuclear physics are still in theirlocal time to 50 billionths of a second. The satellite preliminary stages the practical aspects of it haveclocks are moving at 14,000 km/hr in orbits that not, so far, been examined. As such the ideas put 2106 | P a g e
  2. 2. Prof.Mathew V Karvinkoppa, Prof.Murtuza S Dholkawala, Prof. U S Gawai / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2106-2109forward in this paper, allow us a brief insight into The term Boson was coined by Paul Dirac in honourwhat the future uses might be. The method of of Satyendra Nath Bose who along with Albertmodifying the Higgs field will greatly change the Einstein formed the theory that explains theircircumstances in which it will be possible to use presence. We know that the atom is made up ofthus precluding some uses herein mentioned. The more than just the protons, neutrons and electrons aspractical applications will also depend on cost and projected by the rudimentary models in all our highviability, which is beyond the scope of this paper. school classrooms. A more elegant understanding ofWe must also remember that it has taken the most the atom, assumes interatomic particles to be of twoexpensive and complicated machine in the world types- Bosons and Fermions. Fermions are mattertoday; several years, just to confirm its existence. particles, they occupy space in the atom and hence,Finding a method to modify this field and using this more than two fermions cannot occupy the samemethod might well be beyond the years we are space at the same time. Bosons are energy particles,destined to see. they are responsible for the forces present in the atom. Thus more than two bosons can occupy the2. THE STANDARD MODEL IN same state at the same time.PARTICLE PHYSICS How do we explain this? We know by Einstein’s theory of relativity, that mass and energy are interconvertable by the equation e=mc^2. Hence to observe the independent forces acting within the confines of the atom we must first manifest these forces as particles. Basically speaking, Bosons are merely forces manifested as particles. 4. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE HIGGS BOSONFig.2 Standard Model of The Atom The Standard Model theory of particlephysics, describes the mediation ofthe electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclearinteractions in the dynamics of known subatomicparticles. The development of the Standard Modelhas been a collaborative effort betweenexperimental physicists and theorists, spanning Fig.4 Observed Energy Ranges of the Higgs Bosoncontinents and decades of research. The current .formulation is derived from the experimental The Standard Model does not predict theconfirmation of the existence of quarks. Since the mass of the Higgs boson, but does predict themid-1970s, discoveries of the bottom quark (1977), production cross section once the mass is known.the top quark (1995), and the tau neutrino (2000) The "cross section" is the likelihood of a collisionhave given further credence to the Standard Model. event of a particular type.However it is the recent CERN experiment that The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is thisconfirms the detection of the Higgs boson that elementary particle in the Standard Model ofcompletes the set of predicted particles. particle physics. The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, who proposed the mechanism that3. CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF suggested such a particle in 1964. He was the onlyA BOSON one to explicitly predict the massive particle (125– 127 GeV/c2) and identify some of its theoretical properties. In mainstream media it is often referred to as the "God particle", after the title of Leon Ledermans book on the topic. It is also very unstable, decaying into other particles almost immediately. The currently accepted ‘Standard Model’ states that a particular kind of "field" (known as the Higgs field) exists, which in contrast to the more familiar gravitational field and electromagnetic field has constant strength everywhere. This kind of field was shown to beFig.3 Representative Appearance of a Boson theoretically capable of producing a Higgs 2107 | P a g e
  3. 3. Prof.Mathew V Karvinkoppa, Prof.Murtuza S Dholkawala, Prof. U S Gawai / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2106-2109mechanism in nature, and particles interacting withthis field will acquire mass. The Standard Model of 6.EFFECTS ON MASS DUE TOphysics was developed on this basis, and it included MANIPULATION OF THE HIGGS FIELDa prediction and requirement that for these things to From the above discussions we could easily drawbe true, there had to be an undiscovered some basic conclusions:fundamental particle as the counterpart of this field. a) If a particle gains mass only when slowedThis particle would be the Higgs boson (or "Higgs down by the Higgs field, removing or nullifying thisparticle"), the last unobserved particle of the field would cause the particle to lose its mass, allStandard Model other properties remaining constant. b) When the causative agent that nullifies this5. THE MASS MECHANISM OF THE field is removed the particle would regain itsHIGGS FIELD original mass. c) If we can assume the Higgs field to be analogous to all other fields present in our universe except for the fact that it is present everywhere, we can also assume that this field can be varied in terms of strength. d) This can further be supported by the fact that some particles are heavier than others and so the interactions of the particles with respect to the field must also vary.Fig.5 Mass Mechanism of the Higgs Field 7.THE PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Each elementary particle acquires its Affecting the mass of a particle and henceunique set of attributes by interacting with invisible subsequently the material it is associated with canentities called fields. One such field is the be majorly beneficial to engineering. Variouselectromagnetic field. Each particle interacts with practical uses can be found for the application thisthe electromagnetic field in a way that depends on theory:its electric charge. For example, electrons tend to 7.1 In Manufacturing:move through the field toward the positive ends of (a) By reducing the effect of the Higgs field onbar magnets, and group together with positively a metal, its mass will reduce. Consequently the heatcharged protons. The electromagnetic field is absorbed by the metal given by Q=m.Cp.dt will alsoassociated with the photon, or particle of light. This reduce. Lesser heat required will allow for metalcorrespondence can be seen in two ways: First, working at lower temperatures. As the metal willwhen the EM field is "excited," meaning its energy have low mass, metal working will be easier and theis flared up in a certain spot, that flare-up is, itself, a alloys formed can be more homogenous and ofphoton..Secondly, when particles interact with the better quality. Oxidation and wastage caused due toEM field (for example, when they are drawn toward high temperatures will also be reduced.the oppositely charged end of a magnet), they (b) By increasing the effect of the Higgs field,experience the field by absorbing and emitting a the mass of the metal can be increased allowing forconstant stream of "virtual photons", photons that high mass compaction of materials. During theare momentarily created and then destroyed just for compaction process, the mass of the metal can bethe purpose of mediating the particle-field increased allowing the metal to be densely packedinteraction. due to its weight, thus producing highly dense, There exists a Higgs field. It gives particles stronger and more durable materials.mass. Except for massless photons and gluons, all (c) By reducing the mass of materials, theelementary particles get their masses from their force required for machining would also reduceinteractions with the Higgs field, similar to being thereby enabling us to achieve greater tolerancesslowed down by passing through a viscous fluid. with lower powered tools.Some particles have a harder time moving through (d) Damages caused due to work hardeningthe viscous Higgs field than others and as a result, would be reduced as operations performed on lowthey are heavier. Just as the photon mediates mass work pieces would be analogous to hotinteractions with the EM field and is itself an working.excitation of the EM field, the Higgs particle 7.2 In Transportation:mediates interactions with the Higgs field, and is (a) Every day large loads of various materialsitself an excitation of the Higgs field. have to be transported from place to place. Reducing Particles move through the Higgs field by the mass of these loads in whatever circumstancesexchanging virtual Higgs particles with it. And a they may be will reduce the motive power requiredreal Higgs particle surfaces when the field becomes for their transportation. Thus allowing the use ofexcited. smaller engines and allowing ease of transport. 2108 | P a g e
  4. 4. Prof.Mathew V Karvinkoppa, Prof.Murtuza S Dholkawala, Prof. U S Gawai / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2106-2109(b) Transport of heavy construction equipment As to the first question, further studies intoto remote locations would be both easier and the nature of this incredible field are required tospeedier if the mass of the payload could be determine exactly the nature of the energy thatreduced. makes up the Higgs field. Finding the field was(c) Reducing the mass of payloads will also merely the first step in this direction. Although thereduce the effect that gravity has on these materials. theoretical aspects of the composition of the fieldSending satellites and research equipment into orbit are known, what sort of energies affect this field ismight become only a question of determining to largely unknown. Like electricity, can we generatewhat extent the mass of an object can be reduced. Higgs fields of our own? Do they already exist?(d) Even in normal road transport, we find that What would be the cost of generating these fields?most of the weight in transit is that of the vehicle These are questions that must be answered beforeitself. Reducing this weight will allow smaller we can seek to modify these very fundamental of theengines to achieve greater speed as well as greatly building blocks of our universe.reduce energy consumption. When we consider the second question, we7.3 Heat Transfer: already have a slight understanding of effects of(a) As a higher mass will absorb more heat, removing the Higgs field completely. The forcesincreasing the mass of heat sinks will improve their that hold an atom together are very closely relatedheat absorption capacity. Coolant could be made and completely removing the Higgs field causesmore efficient by increasing their mass as they breakdown of the fundamental atomic structure.passed the engine and lowering their mass in the This is undesirable as for most of the uses hereinradiator so as to dissipate heat quickly. mentioned, the main advantage stems from(b) Heat transfer systems such as those used in manipulating the mass while keeping all otherCPUs could handle more heat if their mass were to factors of a material or object unchanged. Thisbe increased, allowing for longer periods of use, however does not preclude the modification of thegreater efficiency and faster operation. field. A change in the magnitude of the field without7.4 In Defence: its complete removal can still be implemented. After(a) Increasing the mass of armor plates on the all even an electric current of too great a magnitudedetection of incoming fire could render the is destructive in nature. Still we seem to use theseprojectiles harmless as a greater mass would absorb fields and currents in nearly all aspects ofmore momentum. Reducing the Mass of the armor technology today.during transportation would decrease the time andenergy required. Acknowledgements(b) Low mass projectiles could be accelerated I would also like to express my thanks toto higher speeds thus increasing their penetrative all my peers and colleagues who have constantlypower seeking to cut through armor plates instead of endured my eccentricities during the making of mystriking against them causing contact damage to report.enemy forces. Finally, I would like to thank my Parents for their(c) Explosive payloads could be transported to love and support in all my endeavors.required sites at higher speeds and using lesserenergy, if their mass could be reduced. References7.5 Miscellaneous: [1] Cern: Vapour deposition using low mass vapour /ideas/standard3.htmlwould make the process easier to use and more [2] An Introduction to the Standard Model ofviable for low temperature applications. Also vapour Particle Physics: W. Noelonce deposited could also be hardened using high Cottingham, Derek A. Greenwood;mass fields, creating more durable coatings. Cambridge University Press.(b) Printing of computer chips could be made [3] Contemporary Physics Educationmore accurate using low mass fields, leading to the Project, http://cpepweb.orgdevelopment of smaller circuits and hence smaller [4] Halzen & Martin, Quarks and Leptons: Andevices. Introductory Course in Modern Physics(c) Difficult to handle gases and other volatile [5] Harris, Nonclassical Physics substances could be stored and transported [6] Griffiths, Introduction to Elementary safely by increasing their mass and limiting Particles their movement. [7] Higgs boson mass and new physics - Fedor Bezrukov, Mikhail Yu. Kalmykovy, Bernd8. CONCLUSION: A. Kniehl & Mikhail Shaposhnikovx: The most important questions that have yet be answered are: How will we modify the Higgsfield? And To what extent can we modify the Higgsfield? 2109 | P a g e