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  1. 1. S.Pradeep, D.Jamunna, Vikram Narayandas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1714-1717 Survey On Multihop Wireless Networks Using Cross-Layer Framework 1 S.Pradeep 2 D.Jamuna 3 Vikram Narayandas 1 Assistant Professor, Department of IT, Jayaprakash Narayan College of Engineering, Mahabubnagar, Andhra Pradesh, 2 Professor and Head, Department of CSE, Jayaprakash Narayan College of Engineering, , Mahabubnagar, Andhra Pradesh. 3 Associate Professor, Department of CSE, Jayaprakash Narayan College of Engineering, Mahabubnagar, Andhra PradeshAbstract: In this paper, we take approach to the optimal as a whole. In order to improve theprotocol architecture design in multihop wireless performance and achieve efficient resourcenetworks. Our goal is to integrate various protocol allocation, we need to understand interactions acrosslayers into a rigorous framework, by regarding layers and carry out cross-layer design. Moreover, inthem as distributed computations over the wireless networks there does not exist a goodnetwork to solve some optimization problem. interface between the physical and network layers.Different layers carry out distributed computation Wireless links are unreliable and wireless nodeson different subsets of the decision variables using usually rely on random access mechanism to accesslocal information to achieve individual optimality. wireless channel. Thus, the performance of link layerTaken together, these local algorithms (with is not guaranteed, which will result in performancerespect to different layers) achieve a global problems for the whole network such as degradedoptimality. Our current theory integrates three TCP performance.functions—congestion control, routing and So, we need cross-layer design, i.e., toscheduling—in transport, network and link layers exchange information between physical/link layerinto a coherent framework. These three functions with higher layers in order to achieve betterinteract through and are regulated by congestion performance. Motivated by the duality model of TCPprice so as to achieve a global optimality, even in a congestion control one approach to understandtime-varying environment. Within this context, interactions across layers is to view the network as anthis model allows us to systematically derive the optimization solver and various protocol layers aslayering structure of the various mechanisms of distributed algorithms solving optimization problem.different protocol layers, their interfaces, and the This approach and the associated utilitycontrol information that must cross these maximization problem were originally proposed asinterfaces to achieve a certain performance and an analytical tool for reverse engineering TCProbustness. congestion control where a network with fixed link capacities and pre specified routes is implicitly Keywords: Cross-layer design, Multihop wireless assumed. A natural framework for cross-layer designnetworks, Theory-based approach. is then to extend the basic utility maximization problem to include decision variables of other layers,1. INTRODUCTION: and seek decomposition such that different layers The communication network has largely carry out distributed computation on different subsetsbeen a result of adopting a layered architecture. With of decision variables using local information tothis architecture, its design and implementation is achieve individual optimality, and taken together,divided into simpler modules that are separately these local algorithms achieve the global optimality.designed and implemented and then interconnected. We proposed to apply this approach toA protocol stack typically has five layers, application, design an overall framework for the protocoltransport (TCP), network (IP), data link (include architecture in multihop wireless networks, with theMAC) and physical layer. Each layer controls a goal of achieving efficient resource allocationsubset of the decision variables, hides the complexity through Cross-layer design. We first consider theof the layer below and provides well-defined services network with fixed channel or single-rate devices,to the layer above. Together, they allocate networked and formulate network resource allocation as a utilityresources to provide a reliable and usually best-effort maximization problem with rate constraints at thecommunication service to a large pool of competing network layer and schedulability constraints at theusers. However, the layered structure addresses only link layer. We apply duality theory to decompose theabstract and high-level aspects of the whole network system problem vertically into congestion control,protocol design. Various layers of the network are put routing and scheduling sub problems that interacttogether often in an ad hoc manner, and might not be through congestion prices. Based on this 1714 | P a g e
  2. 2. S.Pradeep, D.Jamunna, Vikram Narayandas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1714-1717decomposition, a distributed sub gradient algorithmfor joint congestion control, routing and scheduling isobtained, and proved to approach arbitrarily close tothe optimum of the system problem We finally apply the general algorithm to thejoint congestion control and medium access controldesign over the network with single-path routing andto the cross-layer congestion control, routing andscheduling design in the network without prespecified paths.2. Cross Layer Design Cross Layer Design is a way of achievinginformation sharing between all the layers in order toobtain highest possible adaptively of any network.This is required to meet the challenging Data rates,higher performance gains and Quality of Services Fig 2.2 Cross Layer Design for Wireless Networkrequirements for various real time and non real timeapplications. Each layer is characterized by some key 3 .Design modules:parameters, which are passed to the adjacent layers to For the efficient multi-hop wirelesshelp them determine the best operation modes that networks design, namely:best suit the current channel, network and application -Network protocols andconditions -Network operations and management (O&M) The designs include both in a cross-layer design paradigm to ensure the notion of service quality, such as quality of service (QoS) in wireless mesh networks (WMNs) and quality of information (QoI) in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The implementation stage involves careful planning, investigation of the existing system and it‘s constraints on implementation, designing of methods to achieve changeover and evaluation of changeover methods. 3.1 Flow Contention Graph and Schedualbility Constraint: The interference among wireless links is usually specified by some interference model that describes physical constraints regarding wireless Fig:2.1 cross layer architecture transmissions and successful receptions. For example, in a network with primary interference,The architecture of cross layer consists of links that share a common node cannot transmit or received simultaneously but links that do not share2.1 Wireless Networking nodes can do so. It models a wireless network withArchitecture: Connection Vs Connectionless, Energy multiple channels where simultaneousefficient analysis of Manets and Traffic theory & communications in a neighborhood are enabled byprotocols using orthogonal CDMA or FDMA channels. In a network with secondary interference, links mutually2.1Signal processing interfere with each other whenever either the senderIncreasing the spectral efficiency, Reducing Bit Error or the receiver of one is within the interference rangeRate and reducing transmission energy of the sender or receiver of the other. Given an interference model, we can construct a flow2.3 Information Theory contention graph that captures the contentionDeveloping capacity limits, designing efficient relations among the links. In the contention graph,source coding and channel algorithms. each vertex represents a link, and an edge betweenAnd system design of cross layer for wireless two vertices denotes the contention between thenetworks shown in fig 2.2 corresponding links: two links interfere with each other and cannot transmit at the same time. 1715 | P a g e
  3. 3. S.Pradeep, D.Jamunna, Vikram Narayandas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1714-17173.2 Stochastic Stability: independent set e as a L dimensional rate vector r-e Congestion price takes discrete values. where the length entry .Thus, congestion price evolves according to a 1 2discrete-time, discrete-space Markov chain. We need 3to show that this markov chain is stable, i.e., the A B Ccongestion price process reaches a steady state anddoes not become unbounded. It is easy to check that 4 5 6the Markov chain has a countable state space, but is Fig 4.1 Logical Links and correspondingnot necessarily irreducible. In such a general case, the flow contention Graphstate space is partitioned in transient set T and we formulate rate constraints for networks withdifferent recurrent classes Ri. We define the system different kinds of routing .The network with single-to be stable if all recurrent states are positive Path Routing of each source S uses a pathrecurrent and the Markov process hits the recurrent considering of a set ‗ Ls‘ Subset ‗S ‗ links the set Lsstates with probability one. This will guarantee that define an L × S routing matrix. The aggregate linkthe Markov chain will be absorbed/reduced into some should not exceed the link capacity. The networkrecurrent class, and the positive recurrence ensures without pre specified paths will use multi commoditythe periodicity of the Markov chain over this class. flow model for routing .here we are denoting D as destination of network layers. The aggregate capacity3.3 Scheduling over Multihop Networks: of link allocated to flow for incoming and generated Scheduling over Multihop networks is a flow to the destination should not exceed thedifficult problem and in general NP-hard. To see this, summation of the capacities for its outgoing flows.note that problem is equivalent to a maximum weight The wireless channel is a shared medium andindependent set problem over the flow contention interference –limited .the capacity they obtainedgraph, which is NP-hard for general graphs. It is easy depends on band width sharing .this may results into design some heuristic algorithm but is hard to bind various TCP performances of wireless networks .theits performance. problems of TCP unfairness over Multihop wireless networks .The following section says about related4. PROCEDURE: work of this paper . A Multihop wireless network is dynamicallyself organized and self configured with nodes in the 5. Related work:network automatically establishing and maintaining In proposed paper we have did survey andMultihop connectivity among themselves .Multi hop its related work on multi hop wireless networks andwireless network designed for different types of cross-layer protocols, protocol improvements, andapplications scenarios ..In wireless ad hoc mobile design methodologies for wireless sensor networksnetwork ,every node has the responsibility to act as a (WSNs) is reviewed and taxonomy is proposed. Therouter and forward packets for each other .Because communication protocols devised for WSNs thatnodes normally have limited transmission ranges focus on cross-layer design techniques are reviewed.Multihop delivery is necessary for communication and classified based on the network layers they aim atamong nodes outside the transmission range. replacing in the classical open system interconnection The Cross-layer Design of Multihop (OSI) network stack. Furthermore, systematicWireless Networks is focusing dual decomposition methodologies for the design of cross-layer solution.consider a Multi hop wireless network with a set of for sensor networks as resource allocation problemsN nodes and a set L Directed logical links .we in the framework of non-linear optimization areassume a static topology and each link l Є L which discussed. Open research issues in the developmenthas finite capacity .here we assume a wireless of cross-layer design methodologies for sensorchannel with a fixed a rate .wireless channel is networks and possible research directions areinterference limited .we will use flow Contention indicated. Finally, possible shortcomings of cross-Graph to capture the contention relation links. The layer design techniques such as lack of modularity,Flow Contention Graph and Schedualbility constraint decreased robustness, and instability andthat captures the contention relations among links, its precautionary guidelines are presented. Schedulingeach vertex represent a link an edge between two component in this optimal cross-layered rate controlvertices denotes the contention between the scheme has to solve a complex global optimizationcorresponding links and the two links interfere with problem at each time, and hence is tooeach other and cannot transmit at the same time. The computationally expensive for onlinegiven flow contention graph can identify all its implementation. In this paper, we study how theindependents sets of vertices .the link is an performance of cross-layer rate control can beindependent set can transmit simultaneously .let E impacted if the network can only use an imperfectdenote the set of all independent sets with each (and potentially distributed) scheduling componentindependent set indexed by e. we represent an that is easier to implement. We study both the case when the number of users in the system is fixed and 1716 | P a g e
  4. 4. S.Pradeep, D.Jamunna, Vikram Narayandas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1714-1717the case with dynamic arrivals and departures of the [5]. V. Kawadia and P.R. Kumar, ―A Cautionaryusers, and we establish desirable results on the Perspective on Cross-Layer Design‖, IEEEperformance bounds of cross-layered rate control Wireless Communications, February, 2005, pp.3-11with imperfect scheduling. Compared with a layered [6]. C. Sadler, W. Chen, and L. Kant. , ―Cross-approach that does not design rate control and Layer Self-Healing in a Wireless Ad-Hoc Network‖,scheduling together, our cross-layered approach has U.S. Patent filed April 2005provably better performance bounds, andsubstantially outperforms the layered approach. The Author’s Informationinsights drawn from our analyses also enable us todesign a fully distributed cross-layered rate controland scheduling algorithm for a restrictive interferencemode.6. Conclusion: We proposed an alternative cross-layeringarchitecture for autonomic communications which is 1 S.Pradeep pursuing M.Tech CSEbased on local information as well as global from jaya prakash Narayana College of Engineeringinformation and gossiping will be the mechanism to & Technology B.Tech from jaya prakash narayanacollect the global view related information. We are College of Engineering. Currently he is working ascurrently engaged in exploring how we may provide Assistant Professor at Jaya prakash Narayana Collegecross-layer optimization of TCP/IP, simulating of Engineering. His areas of interest include Dataexisting TCP enhancements and comparing them to a mining, Network Security, Software Engineering andnovel version whose adaptations are driven from a Sensor Network.knowledge plane populated using our gossipingtechnique. This will allow us to evaluate both the 2 Prof.D.Jamuna, Working asgossiping approach and the various cross-layer Professor & Head of CSE Dept.parameters that can be used to influence TCP Jayaprakash Narayan College ofbehavior, as well as comparing them against Engineering, Mahabubnagar,established approaches with less cross-layer M.Tech(SE) from School ofinfluence. Our current theory integrates three Information Technology, JNTUH,functions—congestion control, routing and Hyderabad. BE (CSE) fromscheduling—in transport, network and link layers Vijayanagara Engineeringinto a coherent framework. College, Bellary. Experience 17 Years in Teaching Profession. Her areas of Interest are in WirelessReferences: Sensor Networks, Data Mining, and Networking and [1]. Marco Conti, Gaia Maselli, Giovanni Turi, guided M. Tech and B. Tech Students IEEE Projects. Sylvia Giordano ―Cross layering in mobile She has published many papers in international Ad Hoc Network Design‖, IEEE Computer journals. And she is Member of CSTA, IACSIT. Society, pages 48-51, February 2004 [2]. Winter, R.; Schiller, S.; Nikaein, N.; Bonnet C., “Crosstalk: A Data Dissemination-based Cross-layer Architecture for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, IEEE Workshop on Applications and Services in Wireless Networks (ASWN 2005), Paris, June 2005 [3]. X. Gu, X. Fu.H. Tshofenig, and L. Wolf, 3 ―Towards Self-optimizing Protocol Stack for Vikram Narayandas Currently Autonomic Communication: Initial working as Associate Professor at Jayaprakash Experience‖, Proceedings of the 2nd IFIP Narayan College of Engineering, Mahabubnagar, International Workshop on Autonomic M.Tech (CN) from Shadan College of Engineering. Communication (WAC05), Springer B.Tech (CSIT) from Sree Datta college of Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. Engineering and. His areas of interest include Data 3854 (LNCS), October, 2005. mining, Network Security, Software Engineering, [4]. Dzmitry Kliazovich and Fabrizio Granelli, Sensor Networks, and Cloud Computing. He is the ―A Cross-layer Scheme for TCP membership of, IACSIT, ISTE, IAENG, and CSTA. Performance Improvement in Wireless He is Peer reviewer on honorary basis of GJCST. He LANs‖, Globecom 2004, IEEE published 10 papers in International Journals. Communications Society. 1717 | P a g e