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  1. 1. Sudhakar Srivastava, Rajesh Nema, Pankaj kumar Goswami / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1999-2002 Low Profile E-Shape Microstrip Antenna With Electromagnetic Band Gap Structure For Bandwidth Enhancement Sudhakar Srivastava*, Rajesh Nema**, Pankaj kumar Goswami*** *(M.Tech, Student, NIIST, Bhopal M.P, India ** (Professor, Deptt. Of Electronics & Communication Engg., NIIST, Bhopal India, *** (Asst. Professor, Deptt. Of Electronics & Communication Engg., HCST, Farah, U.P, India,ABSTRACT Microstrip antenna has become more Another interesting feature is that microstrippopuler in the field of communication due to its antennas can be fabricated rather easily in universityverstality & uniqueness.The purpose of this paper or their research laboratories, which have often beenis to design a low profile, conformal, small size a source of novel design. Good reviews of much ofantenna with high bandwidth along with good this work, including the basic properties, analyticalcompromise in other factors like gain, directivity, models, and design techniques for microstripefficiency etc. A E-shape patch antenna with antenna.They are very versatile in terms of resonantsuitable geometry is taken to provide good frequency, polarization, impedance, and pattern. Inresponse of bandwidth about 59.09 % at centre addition, by adding loads between the ground planefrequency 2.28 GHz. Using FR-4 glass epoxy patch and patch such as short post or short pin. Thematerial, on insertion of EBG structure, creating major disadvantages of patch or micro strip antennasdeformities at ground plane side, the band width are their low efficiency and very narrow frequencyof the antenna is improved tremendously. The bandwidth, poor polarization purity, limited powernew design of antenna is found suitable for capacity, low gain and spurious feed radiation,various wireless communications for 1.55-2.85 [6].The development of accurate and versatileGHz band. The design approach & Simulation analytical model for the understanding of theresults are shown with the help of MOM based inherent limitations of micro strip antennas, as wellfull wave simulator IE3D. as for their design and optimization. The application of Electromagnetic BandKeywords - microstrip antenna; photonic Gap (EBG) structure is becoming attractive for manybandgap structure; bandwidth; probe feed researchers in electromagnetic and antenna field.antenna; EBG structure had been used to improve the performance of various antennas such as resonantI. INTRODUCTION antenna and patch antenna. Microstrip patch antenna A tremendous growth in wireless is promising to be a good candidate for wirelesstechnology, these technologies is highly technologies. Microstrip patch antenna consists of aimplemented in the field of aircraft, satellite, or dielectric substrate, with a ground plane on the othermissiles application. Because of their size, weight, side. Due to its advantages such as low weight , lowcost, performance, ease of installation and profile planar configuration, low fabrication costsmaintenance and aerodynamic profile are and capability to integrate with microwaveconstraints, low profile antennas are required. The integrated circuits technology, the microstrip patchmicrowave frequency range is also considered for antenna is very well suited for applications such aselectronic toll collection and wireless vehicle Mobile satellite telephone, mobile radio, Radar,communication system. Microstrip antennas are one navigation, direct broadcast TV, global positioningof the most innovative components which fulfill the system (GPS) and biomedical systems.[3,4,6].requirement of all communication systems. The Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) or Photonic Bandmicro strip antenna has a very low profile, and can Gap (PBG) materials are periodic dielectrics, whichbe fabricated using printed circuit can stop the propagation of electromagnetic waves in(photolithographic) techniques [6].In this high-tech certain frequency bands, within certain directionsenvironment of 3G & 4G. This technology are [7]. Several types of EBG or PBG substrates havehighly used in all sectors of wireless applications been investigated [2]. It has been reported that EBG(government & commercial), such as Mobile satellite or PBG materials used with micro strip patchtelephone, mobile radio, Radar, navigation, direct antennas can improve their radiation patterns andbroadcast TV, GPS and biomedical systems. [3] that increase their gain, and reduce the side lobe and backhave similar specifications micro strip or patch lobe levels. Also, some research has been reportedantenna are used. Microstrip antenna has low profile, on improving the antenna bandwidth by using EBGConformable to liner or planar array, and easy [1]. PBG has been used in the ground plane tointegration with microwave integrated circuits. improve the bandwidth. EBG configurations in the 1999 | P a g e
  2. 2. Sudhakar Srivastava, Rajesh Nema, Pankaj kumar Goswami / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1999-2002microwave region are shown and include arrayantennas, high precision GPS, mobile telephony,wearable antennas and diplexing antennas. Thedielectric constant of the materials used for the EBGcomponents as a Electrically inducing a change ofdielectric properties by injecting additional chargecarriers and Electrically modifying the devicegeometry and/or the dielectric loading.Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) surfaces can beused to mitigate or alter the electromagneticinteraction between an antenna and theplatform.EBG surfaces offer a mechanism toimprove antenna performance, reduce antenna sizeand reduce antenna to antenna coupling onplatforms.EBG surfaces may provide a mechanismfor the reduction of SAR (Specific Absorption Rate)for soldier (body) worn antenna systems [2,4] Fig.1 Proposed MSA with PBG on positive side E-shape micro strip patch antenna [5] withEBG structure gives a new dimension to antennaperformance. The simulation results depiction makesthis very clear as the various parameters likebandwidth, VSWR, efficiency, radiation pattern areaffected significantly.II. ANTENNA DESIGN The proposed (E-shaped) antenna consistsof a dielectric substrate epoxy/glass (FR4) liesbetween the range of dielectric constant 4.1 to5.3(here it is taken as 4.2) and respectively their losstangent 0.002 to 0.02. As compare to conventionalrectangular patch antenna of similar size, insertion offour square cut PBG structure on ground plate makeits performance batter, while creation of E- shape onpatch layer put a very effective results in its allparameter along with enhancement in its band width. Fig.2 proposed MSA with PBG on negative sideA simple square patch with given designspecification is shown in fig.1.The both sided views(positive side and negative side) of proposedantennas are respectively shown in fig.2 and fig.3.The simulation results will be shown in figure. The new design of proposed antenna consists offollowing design specifications A basic U-shape microstrip patch antenna isdesigned and simuated on Zeland_IE3D_v9.0simuator as shown in figure 1,further designimprovement is made using EBG deformities onground plane side.Design specifications:Length of ground plate: 45 mm Fig.3 Meshed structureWidth of ground plate: 45 mm III. SIMULATION RESULTSLength of E-limb patch: 30 mm The E-shape patch antenna surprising results areWidth of E-limb patch 7.5 mm simulated and verified on Zeland_IE3D_V9.0.TheHeight of dielectric substrate: 1.6 mm simulation results show a very surprisingNo. of PBG square cut on ground plate: 04 improvement of bandwidth about 59.09 % at centreSize of PBG structure: 13 x 9.5 frequency 2.28 GHz. The E-shape patch antennamm2 surprising results are simulated and verified on Zeland_IE3D_V9.0.The simulation result shows aDielectric constant : 4.2 very surprising improvement of bandwidth. 2000 | P a g e
  3. 3. Sudhakar Srivastava, Rajesh Nema, Pankaj kumar Goswami / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1999-2002 Antenna parameters Results Bandwidth 59.09 % Centre frequency 2.28 GHz Operating frequency 1.55-2.85 GHz band Return losses at centre -22.5 dB frequency VSWR at centre 1.17 frequency Fig.7 EfficiencyFig.4 S11 parameter for proposed antenna Fig.8 Gain Fig.5 Smith chart Fig.9 3-D Pattern view IV. CONCLUSION A E-shape microstrip patch antenna is designed and tested for scattering parameter, and it is found that it has given a nice performance in the field bandwidth, on insertion of EBG deformities in the ground plane structure, the bandwidth of the antenna enhanced tremendously about 59.09 % at centre frequency 2.28 GHz. This shows the feasibility and reliability of antenna for wide band application of wireless communication. The new design approach has shown an improvement among various past research work, this would be really helpful for communication technology.Fig.6 VSWR 2001 | P a g e
  4. 4. Sudhakar Srivastava, Rajesh Nema, Pankaj kumar Goswami / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1999-2002REFERENCES [1] Sharma, S.K., and Shafai, L.: „Enhanced performance of an aperturecoupled rectangular microstrip antenna on a simplified unipolar compact photonic bandgap (UC-PBG) structure‟. Proc. IEEE Symp on Antennas andPropagation, July 2001, Vol. 2, pp. 8–13. [2] Rahman, M., and Stuchly, M.A.: „Wide-band microstrip patch antenna with planar PBG structure‟ Proc. IEEESymp. on Antennas and Propagation, 8–13 July 2001, Vol. 2, pp. 486– 489 [3] H. F. AbuTarboush, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, “A Connected E-Shape and U-Shape Dual-Band Patch Antenna for Different Wireless Applications”, the Second International EURASIP Workshop on RFID Technology, July,2008 [4] C.A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997. [5] R. Gonzalo, P. De Maagt, and M. Sorolla, “Enhanced patch-antenna performance by suppressing surface waves using photonic- bandgap substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 47, pp2131–2138, Nov. 1999 [6] Joannopoulos, J.D., Meade, R.D., and Winn, J.N.: „Photonic crystals molding the flow of light‟(Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1995) [7] W.L. Stutzman and G.A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1998 Srivastava S & Goswami ,P, “ A New Design improvement of microstrip U-shape antenna for bandwidth improvement” IJEST, Vol 4,issue6,pp,2936-2941 2002 | P a g e