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  1. 1. N.K.Deshpande, Dr.S.S.Kulkarni, H.Pachpande / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.038-042 Strength Characteristics Of Concrete With Recycled Aggregates And Artificial Sand N.K.Deshpande*, Dr.S.S.Kulkarni** and H.Pachpande*** *( Student, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Islampur, A.P,VIIT,Pune) **( Principal,Rajarambapu Institute of Technology,Islampur) ***( B.E-Student, Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune)ABSTRACT Growing concern of the planet due to RILEM Committee 121-DRG has publishedheavy consumption of sand and rock in concrete recommendations for the use of recycled aggregates,made it a necessity to find way through classifying them into three groups.sustainable construction practices. A possible Group I-Aggregates mainly from masonry rubblesolution to these problems is to use of C& D waste Group II- Aggregate obtained mainly from concretein concrete. Recycled concrete can produce an rubblealternative aggregate for structural concrete as Group III-A mixture of natural aggregates (>80%)partial or total replacement. In this paper an and rubble from the other two groups (with upto 10%attempt is made to utilize recycled concrete of group I).aggregates and artificial sand (machine made The quality of the adhered mortar andsand) in concrete, using IS10262:2009 as guideline properties of recycled aggregates depends on the w/cfor designing the concrete with grade M25. Use of ratio employed in original concrete and the quantitymachine made sand will allow replacement to of adhered mortar influences the strength of concrete,conventional sand. The fresh and hardened size and crushing procedure adopted [6, 7].Excessiveproperties of new concrete are studied and paste content due to high AC of recycled aggregatescompared with concrete made using conventional will cause poor workability and large slump loss ofmaterials. A comparison with control mix mainly concrete. Such poor quality further hinders thetheir compressive strength, split tensile strength & strength development of the resulting concrete.[8-10].flexural strength, will allow assessing the The strength characteristics of concrete are notsuitability of using Recycled aggregate in concrete affected by the quality of recycled aggregate atwith replacement to sand with conventional or higher water cement ratio; it was only affected whenartificial sand. the water cement ratio is low. Recycled aggregates need typically 5% more amount of water for makingKeywords – Recycled Concrete Aggregate, concrete. [11-16]. An experimental study concludedArtificial Sand, Convetional Coarse aggregate, that compressive strength does not seem to beConcrete ,control mix affected by the fine aggregate replacement ratio at least up to 30%.The same study showed that bothI. INTRODUCTION tensile splitting and modulus of elasticity is reduced Sustainable construction rather than a fancy with increase in the replacement ratio.[14]. In Italy,idea now is a necessity. Concrete industry, which the use of 30% recycled concrete instead of virginuses 12.6 billion tons of raw materials each year, is aggregate is definitively allowed for producingthe largest user of natural resources in the world.[1]. concretes (C30/37 class) since July 2009[17]. In aOn the other side when a building is demolished after study over treatment on recycled aggregatesits use, for repairs or for deterioration it generates proposed, Impregnation with a solution of silica fumelarge amount of C &D, which conventionally and till and Ultrasonic cleaning of recycled aggregate, weretoday is used for land filling. In recent years, the done to remove the loose particles and improve therecyclable potential of construction and bond between the new cement paste and the recycleddemolition(C&D) waste has made it a target of aggregate. The results showed that silica fumeinterest and the main focus of waste management improves the properties of new concrete made frompolicies on encouraging minimization, reuse, recycled aggregates in two ways: a) by improving therecycling, and valorization of the waste as opposed to interface between the R-aggregate and the newits final disposal in landfills. [2,3]. cement matrix i) By strengthening the structure of the Recycled aggregate is generally produced by old paste that is still adhered to the R-Aggregate,two stages crushing of demolished concrete, which cracked during the crushing process.screening and removal of contaminants such as Ultrasonic cleaning of recycled aggregates yielded areinforcement, wood, plastic etc. [4] moderate increase of strength [18-20]. 38 | P a g e
  2. 2. N.K.Deshpande, Dr.S.S.Kulkarni, H.Pachpande / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.038-042II. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME: III. PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATES An experimental program was undertaken Recycled Concrete Aggregates arewhich consisted of testing Recycled aggregates – characterised with irregular shape and better bondCoarse and fine and properties with fresh and between mortar and aggregate. The structure of RCAhardened concrete specimens. The materials used mainly depends upon the parent source of concretewere: rubble. The properties of aggregates are as shown ina. Conventional materials- Cement (C), fine Table 1 and Table 2. The results indicate that RCFAaggregates (NFA)- 4.75mm and below, Artificial is much coarser with FM as 3.98 and will not be aSand (AS)-4.75mm and below with approx..14% dust suitable material for producing concrete which haveand coarse aggregates,Convetional-(NCA- more amounts of fine aggregates which have mortar20mm),Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RA-20mm, and cement paste as fine aggregates. .The propertiesRA-10mm) were purchased from the local vendors. of aggregates indicate that RCA-20mm can beb. Recycled aggregate were derived from demolished considered to be used in concrete however RCA-parking area (concrete rubble) and cubes casted and 10mm has limitation, thus a mixed gradation oftested in the laboratory. The concrete rubble and cube aggregates is required to be considered for producingremains were broken initially manually and then workable concrete with economy.sieving was done using IS sieves. The process The recycled aggregates have less specificgenerated, Fine recycled concrete aggregate, recycled gravity and high water absorption as compared to theconcrete aggregate-10mm and recycled concrete conventional aggregates. The main reason for this isaggregate-20mm.(Fig:1 to Fig:4). existence of mortar on the aggregates. Bulk densityc. Superplasticiser: Fosroc –Conplast SP500 of the Recycled aggregate sample for RFCA andcomplies with IS: 9103:1999 and BS: 5075 Part 3 RCA-20mm is less as compared to NFA and NA-.Conplast SP500 conforms to ASTM-C-494 Type G. 20mm.The lesser value of loose bulk density of recycled aggregate is attributed to the adhered mortar on aggregate which increases the size of the aggregate and will have better interlocking which in turn reduces the voids in rodded condition and the higher porosity than that of natural aggregates. The crushing value of Recycled aggregate is less due toFig:1All in one Fig:2 Recycled Fine the adhered mortars on the surface of aggregateAggregate Aggregate(RFCA) makes the RCA weaker towards impact resistance and crushing. Table 2: Properties of NFA, AS and RFCA Property of NCA- RCA- RCA- Aggregate 20mm 20mm 10mm Specific 2.86 2.58 2.59 GravityFig:3 Recycled Fig:4 Recycled ElongationAggregate -20mm Aggregate-10mm Index 34.82% 26.25% 24% Flakiness 14.7% 7.15% 6.9%Table 1: Properties of NCA-20mm and RCA-20mm Indexand RA-20mm Bulk 1.41kg/lit 1.4 kg/lit 1.17kg/litProperty of NFA RFCA AS DensityAggregate WaterSpecific Gravity 2.75 2.29 2.89 Absorption 1.37 % 4.68 % 4.52 %Fineness Modulus 2.748 4.89 3.05 Impact 16.22 % 16.88% 11.15 % ValueMoisture Content 2.83 % 3.18 % 2.8% Crushing 21.67% 26.8% 29.8%Loose Bulk Density 1.48 1.35 1.94 Value(Kg/Lit)Water Absorption 3.18% 8.52% 3.12 IV.PROPORTIONING OF MIX FOR THE % DESIGNMaterial finer than 2.35% 3.60% - M25 Concrete mix was designed with 28-75μ days target strengths as 31.6 Mpa and slump of 75mm using IS 2009:10262. Various mixes which were designed are as follows: a. Concrete ( C, NFA, NCA-20mm):-Mix 1 b. Concrete (C, AS, NCA-20mm):– Mix 2 39 | P a g e
  3. 3. N.K.Deshpande, Dr.S.S.Kulkarni, H.Pachpande / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.038-042c. Concrete (C, NFA, RCA-20mm &10mm):-Mix 3 which contributes towards increase of compressived. Concrete (C, AS, RCA-20mm, RCA-10mm):-Mix strength. Meanwhile, the more angular shape of RA4. and its rougher surface texture are what contribute toe. Concrete (C, RFCA, and RCA-20 mm and RCA- a better interfacial bond and thus higher compressive10mm):-Mix 5 strength in recycled aggregate concrete (Ridzual et. Table 3 shows a summary of the mix al., 2001). The fig 5 shows the tested specimen ofproportions for the different proportions of materials concrete –Mix 4. A good bond can be seen in thefor target strength.Use of Superplasticiser reduced the crushed specimen as we can see an aggregate brokenneed of excess water however as compared to through and which are not in excess too.[20].Use ofconventional materials the amount of water required 10mm and 20mm aggregate sizes also contributefor recycled aggregates is more (about 22 % more). towards strength of concrete with good grading curves, which provides appropriate surface area forV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION formation of gel bonds.1. Workability As Table 3 describes the workability for allthe mixes are same.owever. The water requirementfor all the mixes is different and specially for mixwith recycled aggregates coarse. The water oncemixed, the dry mix starts absorbing the water byrecycled aggregate and thus the slump goes reducingwith time. However use of a superplasticer can proveto be effective to reduce the water content and Fig4: Tested Specimenincrease the workability.2. Compressive strength The important aspect of designing theconcrete and it getting accepted is the compressivestrength. In the given set of mixes an attempt wasmade to check the acceptability of recycled aggregatefor M25grade concrete. The table 3 shows the valuesfor compressive strength for various mixes. Thecompressive strength for mix with conventional sandis higher than the mix with artificial sand. Howeverthe reason for decrease of strength in mix 2 is thepresence of dust in AS.Also for attaining the target Fig:4 Strength details of Control Mixesstrength of 31.6 N/mm2 and use of AS, more amountof cement is required. The results in table 3 shows 3.Split Tensile strength and flexural strengththat 100% replacement of conventional coarse and The split tensile strength of concrete withfine aggregates by Recycled coarse-20mm and conventional aggregates and use of conventionalRecycled fine aggregates could not meet the Concrete coarse aggregates with AS is similar. A cleargrade requirements. There is an approximate decrease reduction in the split tensile strength of concrete withof 6.12 % of compressive strength than the target recycled aggregates is seen. A reduction in splitstrength. Concrete with 100% replacement of RCA- tensile strength of 0.29% is seen in Mix 2 as20mm and RCA-10mm with AS showed a decrease compared to Mix1.Mix 3 shows a reduction of 6.43%as compared to Mix 2 but increase of 3.82% to the in split tensile strength as compared to the mix 1. andtarget strength requirement. Use of AS in concrete to 9.64% ,as compared to mix 4.By visual inspection, itattain the strength also requires more amount of was observed that the failure happened through thewater due to the presence of dust and excessive water recycled aggregates (the recycled aggregates beingabsorption of recycled aggregates. In Recycled the weakest point) producing two similar symmetricaggregate two interfaces exists the interface between faces. It typically did not happen in the interfacialadhered mortar and the original aggregate, and the transition Zone. RAC represents the weakestnew interfacial zone between the new mortar and the component and the strength controlling link of therecycled aggregate. When a recycled aggregate is not composite system. (19)adhered by in the old mortar the transition zone is Flexural strength of concrete as per BIS, ISsimilar to original transitional zone. However in the 456:2000(20) the flexural strength is given byrecycled aggregates with adhered mortar makes thetransitional zone weak. [19].Super plasticser plays a Fcr = 0.7 ……………….1major role ,where it makes it denser, close textured Fck – Characteristic Compressive strength.concrete which reduces porosity. This is a factor 40 | P a g e
  4. 4. N.K.Deshpande, Dr.S.S.Kulkarni, H.Pachpande / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.038-042For M25 grade concrete the flexural strength as per coarse aggregate can be used for low strengtheq 1 is 3.5N/mm2.In the above mixes Mix 1 i.e applications. Use of artificial sand in concrete can beconventional materials satisfies the requirement with a viable option due to the scarcity of river sand.3.76N/mm2. However Mix 2 to Mix 5 does not 5. Split tensile test and Flexural strength both aresatisfy the requirement and thus care must be taken tests for tensile strength of concrete. Concrete madeduring designing the flexural members. Concrete by using recycled aggregates showed slightly lowerwith total recycled aggregates shows less flexural values of tensile strength as well as flexural strength,strength and so does the concrete with AS and hence the loss in tensile strength should berecycled aggregates where a difference of 17.97% is considered while designing members using recyclednoted with control mix. A difference of 11.80% is aggregate concrete.reported In flexural strength of Mix 2 and Mix1,andthus the fact that use of AS in concrete itself shows a Referencesreduction in flexural strength is important from 1. Mehta.P.K,Reducing the environmentaldesigning perspective. impact of concret, Concrete International, Vol: 23, No: 10,Oct 2001,pp-61-66.4. Density of Concrete 2. Vilas Nitivattananon and Guiberto Borongan Density of concrete is another important (Sept 2007),”Construction and Demolitionfactor. The results above indicate that all the concrete Waste Management: Current Practices inmixes with recycled aggregate have less density as Asia”, Proceedings of the Internationalcompared to Concrete with conventional materials. A Conference on Sustainable Solid Wastereduction in density is also seen with concrete with Management,5-7thSeptAS and RCA as compared to concrete with 2007,Chennai,India,pp-97-104conventional aggregates. However the reduction in 3. M. Chakradhara Rao • S. K. Bhattacharyyadensity for concrete with conventional aggregates ,S. V. Barai (April 2010),” Influence of fieldand concrete with NCA and recycled aggregate is recycled coarse aggregate on properties of2.86% and concrete with AS and recycled aggregate concrete “,Materials and Structures, DOIis 6.89%. This indicates lesser density due to the 10.1617/s11527-010-9620-xadhered mortar to the aggregates. 4. Hansen TC, Boegh E (1985),” Elasticity and drying shrinkage of recycled aggregate5.Conclusion concrete”. J ACI 82(5):648–6521. The experiments done showed large values of 5. Hansen TC, Narud H (1983),” Strength ofwater absorption and moisture content for all the recycled concrete made from crushedRecycled aggregates and more for RCFA. The fact concrete coarse aggregate”. Concr Int Desthat the mortar adhered which is weak and more Constr 5(1):79–83porous and thus absorbs more water is the main 6. Tsung-Yueh,Yuen-YeunChen,Chao-Lungfactor contributing towards decrease of compressive Hwang(2006),”Properties of HPC withstrength of concrete with RCA. recycled aggregates”, Cement and Concrete2. The lower value of specific gravity of recycled Research,vol:36,pp943-950.aggregates is an indication that recycled concrete 7. J.S.Ryu,(2002),”An experimental study onaggregates are lighter than that of natural aggregates. the effect of recycled aggregate on concreteThe main reason for this is existence of loose paste in properties”,Mag.Concr.Res,Vol:54(1),pp-7-the demolished wastes. 12.3. The physical and Mechanical properties of 8. Tsung-Yueh,Yuen-YeunChen,Chao-LungRecycled Concrete aggregates are important factors Hwang(2006),”Properties of HPC withgoverning the strength characteristics of the concrete. recycled aggregates”, Cement and ConcreteAnd the properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregates Research,vol:36,pp943-950.are governed by the Parent source of recycled 9. Neelaaggregates. Deshpande,Dr.S.S.Kulkarni,(2011)”Critical4. Target strength of 31.6 N/mm2 can be achieved for analysis of recycled aggregate and concreteM25 grade of concrete by 100% replacement of with recycled aggregate”, Appliedrecycled coarse aggregates.100% replacement of Mechanics and Materials,vol-99-100,pp-recycled coarse aggregate with river sand exhibited a 1274-1280increase of 3.82% in compressive strength and 10. Amnon Katz ( 2003),”Properties of concreteconcrete with RCA-20mm and RCA-10mm and AS made with recycled aggregate from partiallyshowed a increase of 4.20% as compared to target hydrated old concrete”, Cement andstrength. A mix grading of 20mm and 10mm of Concrete Research,vol 33,pp 703-711.aggregates can be done for economic perspective and 11. Ahmad shayan and Aimin Xu (oct 2003)also higher strength. Thus use of river sand and “Performance and properties of structuralartificial sand with 100% replacement of recycled concrete made with recycled concrete 41 | P a g e
  5. 5. N.K.Deshpande, Dr.S.S.Kulkarni, H.Pachpande / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.038-042 aggregate”,ACI Materials Journal,vol Concrete Research”,vol:54(5)(2002),pp- 100,No:5,pp-371-380. 377-384 12. J.S.Ryu,(2002), “An experimental study on 14. M.Etxeberria,E Vazquez,A the effect of recycled aggregate on concrete Maria,M.Barra(2007), “Influence of amount properties” ,Mag.Concr.Res,Vol:54(1) of recycled coarse aggregates and (2002),pp-7-12 production process on properties of recycled 13. A.K.Padmimi,K.Ramamurthy,M.S.Matthew aggregate concrete” ,Cement and Concrete s ,”Relative moisture movement through Research,vol:37 (2007),pp-735-742 recycled aggregate concrete ,CementTable 3: Strength of concrete with various proportions of materials 28 day Flexural Mix proportions (M25) Slump Split Tensile ID Compressive Strength 28 Density Strength Strength days Kg/cum mm N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 Kg/m3 C – 320 NFA–737.35 3.76 Mix NCA-20mm– 741.74 70 44.58 3.42 2709.64 1 NCA-10mm-494.46 Water – 189 Lit C – 325 Mix AS–742.746 70 33.05 3.41 3.316 2715.06 2 NCA-20mm– 1034.274 Water – 183.86 Lit C- 320 NCA-791.76 Mix RCA-20mm-629.38 60 32.81 3.20 3.26 2632.099 3 RCA-10mm-419.6 Water-236.36 C-325 AS-774.53 Mix RCA-20mm – 670.79 70 32.93 3.09 3.084 2528.39 4 RCA-10mm-447.196 Water – 223.82 C-348.27 Mix RFCA- 655.35 5 70 19.38 3.12 2.76 2334.15 RCA-1029.55 Water-191.58 42 | P a g e