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  1. 1. Mukesh Thakur, N. K. Saikhedkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1947-1952 Control Of Exhaust Emissions Using Nanosized Copper MetalSpray In The Catalytic Converter For Two Stroke Spark Ignition Engine Mukesh Thakur*, N. K. Saikhedkar** *(Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rungta College of Engineering & Technology, Raipur, C.G., India) ** (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Raipur Institute of Technology, Raipur, C.G., India) ABSTRACT Major developments in Nanotechnology the exhaust contains significant amounts of have taken place across the world over the last pollutants which need to be transformed into few years. The transition from micro-particles to harmless compounds. In this paper, the control nano-particles can lead to substantial changes in strategies and achievements in automotive pollution the properties of materials. These properties can control using nano-particles are discussed. Major be very helpful in prevention of automobile developments in Nanotechnology have taken place pollution which has become a grave problem across the world over the last few years [2]. From a today. The major contributors towards humble beginning, Ireland inc. became a leader in automobile pollution are automobiles, especially the Microelectronics industry and now has to face two-wheelers. This research paper comments on the challenge of developing a strategic plan to the utility of the nano-particles towards maintain its lead position in the nano field which in automobile pollution control. The nano-particle most cases will supersede the micro phase. Most coating on the catalytic converter of automobiles countries are taking a similar path of development can be very helpful in the reduction of pollutant all be it alone or in collaboration with other concentration and thus reduce the pollution level countries. This process is expensive and requires in atmosphere. Nanotechnology is an emerging market drivers and experts to lead and deliver field that covers a wide range of technologies demands from the industries of the future. The which are presently under development in nano- approach may be driven from a top down or bottom scale. It plays a major role in the development of up, i.e. from macro to micro to nano or from sub innovative methods to produce new products, to nano to nano components and machines [3]. What substitute existing production equipment and to are the development areas and implications for nano reformulate new materials and chemicals with Biotechnology, nano-electronics and nano-materials, improved performance resulting in less how are the industries developing and how are we consumption of energy and materials and educating our undergraduates and postgraduates in reduced harm to the environment as well as this technology. In the automotive industry, environmental remediation. The paper provides nanotechnology applications are manifold. They a summary of the work developed in a number of reach from power train, light-weight construction, key reports on nano-particles combined with the energy conversion, pollution sensing and reduction, authors views and opinions on developments in interior cooling, wear reduction, driving dynamics, the nanotechnology field. surveillance control, up to recycle potential and much more [4]. Additionally, visions of ‘‘nano inKeywords – Automobiles, catalytic converter, cars’’ reach from contributions for carbon di-oxidenano-particles. free engines, safe driving, quiet cars, self-healing body and windscreens, up to a mood-depending1. Introduction : choice of color and a self-forming car body. All this Air pollution generated from mobile will meet the present society trends and customersources is a problem of general interest. In the last demands for improved ecology, safety and comfort,60 years the world vehicle fleet has increased from often summarized by the term sustainability.about 40 million vehicles to over 700 million; this Nanotechnology is a science of controllingfigure is projected to increase to 920 million by the individual atoms and molecules which has greatyear 2010 [1].The environmental concern originated future and is considered to be the manufacturingby mobile sources is due to the fact that the majority technology of 21st century. One of the seriousof engines employ combustion of fuels derived from problems facing the world is the drastic increase incrude oil as a source of energy. Burning of environmental pollution by internal combustionhydrocarbon (HC) ideally leads to the formation of engines. All transport vehicles; both Spark ignitionwater and carbon dioxide; however, due to non- and Compression ignition are equally responsible forperfect combustion control and the high emitting different kind of pollutants [5-6].Twotemperatures reached in the combustion chamber, stroke SI engines have certain advantages such as 1947 | P a g e
  2. 2. Mukesh Thakur, N. K. Saikhedkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1947-1952compactness, lightweight, simple construction and emission control systems and in other pollutionlow cost and low nitric oxide emissions, but they control and treatment applications, to facilitatesuffer from problems of high specific fuel petroleum extraction and production, and to produceconsumption, high hydrocarbon and high carbon chemicals and chemical products. It is expected thatmonoxide emissions. The emissions exhausted into the increased affordability of the use of preciousthe surroundings to pollute the atmosphere and cause metals in these applications, due to the minuteglobal warming, acid rain, smog, odors respiratory amount needed for each process, will increaseand other health hazards. The paper provides a overall demand for these metals. Catalysts usuallysummary of the work on nano-particles, combined have two principal roles in nanotechnology areas: (i)with the author’s views and opinions on In macro quantities, they can be involved in somedevelopments in the nanotechnology field. Behavior processes for the preparation of a variety of otherof materials at nanoscale is not necessarily nanostructures like quantum dots, nano-tubes, etc.predictable from what we know at macroscale. At (ii) Some nanostructures themselves can serve asthe nanoscale, often highly desirable, properties are catalysts for certain chemical reactions. Automotivecreated due to size confinement, dominance of catalysts use platinum, rhodium and palladium tointerfacial phenomena, and quantum effects. These speed up chemical reactions of pollutants such asnew and unique properties of nanostructured nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons,materials, nanoparticles, and other related to create non-toxic emissions. By using nano-nanotechnologies lead to improved catalysts, tunable particles of the precious metals instead of largerphoto activity, increased strength, and many other particles; less metal is needed to produce the sameinteresting characteristics [7-8]. surface area over the ceramic base of the catalyst as As the exciting field of nanotechnology shown in figure 1.develops, the broader environmental impacts ofnanotechnology will also need to be considered.Such considerations might include: theenvironmental implications of the cost, size andavailability of advanced technological devices;models to determine potential benefits of reductionor prevention of pollutants from environmentalsources; potential new directions in environmentalscience due to advanced sensors; effects of rapidadvances in health care and health management asrelated to the environment; impact of artificialnanoparticles in the atmosphere; and impacts fromthe development of nanomachines [9].2. Methodology:2.1 Role of metal nano-particle catalysts inautomotive pollution prevention: Catalysis involves the modification of achemical reaction rate, mostly speeding up oraccelerating the reaction rate by a substance calledcatalyst that is not consumed throughout thereaction. Usually, the catalyst participates in thereaction by interacting with one or more of thereactants and at the end of process; it is regeneratedwithout any changes. There are two main kinds of catalysts,homogeneous and heterogeneous. The homogeneoustype is dispersed in the same phase as the reactants.The dispersal is ordinarily in a gas or a liquidsolution. Heterogeneous catalyst is in a differentphase from the reactants and is separated by a phase Figure 1: Use of nano catalyst coating in catalyticboundary. Heterogeneous catalytic reactions converter (indicated by red color)typically take place on the surface of a solid support,e.g. silica or alumina. These solid materials havevery high surface areas that usually arise from theirimpregnation with acids or coating with catalyticallyactive material e.g. platinum-coated surfaces. Metalnano-catalysts are being used in automobile 1948 | P a g e
  3. 3. Mukesh Thakur, N. K. Saikhedkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1947-19522.2 Use of copper nano-particles: quantities of platinum, which is important given its Copper — the stuff of pennies and tea high cost. These improved catalysts have a betterkettles — is also one of the few metals that can turn capability to break down air pollutants and alsocarbon dioxide into hydrocarbon fuels with reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells. Butrelatively little energy. When fashioned into an platinum comes at a high price, so nanotechnologistselectrode and stimulated with voltage, copper acts as may choose other options in some cases.a strong catalyst, setting off an electrochemicalreaction with carbon dioxide that reduces the 3. Methodologygreenhouse gas to methane or methanol. 3.1 Experimental work:Various researchers around the world have studied The experiments were carried out on a twocopper’s potential as an energy-efficient means of stroke, single cylinder, horizontal air-cooled sparkrecycling carbon dioxide emissions in power plants: ignition engine. The dynamic test rig consists of aInstead of being released into the atmosphere, two stroke petrol engine coupled to electricalcarbon dioxide would be circulated through a copper dynamometer, a rheostat is provided to load thecatalyst and turned into methane or methanol — engine, various measurements are provided so thatwhich could then power the rest of the plant by performance of the engine at various loads and speedcombustion, or be converted to chemical products can be estimated shown in figure 2.such as ethylene. Such a system, paired with energy Following steps and precautions were undertaken.from solar or wind, could vastly reduce greenhouse 1) Put sufficient petrol along with self mixing 2T oilgas emissions from coal-fired and natural gas- in the tank.powered plants. But copper is temperamental: easily 2) Check oil level in the gear box of the engine, ifoxidized, as when an old penny turns green. As a necessary add up SAE-40 .Oil level should alwaysresult, the metal is unstable, which can significantly be up to the oil filling hole.slow its reaction with carbon dioxide and produce 3) Confirm that the engine is in neutral gear, allunwanted byproducts such as carbon monoxide and switches of the load bank are off and ignition switchformic acid. Now researchers at MIT have come up is ‘on’.with a solution that may further reduce the energy 4) Start water supply to the calorimeter.needed for copper to convert carbon dioxide, while 5) Press the choke knob and give a sharp kick,also making the metal much more stable. The group engine will start. As the engine starts, release thehas engineered tiny nano-particles of copper mixed choke knob, pull the clutch lever.with gold, which is resistant to corrosion and 6) Uniformly increasing the accelerator and set theoxidation. The researchers observed that just a touch engine speed to say 1600 rpm at varying loadof gold makes copper much more stable. In conditions (0.25. 0.5, 0.75 and full load). Initially theexperiments, they coated electrodes with the hybrid experiment is performed at 0.25 loads keeping thenano-particles and found that much less energy was speed 1600 rpm. Same experimentation is performedneeded for these engineered nano-particles to react using nano copper coated sieve.with carbon dioxide, compared to the nano-particles 7) Repeat the above procedure for another speed sayof pure copper. 1900 rpm at varying load conditions with & without using catalytic converter.2.2 Use of platinum catalysts: 8) The above procedure was repeated for different Platinum is a rare element and therefore in speed with different load conditions using sievedemand for use in both jewelry and as a catalyst. In coated with Cu nano-particles.bulk form, platinum is one of the most effective but The exhaust emission measurements were carriedexpensive catalysts available. You probably use out by using a calibrated standard instruments AVLplatinum as a catalyst every day in the catalytic 422 gas analyzer for CO and HC at each operatingconverter in your car. The platinum in a catalytic point for both conditions with and without catalyticconverter helps change air-polluting molecules from converter is recorded and figures were plottedyour car exhaust into less harmful molecules. The between varying load and pollutant concentration.atoms in molecules, such as hydrogen, bond with AVL 422 Gas Analyzer- In exhaust gas analyzerplatinum atoms, and then the platinum atoms release inserts a probe in to tail pipe of scooter engine. Thethe hydrogen atoms, allowing them to react with probe draws out some of the exhaust gas and carriesother molecules. By breaking up molecules into it through the analyzer. There are two display unitsatoms, platinum facilitates chemical reactions and in exhaust gas analyzer to measure the HC in ppmallows them to occur at a lower temperature than and CO in a percentage. The exhaust gas sample wasthey could without a catalyst. Using nano-particles of the tubing approximately 15 cm in to scooter tailof platinum increases the surface area available for a pipe.reaction and also increases the percentage of Specification-1.Engine type-Two stroke, singleplatinum atoms available for contact with molecules cylinder horizontal air cooled petrol engine.involved in the reaction. This difference allows 2. Maximum speed -3000 rpm.researchers and manufacturers to use smaller 3. Brake horse power- 4.5hp. 1949 | P a g e
  4. 4. Mukesh Thakur, N. K. Saikhedkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1947-1952Figure 2: Arrangement for understanding the effect of catalysts3. Results and Discussion: Emission parameters of a S.I. engine with clear from the figure that CO & HC emission at 0.25and without catalytic converter are studied by load is somewhat higher than the moderate load (0.5changing load and speed as shown in Fig. 3-6. By & 0.75 load) because the temperature outside thestudying various graphs for carbon monoxide and burning flame zone is much lower leading tohydrocarbon in varying speed and load, the formation of hydrocarbons also the air-fuel ratio isfollowing results were obtained: 10:1 leading to slow oxidation. As the load increasesa) Figure 3and 4 showed the effect of changing load from 0.25 to 0.5 to 0.75, more amount of charge ison CO & HC percentage emission at 1600 rpm. It is supplied inside the cylinder and the oxidation process is CO are found to be lowered. 1950 | P a g e
  5. 5. Mukesh Thakur, N. K. Saikhedkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1947-1952 Figure 3: Effect of changing load on CO percentage emission at 1600 rpm.b) At varying increased load with increasing speed it is foundthat emission of CO & HC decreases. Emission of COdecreases from 1.5% to 1.2% when speed increases from1600 to 1900 rpm as shown in figures 5 and 6. c) On Figure 4: Effect of changing load on HC in ppmrepeating the above steps for 1600 to1900 rpm using emission at 1600 rpm.catalytic converter (Cu sieve) coated with copper nano-particle, the emission of HC and CO are found to be lowered Wocc : without catalytic converter& more efficient than bulk Wcc : with catalytic convertercopper. Figure 5: Effect of changing load on CO percentage emission at 1900 rpm. Figure 6: Effect of changing load on HC in ppm emission at 1900 rpm. 4. Conclusion: The engine is designed to run at medium load (0.5 load ) for a longer time due to less 1951 | P a g e
  6. 6. Mukesh Thakur, N. K. Saikhedkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1947-1952emission of HC and CO . At full load, emission of [3] Simonetta Giordano, Paola Adamo, ValeriaHC and CO is higher so it is not desirable to run Spagnuolo, Bianca Maria Vaglieco,engine at full load. The converter uses two different Instrumental and bio-monitoring of heavytypes of catalyst, reduction and oxidation catalyst. metal and nano-particle emissions fromThe idea behind the work is to create a structure that diesel engine exhaust in controlledexposes the maximum surface area of catalyst to environment, Journal of Environmentalexhaust stream, also minimizing the amount of Sciences 2010, 22(9) 1357–1363catalyst required. The exhaust gases pass through a [4] Hartmut Presting, Ulf Konig, Futurebed of catalyst and the catalytic action takes place at nanotechnology developments forsurface of Cu which are porous and the the higher automotive applications, Materials Sciencecatalytic activity towards the oxidation of CO and and Engineering C 23 (2003) 737–741.HC could be due to the higher catalytic surface area [5] Bari A, Rosso A, Minciardi M R, Troiani F,of small nanoparticles. It is presumed that the Piervittori R, Analysis of heavy metals inelectrophilic nature of the catalyst surface renders a atmospheric particulates, Environmentalweak bond between the CO and vacant d system of Monitoring and Assessment, (2001), 69,copper atoms. The electrophilic nature of copper 205–220.surface obviates that when the particles are extremely [6] Tornatore C, Merola S S, Vaglieco B M,small in size, the electrons are pumped into copper by (2008), Particles and nano-particlesemission which usually reduces the band gap characterization at the exhaust of internalbetween Fermi level and conduction band combustion engines. Journal of Automobileconsiderably so that the catalytic activity is also Engineering, 222: 2195–2217.expected to be reduced. However, copper has d-bands [7] G.A. Mansoori, G.R. Vakili-Nezhaad, andwell below the Fermi level and the anti bonding stage A.R. Ashrafi, (2005), Intl J. Pure &at the top of the d bands end up below the Fermi level Applied Math. Sci. 2, 58.and are filled. As a result, the catalytic activity did [8] G.A. Mansoori, May (2003), "Phasenot decrease rather it remained constant. Any Transitions in Small Systems", Proceed.aggregation of the particles in aqueous dispersion Nano. Sci. Tech. Workshop, Kashan Univ.leads to lower efficiency. The freshly prepared and [9] G.A. Mansoori, "Nanothermodynamics &capped Cu nanoparticles (12nm- 20 nm) also showed Phase Transitions in Nanosystems", The 4thgood activity for this oxidation. Besides catalyst the Intl Conf. Fluids & Thermal Energyconvergent divergent section for flow provides a Conversion, 7, (2003).narrow pathway for exhaust due to which its velocitydecreases which in turn increases the retention periodand the emission are in more contact with catalystthus increasing the oxidation time. The catalystincreases the rate of reaction by adsorption ofreactants in such a form that the activation energy forreaction is reduced far below its value inuncatalyzed reaction. Copper metal is selected for thepresent work as it is cheaper than platinum,palladium and rhodium. Also it adsorbs the reactantsmolecule strongly enough to hold and active thereactants but not so strongly that the product can’tbreakaway also the diffusion of reactants andproducts into and out of the pore structure of coppertook place efficiently. Due to this, the pollution levelfor the exhaust emission of S.I. engine has found tobe reduced which is better with nanosized catalyticconverter.REFERENCES [1] V. S., Shrivastava, Metallic and organic nano-materials and their use in pollution control: A Review, Archives of Applied Science Research, 2010, 2 (6): 82-92. [2] David. M. Kennedy, The role and future of nano-technology in research, industry and education, Conference on Materials, Processes, Friction and Wear, MATRIB’06, Vela Luka, 2006. 1952 | P a g e