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  1. 1. Aaditya choubey / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1709-1713 Study The Initiation Steps Of Total Productivity Maintenance In An Organization And Its Effect In Improvement Of Overall Equipment Efficiency Aaditya choubeyABSTRACT Frequent machine breakdowns, low Is only achieved by using an effective maintenanceplant availability, lower working time, idle system that helps maximize availability bylaboureand increased overtime are a great threat minimizing machine downtime due to unwarrantedto a plant as they increase operating costs of an stoppages. Without an effective and economicallyindustry. The main aim of this Project is to viable maintenance system, equipment reliabilityimprove Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) suffers, and the plant pays the price with poorat a manufacturing company through the availability and increased downtime. All theseimplementation of innovative maintenance mentioned poor key performance indicators (KPIs)strategies. The paper focuses on improving the could be a result of poor machine condition andmaintenance in a manufacturing set up using an sometimes low employee morale. Low plantinnovative maintenance regime mix to improve availability and overtime costs will negatively affectoverall equipment effectiveness. I usually an industry’s operational efficiency. Plant Engineersproduction is based on the total kilowatt of motors must therefore design an effective maintenanceproduced per day. Reduced demand and lack of system for the plant and its equipment.raw materials particularly imported items are (Implementation of Total Productive maintenance, aadversely affecting the manufacturing operations. case study)The company has to suffer due to loweravailability of machines as result of breakdowns Aimand lack of raw materials. The price reductions The aim of this project is to improve Overalland uncertainties as well as general machine Equipment Effectiveness in the company through thebreakdowns further lowered production. Some Effective Maintenance implementation of Totalrecommendations were given. For instance, Productive Maintenance.employee empowerment in the company willenhance responsibility and authority to improve RESEARCH OBJECTIVESand totally eliminate the six big losses. If the • To maximize overall equipment effectivenessmaintenance department is to realize its proper • To reduce equipment downtime while improvingfunction in a progressive, innovative industrial quality and capacity.society, then its personnel must be continuously • To increase competitive advantage.trained to meet current needs as well as futurerequirements. To make the maintenance planning LITERATURE REVIEWsystem effective, it is essential to keep track of all Many manufacturing systems operate at athe corrective maintenance jobs and preventive lower capacity with a consequence of a higher cost ofmaintenance inspections. For large processing the Producing products. In the fabric Dyeing Processplants these cannot be handled manually. It was industry, the production process requires non-stoptherefore recommended that the company Operation of automatic production line equipment. Aimplement (Computerized Maintenance stoppage in a production line, due to a failure of theManagement System) CMMS. equipment, causes a drop in the production rate and quality problems on the products. Low productivity isKeywords:- Maintenance; Manufacturing; Overall the result of the worst function of the productionEquipment Effectiveness lines. This is can be a result of imperfect maintenance of the machines. Maintenance is undertaken toPROBLEM FORMULATION preserve the proper function of the system so that it Maintenance has been largely considered as will continue to do what it was designed to do. Aa support function which is none productive since it success of the product is generally measured bydoes not generate cash directly. However for industry satisfaction of the customer who seeks good quality.to produce goods of the right quality and quantity for So quality is the prime factor in the success of thethe customers and be able to deliver them at the right product. Failure of the product is mainly due to poortime its plant or equipment must operate efficiently quality of the product is mainly due to poor quality ofand accurately. For every manufacturing company product and the downtime loss in fabric dyeingthe objective is to produce goods at a profit and this processing industry leads to the loss in availability of 1709 | P a g e
  2. 2. Aaditya choubey / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1709-1713the equipment, in turn leads to the less Overall produce the results, but because of the efforts toEquipment Effectiveness (OEE). The downtime loss change the organizational culture so that it valued theresults in shut down of the particular equipment “Total” concept.which decreases the OEE. This is considered to be Today the international focus on TPM isthe one of the major losses to the company. So it intensifying. This in-terest is expressed to support abecomes to reduce the downtime loss in order to company’s full utilization of its assets. For example,increase the productivity of the particular equipment one of the prevalent strategies today is the concept of.There are various mathematical models for Lean Manufacturing. It is based on the Toyotameasuring OEE developed by various researchers. production system and is designed to drive out wasteFelipe et al. (2002), Hernandez et al. (2006) from an organization. Lean Manufacturing strategiesEIMekkawy et al. (2006) and Charu et al. (2000) have yet to produce the true benefits possible becausehave defined OEE in combination with operation, they assume full asset utilization. Furthermore, themaintenance and management of manufacturing full utilization of assets will never occur without anequipment and resources. Muthiah et al. (2007) effective TPM strategy. Therefore, are Leanpresent some practical solutions highlighting the Manufacturing strategies effective today? The answerOEE teams at the Texas Instruments, USA which is no. A quick review of the current state ofhave been designed to minimize many of the maintenance in the United States indicates thatsemiconductor metric problems. Rathore et al. (2005) changes are required if companies want to achieveinvestigated OEE data with a productivity analysis the benefits of Lean Manufacturing.framework called Capacity Utilization Bottleneck (httphttp://www.reliabilityweb.com)Efficiency System which identified and prioritizedproductivity inefficiencies with the decreasing in METHODOLOGIYtheir accompanying tool capacity. The methodology is based on study the steps of implementation of TPM in an organisation.History of TPM Method is divided into various steps, whose aims are From where did TPM evolve? What spurred bring forth improved maintenance policies of theits development? TPM originated in Japan and was mechanical equipment. Also, the continuous andan equipment management strategy designed to through inspection of the production process issupport the Total Quality Management strategy. The achieved through measurements of the overallJapanese realized that companies cannot produce a equipment effectiveness (OEE). The goal of theconsistent quality product with poorly-maintained development methodology is to bring the competitiveequipment. TPM thus began in the 1950s and advantages, such as increasingfocused primarily on the pre-ventive maintenance. As the productivity, improving the quality of thenew equipment was installed, the focus was on products and Project gives an idea about outcomes ofimplementing the preventive maintenance industry such as productivity, quality, profit etc., byrecommendations by the equipment manufacturer. A introducing a new framework.high value was placed on equipment that operated atdesigned specifications with no breakdowns. During THEORTICAL FRAME WORKthese same years, a research group was formed which WHAT IS TPMlater became the Japanese Institute of Plant What is Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)?Management (JIPM). It can be considered as the medical science During the 1960s, TPM focused on of machines. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) isproductive maintenance, rec-ognizing the importance a maintenance program, which involves a newlyof reliability, maintenance, and economic efficiency defined concept for maintaining plants andin plant design. This focus took much of the data equipment. The goal of the TPM program is tocollected about equipment during the 1950s and fed it markedly increase production while, at the sameback into the design, procurement, and construction time, increasing employee morale and jobphases of equipment management. By the end of the satisfaction.1960s, JIPM had established and awarded a PM prize TPM brings maintenance into focus as ato companies that excelled in maintenance activities. necessary and vitally important part of the business.Then in the 1970s, TPM evolved to a strategy It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity.focused on achieving PM efficiency through a Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part ofcomprehensive system based on respect for the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as anindividuals and total employee participation. It was at integral part of the manufacturing process. The goalthis time that “Total” was added to productive is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenancemaintenance. By the mid-1970s, the Japanese began to a minimum.to teach TPM strategies internationally and were Why TPM?recognized for their results. TPM was introduced to achieve the following This process was an evolutionary one that objectives. The important ones are listed below.took time, not be-cause it was technically difficult to 1710 | P a g e
  3. 3. Aaditya choubey / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1709-1713 • Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic 2b. Predictive maintenance: environment. This is a method in which the service life of • Producing goods without reducing product important part is predicted based on inspection or quality. diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their • Reduce cost. service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, • Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest predictive maintenance is condition-based possible time. maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring • Goods send to the customers must be non- and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a defective. surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system. E.g. Replacement ofSimilarities and differences between TQM and coolant or oil, if there is a change in colour. ChangeTPM: in colour indicates the deteriorating condition of the The TPM program closely resembles the oil. As this is a condition-based maintenance, the oilpopular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. or coolant is replaced.Many of the tools such as employee empowerment,benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM are 3. Corrective maintenance (1957):used to implement and optimize TPM. Following are It improves equipment and its componentsthe similarities between the two. so that preventive maintenance can be carried out 1. Total commitment to the program by upper reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be level management is required in both redesigned to improve reliability or improving programmes maintainability. This happens at the equipment user 2. Employees must be empowered to initiate level. E.g. Installing a guard, to prevent the burrs corrective action, and falling in the coolant tank. 3. A long-range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement 4. Maintenance prevention (1960): and is an on-going process. Changes in This program indicates the design of new employee mind-set toward their job equipment. Weakness of current machines is responsibilities must take place as well. sufficiently studied (on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and preventsTypes of maintenance: of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing). The1. Breakdown maintenance: observations and the study made are shared with the In this type of maintenance, no care is taken equipment manufacturer and necessary changes arefor the machine, until equipment fails. Repair is then made in the design of new machine. (Butterworth-undertaken. This type of maintenance could be used Heinemann, 1997, Oxford)when the equipment failure does not significantlyaffect the operation or production or generate any OEE (Overall Equipment Efficiency):significant loss other than repair cost. However, an The basic measure associated with Totalimportant aspect is that the failure of a component Productive Maintenance (TPM) is the OEE. Thisfrom a big machine may be injurious to the operator. OEE highlights the actual "Hidden capacity" in anHence breakdown maintenance should be avoided. organization. OEE is not an exclusive measure of how well the maintenance department works. The2. Preventive maintenance (1951): design and installation of equipment as well as how it It is a daily maintenance (cleaning, is operated and maintained affect the OEE. Itinspection, oiling and re-tightening), design to retain measures both efficiency (doing things right) andthe healthy condition of equipment and prevent effectiveness (doing the right things) with thefailure through the prevention of deterioration, equipment. It incorporates three basic indicators ofperiodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, equipment performance and reliability. Thus OEE isto measure deterioration. It is further divided into a function of the three factors mentioned below.periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. (www.epa.gov/lean/thinking/tpm.htm)Just like human life is extended by preventivemedicine, the equipment service life can beprolonged by doing preventive maintenance. 1. Availability or uptime (downtime: planned2a. Periodic maintenance (Time based and unplanned, tool change, tool service, jobmaintenance - TBM): change etc.) Time based maintenance consists of 2. Performance efficiency (actual vs. designperiodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning capacity)equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden 3. Rate of quality output (Defects and rework)failure and process problems. E.g. Replacement ofcoolant or oil every 15 days. OEE = A x PE x Q 1711 | P a g e
  4. 4. Aaditya choubey / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1709-1713A - Availability of the machine. Availability is Performance (Speed) = (Cycle time x Number ofproportion of time machine is actually available out products processed) Production timeof time it should be available. Net production time is the time during which theAvailability = (Planned production time – products are actually produced. Speed losses, smallunscheduled downtime) Planned production time stops, idling, and empty positions in the line indicateProduction time = Planned production time – that the line is running, but it is not providing theDowntime quantity it should.Gross available hours for production include 365 Q - Refers to quality rate. Which is percentage ofdays per year, 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. good parts out of total produced. Sometimes calledHowever this is an ideal condition. Planned “yield”. Quality losses refer to the situation when thedowntime includes vacation, holidays, and not line is producing, but there are quality losses due toenough loads. Availability losses include equipment in-progress production and warm up rejects. We canfailures and changeovers indicating situations when express a formula for quality like this:the line is not running although it is expected to run. Quality (Yield) = (Number of products processed – Number of products rejected)/ (Number of productsPE - Performance Efficiency. The second category processed)of OEE is performance. The formula can beexpressed in this way:Steps of Implementation of TPM Step 1 – Initial cleaning Make the list ofStep 0 – Initial preparation • Hard to clean, • prepare a Cleaning & Lubrication map • hard to lubricate, • Arrange Red & White Tags • hard to tighten, • History of Failures • hard to inspect, • Training on 7 steps of Jishu Hozen • hard to adjust • Gantry Chart • Record cleaning time • Training on 7 types of abnormalities • Carry out audit on 1st step • Meeting after the daily activities • Refer to the old history records 1712 | P a g e
  5. 5. Aaditya choubey / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1709-1713 even better. The cost of postponing a decision ofStep 2 – Measures against sources implementing TPM, that have to make sooner or • Countermeasures against sources of later, can be excessive. It is convincing that the losses contamination for each day of delay are out of imagination. • Make approach easy for CLRI Apparently, successful TPM implementation • Make easy to do CLRI can achieve better and lasting result as compared to • Shorten cleaning , lubricating time other isolated program because there is an ultimate • Adopt concepts of localized guards change in people (knowledge, skills, and behavior) • Ranking the priority places for daily during the progress. cleaning REFRENCESStep 3 – formulation of cleanup and lubrication 1) S. Fore, L. Zuze.standards 2) Implementation of Total Productive • Standards for cleaning, lubricating and maintenance, A case study, tightening 3) International Journal of Production • Standards are made by operators themselves Economics, pp 71-94 with guidance by pm 4) Felipe et al. (2002), Hernandez et al. (2006) • Standards are made by using 5w 1h EIMekkawy et al. (2006) and Charu et al. • Standards should be easily understood by (2000) every one 5) http://www.maintenance resources.com • Introduce extensive visual controls 6) Environment protection Agency, USA (2006), TOTAL PRODUCTIVEBenefits of TPM 7) MAINTENANCE (TPM), LeanThe main benefits of TPM are as follows: Manufacturing and the Environment,• Increased productivity and OEE (Overall 8) httphttp://www.reliabilityweb.com Equipment Efficiency). 9) M. Ahmad and R. Benson, Benchmarking in• Rectify customer complaints. the process Industry,• Reduce the manufacturing cost by up to a great 10) Institution of Chemical Engineers, 2007, extent. UK.• Satisfy the customer’s needs by almost 100 % 11) Moubray, J. Reliability-Centered (Delivering the right quantity at the right Maintenance II, 2nd Edition, time, in the required quality). 12) Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997, Oxford.• Reduce accidents. 13) TPM Club India.• Follow pollution control measures.• Higher confidence level among the employees.• Keep the work place clean, neat and attractive.• Favorable change in the attitude of the operators.• Achieve goals by working as team.• Horizontal deployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization.• Share knowledge and experience.• The workers get a feeling of owning the machine.Conclusion: Today, with competition in industry at an alltime high, TPM may be the only thing that standsbetween success and total failure for somecompanies. It has been proven to be a program thatworks. It can be adapted to work not only inindustrial plants, but also in construction, buildingmaintenance, transportation, and in a variety of othersituations. Employees must be educated andconvinced that TPM is not just another "Program ofthe month" and that management is totally committedto the program and the extended time framenecessary for full implementation. If everyoneinvolved in a TPM program does his or her part, anunusually high rate of return compared to resourcesinvested may be expected. TPM is capable ofbringing a machine back to original condition and 1713 | P a g e