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  1. 1. M.Gohul, A.Mohamed Syed Ali, T.G.Raju, M.R.Saravanan, Dr.A.Pasupathy / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1421-1427 Implementation Of Cogeneration Technique In Textile Industry For Energy Conservation 1 M.Gohul, 2A.Mohamed Syed Ali, 3 T.G.Raju, 4M.R.Saravanan, 5 Dr.A.Pasupathy 1 Customer Support Engineer with Power Lab Instruments Pvt. Ltd., Chennai. 2 M.Tech Student,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University,Tamilnadu,India. 3 Service Engineer, Schnell Medical Services Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai. 4 Assistant Professor, Department of EEE, KNSK.College of Engineering,Tamilnadu,India 5 Professor, Department of Mechanical, KNSK.College of Engineering,Tamilnadu,IndiaAbstract Energy means any form of energy pollution and climate changes (such as globalderived from fossil fuels, nuclear substances, warming). Therefore it is essential to adopt anHydro-electricity and includes electricity approach that encourages the production andgenerated from renewable sources of energy or consumption of the minimum amount of energy tobiomass connected to grid. Energy conservation meet mans urban lifestyle. Such an approach thatis the reduction of quantity of energy used. leads to efficient energy usage is called EnergyEnergy conservation supports the eco friendly Conservation. Energy Conservation leads to lowerlifestyle by providing energy, which saves the costs but it also helps to promote a healthymoney and at the same time saves the earth. A environment. By opting and adopting enconvast majority of the Asian countries has yet to tap measures, it is possible to tap a huge potential ofthe existing cogeneration potential to the surplus energy at comparatively lower cost.maximum. Considering the rapid industrialgrowth in many parts of the region, one would II. Cogeneration:expect many more new process industries and The simultaneous generation of electricitycommercial buildings to be added to the existing and heat in the form of steam, typically where thestock within a short span of time [1]. Owners of need for both arises for industrial or commercialexisting as well as new industries and commercial purposes and where the steam is generated bybuildings will benefit from these schemes by utilizing the waste heat from electricity generation [2]having access to low-cost and more reliable .energy supplies. This paper deals with acomparison study on the aspects of energy III. Why Cogeneration?economics in textile industry using conventional Thermal power plants are a major source ofsystem and cogeneration system. electricity supply in India. The conventional method of power generation and supply to the customer isKeywords: - Energy, Cogeneration, Energy wasteful in the sense that only about a third of theEconomics, Energy Conservation primary energy fed into the power plant is actually made available to the user in the form of electricity.I. Introduction: In conventional power plant, efficiency is only 35% Energy is one of the critical inputs for and remaining 65% of energy is lost. The majoreconomic development of any country. Developing source of loss in the conversion process is the heatcountries like India accounts for only 40 % of rejected to the surrounding water or air due to theworld’s total energy consumption, while constituting inherent constraints of the different thermodynamic80 % of world’s total population. The Government cycles employed in power generation. Also furtherof India has planned to double its installed capacity losses of around 10-15% are associated with theby 2020 to meet the exponentially increasing power transmission and distribution of electricity in therequirement. Energy conservation and Energy electrical grid. In a conventional fossil fuel firedefficiency are presently the most powerful tools in power plant, maximum fuel efficiency of about 35%our transition to a clean energy future [2]. Energy is is achieved. Maximum heat loss occurs by way ofmainly required to run manufacturing units, the heat rejection in a steam condenser where afactories, machines, automobiles, homes (for straight condensing steam turbine is used[1]. Someexample, electricity for heating and lighting) and so improvement in the efficiency could be attainedon. This energy is provided by fuel such as coal and through extraction-cum-condensing steam turbineoil [3]. Producing energy is expensive. Producing instead of straight condensing. The steam soenergy from fuels such as coal and oil is also extracted could be supplied to either processharmful to the environment because it leads to consumer or to heat the feed water before it enters 1421 | P a g e
  2. 2. M.Gohul, A.Mohamed Syed Ali, T.G.Raju, M.R.Saravanan, Dr.A.Pasupathy / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1421-1427into boiler. The rejected heat energy from the steam the rest of the economy, thus providing indirectturbine is most efficiently used to meet the thermal employment to many more requirement for cogeneration system. Theoverall efficiency of around 80-85%. VI. Types of Textile Sectors: The textile industry has three main sectorsIV. Merits of Cogeneration:  Organized Mill sector (Traditional weaving1. Cogeneration results more efficient use of fuel, and spinning)and corresponding reductions in the emissions of  PowerLoom sector (Mechanized Looms)SO2, NOx and CO2.  HandLoom sector.2.One often misleadingly compares the efficiency ofcogeneration around 85% with the efficiency of It also includes the sub-sectors which are common inpower generation facilities (i.e. condensing power industriesplants) in the order of 40%. For a correct  Spinningcomparison, one must take the weighted average of  Weavingthe efficiency of power and heat production and  Knittingcompare it with the efficiency of cogeneration.  Garmenting3.With separate production of heat in modern Manmade fibres account for around 40 perboilers, efficiency will be significantly above 85%, cent share in a cotton-dominated Indian textileand with condensing gas boilers even close to 100%. industry. India accounts for 15% of worlds totalFor condensing power stations, such as gas-fired cotton crop production and records largest producercombined-cycle plants, whose market share can only of silk. It is the second largest employer after theincrease, efficiency approaches 60%. As a result, the agriculture sector in both rural and urban areas. Indiaadvantages of cogeneration have a tendency to has a large pool of skilled low-cost textile workers,decrease. experienced in technology skills. Almost all sectors4.With a proper comparison between separate or of the textile industry have shown significantcombined production of heat and power in modern achievement. The sector has shown a 3.66 per centfacilities, the energy advantage amounts to 15-20%, CAGR over the last five years. Cost competitivenesswhich is still significant from an ecological is driving the penetration of Indian basic yarns andviewpoint? Where feasible, this advantage should be grey fabrics in international commodity markets.exploited. VII. Textile Production:V. Implementation of Cogeneration System Fiber processing Involvesin Textile Industry:  SpinningA. Overview  Weaving The Indian textile Industry is currently one  Knitting machinesof the largest and most important sectors in the  Dyeing and printingeconomy in terms of output, foreign exchange  Other finishing processearnings and employment in India. Textiles accountfor 20 per cent of India’s industrial production and A. Spinning: It is the Process of twisting the fiber. Thearound 35 per cent of its export earnings. amount of twist given the yarns determines various The total production of fabrics in all the characteristics. Light twisting yields soft-surfacedthree sectors combined was around 42 billion square fabrics, whereas hard-twisted yarns produce hard-meters, with 59 % of the total fabric production surfaced fabrics, which provide resistance toproduced by the power loom sector, 19 % by thehandloom sector, 17 % by the knit yarn sector, and abrasion and are less inclined to retain dirt andthe rest by the organized mill sector [2]. The textile wrinkles. Hard twisted yarns are used in producingindustry is a self -reliant industry from the hosiery and crepes.production of raw materials to the delivery of finalproducts with considerable value addition at eachstage of processing.B. Contribution to Economy: It accounts for 9% of GDP, for nearly 20%of the total national industrial production and 35% ofthe export earnings, making it India’s largest netforeign exchange industry. This industry contributesless than 1.5 % to the gross import bill of the Fig. 1: Spinning Sectioncountry. It directly employs 35 million workers and B. Weaving:has widespread forward and backward linkages with Two sets of yarns, called the warp and the woof (more commonly filling, or weft) are used in 1422 | P a g e
  3. 3. M.Gohul, A.Mohamed Syed Ali, T.G.Raju, M.R.Saravanan, Dr.A.Pasupathy / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1421-1427 weaving, which is carried out on a mechanism SHREDDING known as a loom. Warp yarns run along the length The pressed alkali cellulose is shredded of the loom; filling yarns run across it. Different mechanically to yield finely divided, fluffy particles patterns and textures are achieved by varying the called "crumbs". This step provides increased number of warp yarns and by altering the sequence surface area of the alkali cellulose, thereby in which they are raised or lowered. increasing its ability to react in the steps that follow. AGING `The alkali cellulose is aged under controlled conditions of 18-30°C in order to depolymerize the cellulose to the desired degree of polymerization. In this step the average molecular weight of the original pulp is reduced by a factor of two to three Fig. 2: Weaving Section XANTHATION C. Dyeing and Printing: In this step the aged alkali cellulose crumbs The fabrics can be dyed after weaving or are placed in vats and are allowed to react with knitting is completed (piece-dyed).The loose fibers carbon disulphide under controlled temperature (20 can be dyed in a vat (stock-dyed) or the yarn or to 30° C) to form cellulose xanthate viscous orange filament can be dyed before weaving (yarn-dyed). colored solution called "viscose", which is the basis for the manufacturing process is produced D. Types of Fiber: DISSOLVING The yellow crumb is dissolved in aqueous caustic solution. The large xanthate substituents on fibre the cellulose force the chains apart, reducing the interchain hydrogen bonds and allowing water natural man made molecules to solvate and separate the chains RIPENING cotton rayon The viscose is allowed to stand for a period wool nylon of time to "ripen". Two important processes occur silk polyesters during ripening .Redistribution and loss of xanthate groups. Fig. 3: Fiber Classification FILTERING E. Process Involved in Rayon Fiber Manufacture The viscose is filtered to remove undisclosed materials that might disrupt the spinning PHYSICAL PROCESSES process or cause defects in the rayon filament. Steeping DEGASSING Bubbles of air entrapped in the viscose Degassing must be removed prior to extrusion or they would Pressing Desizing cause voids, or weak spots, in the fine rayon Spinning Shredding filaments Bleaching Drawing Aging SPINNING Dyeing spin bath containing Sulphuric acid, Washing Sodium sulphate, Zinc sulphate -for acidification - to Xanthation Stentering impart a high salt content for coagulation of Dissolving Cutting viscose,- exchange with sodium xanthate to form Processes requiring zinc xanthate, to cross-link the cellulose molecules Ripening Thermal Energy respectively. Slow regeneration of cellulose and stretching of rayon will lead to greater areas of Filtering crystallinity within the fiber, as is done with high- tenacity rayon.Fig. 4: Physical Process 1423 | P a g e
  4. 4. M.Gohul, A.Mohamed Syed Ali, T.G.Raju, M.R.Saravanan, Dr.A.Pasupathy / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1421-1427DRAWING The rayon filaments are stretched while thecellulose chains are still relatively mobile. Thiscauses the chains to stretch out and orient along thefiber axis. Washing the freshly regenerated rayoncontains many salts and other water solubleimpurities which need to be removedCUTTING If the rayon is to be used as staple, thegroup of filaments (termed "tow") is passed througha rotary cutter to provide a fiber which can beprocessed in much the same way as cottonThe Process which require heat energy are Fig. 6: 5.5T/hr @ 7 bar/200°CBleachingThis operation is done to remove the natural A. Conventional system:colouring pigments. Cloth is maintained at steam Assumptionpressure of 2 to 3 atm Efficiency of Boiler = 75% Calorific value of firewood = 3500 kcal/kgDyeing Cost of firewood = Rs.700/tonneIn this process cloth is passed through the dye which Operating days = 330 daysis all time maintained at 60oC Boiler 1 Outlet condition = 3bar/150ºcDrying Steam requirement = 7.5tonnes/hrHere the cloth before passed on to the printing Cost = Rs.7000000/Mwprocess is dried in drying ranges which are kept hot Boiler 2by 3.5 atm steam Outlet condition = 7bar/200ºc Steam requirement = 5.5tonnes/hrStentering Cost = Rs.6000000/MwHere the dimensions of the cloth are stabilised. Heat output from boiler 1Cloths are passed through hot chamber and the cloth = 7.5x103 (2760.4 – 546.3)is pulled to the required dimension with 4 atm steam. 3600 = 4.612 MW Heat output from boiler 2VIII : Results & Discussion: = 5.5x103 (2844.2 – 546.3)Annual Production: 200000 mtrs of rayon 3600Electricity Requirement : 800 kW = 3.510 MWProcess Heat Requirement Total output = 8122 kWFor Dyeing &Bleaching : 7.5Tonnes/hr @3 Heat input to boiler = 8122bar/150°C 0.75Drying : 5.5 Tonnes/hr@7bar/200°C = 10.829 MW Mass flow rate of fuel = 10829 3500x4.186 = 0.7391kg/sec Mass of fuel/annum = 0.7391x3600x24x330 = 21073219 kg/annum Fuel cost = 700 x 21073219 = Rs.1.47crores Capital investment cost Cost of boiler 1 = 7000000 x 4.612 = Rs.3.23 crores Cost of boiler 2 = 6000000 x 3.510 = Rs.2.10 crores Total investment cost = Rs.5.33 crores Utility cost PUMP Interest @ 12% = Rs.0.6396 croresFig. 5: 7T/hr @ 3 bar/150°C Depreciation@ 10% = Rs.0.533 crores Operating& Maintenance cost@5% 1424 | P a g e
  5. 5. M.Gohul, A.Mohamed Syed Ali, T.G.Raju, M.R.Saravanan, Dr.A.Pasupathy / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1421-1427 = Rs.0.2665 crores Mass flow rate of fuelUtility cost = Rs. 1.44crores = 13190Total expenditureTotal expenditure = Fuel cost + Utility cost 3500x4.186 = 1.47 + 1.44 = 0.9002 kg/sec = Rs.2.9 crores Mass of fuel/annum = 0.9002x3600x24x330B. Cogeneration System: = 25666502 kg/annumAssumption Fuel cost = 700 x 25665.5Outlet condition = 70 bar/ 450ºc = Rs.1.79 crEfficiency of Boiler = 75% Unit CostCost of boiler = Rs.8000000/MW Unit Cost = 17900000Efficiency of Turbine = 88% 13860000Cost of Turbine = Rs.1 crore/ MW = Rs 1.3Calorific value of firewood = 3500 kcal/kg Capital investment costCost of firewood = Rs.700/tonne Cost of boiler = 8000000 x 9.893Operating days = 330 days = Rs.7.9 crores Cost of turbine = 10000000 x 1.75 = Rs.1.75 crores Total investment cost = Rs.9.33 crores Utility cost Interest @ 12% = Rs.1.1196 crores Depreciation@ 10% = Rs.0.933crores Operating& Maintenance cost@5% = Rs.0.4665 crores Utility cost = Rs.2.52crores Total expenditure Total expenditure = Fuel cost + Utility cost = Rs.4.31 crores Savings Total power produced = 1750 kW Power required = 800 kW Excess power available = (1750 – 800) = 950 kW Cost savings if purchased from E.BFig. 7: Topping Cogeneration Cycle = 800x24x330(4.75–1.3) = Rs2.19 croresPower output from turbine Cost savings if sold to E.BInput = Output = 950x24x330x2.5m1h1 = ( p / 0.88) + m2h2 + m3h3 + m4h4 = Rs. 1.88 crores13x103 (3285) = ( p / 0.88)+ 6.0x103 Total savings through electricity 3600 3600 (2762)+ = 2.19 + 1.885.5x103 (2724) +1.5x103 = Rs4.07 crores 3600 3600 (2665 ) Increase in expenditure3600Power output = 1.75 MW = (Total expenditure in cogeneration) – (TotalElectricity produced / annum expenditure in conventional system) = 1750x24x330 = 13860000kWh = 4.31 – 2.91Heat output from boiler = Rs.1.4 crores = 13x103 (3285-546.3) Net savings = (Savings through 3600 Electricity) – (Increase in expenditure) = 4.07 – 1.4 = 9893kW = Rs.2.67crores = 9.893 MW Increase in investment = (Investment inHeat input to boiler Cogeneration) – (Investment in conventional = 9893 System) 0.75 = 13.19 MW = 9.33 – 5.33 1425 | P a g e
  6. 6. M.Gohul, A.Mohamed Syed Ali, T.G.Raju, M.R.Saravanan, Dr.A.Pasupathy / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1421-1427 = Rs 4 crores Ta Phut cogeneration plant”, ProceedingsSimple payback = Increase in investment 1994 Cogeneration Conference, AIC Net savings Conferences, Bangkok, 20-21 June 1994. = 4.00 2.67 M.Gohul received his B.E degree in = 1.5 Electrical and Electronics = 1 year & 6 months Engineering from KNSK College ofIX. Conclusion: Engineering, Nagercoil under Anna Conservation and efficient utilization of University of Technologyenergy resources play a vital role in narrowing the Tirunelveli, TamilNadu in between demand and supply of energy. Energy Now he is working as a Customer Support Engineerconservation is the quickest, cheapest and most with Power Lab Instruments Pvt. Ltd., Chennai.Hepractical method of overcoming energy shortage. has already published many papers in internationalMany communications consider the development of journals and conference proceedings. He is highlycogeneration, next to more use of renewable energy expertise in the project development related toas one of the most important instrument for CO2 Renewable Energy sources and his area of interestreduction. Decentralized cogeneration is considered includes Energy conservation and Renewableof paramount importance. The feasibility of Energy source. He is the member of Solar Energyinstalling Cogeneration in a Textile mill with Society of India (SESI), New Delhi and Energy andprocessing capability is studied and the results favor Fuel Users’ Association of India (ENFUSE),the setting up of a cogeneration facility with a Chennai.payback period of 2 to 3 years. This study clearlyshows that in the economical point of view and the A. Mohamed Syed Ali receivedenergy saving potential point o f view the proposal his B.E degree in Electrical andsystem satisfies the entire requirement and hence the Electronics Engineering from KNSKsetting up of Cogeneration facility is recommended. College of Engineering, NagercoilIt is encouraging to note that there are already a Under Anna University oflarge number of cogeneration plants which have Technology, Tirunelveli, TamilNadu,been commissioned in some Asian countries in the India in 2011.Now he is pursuing his M.Tech degreelast decade or so. Considering the developments that in Computer & Information Technology fromcan be expected, decentralized cogeneration Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli,facilities are unlikely to play the role attributed to Tamilnadu. He has already attended severalthem by 2020 in many studies. conferences in the field of Solar Energy, Energy conservation in buildings, cogeneration andReferences: published papers in international journals and [1] Sood A.K. (1997), “Commercial role of conference proceedings. His area of interest includes cogeneration in petrochemical industry”, Energy conservation, Renewable Energy, Proceedings cogeneration Asia 97 Networking and Mobile Communication. He is the conference, AIC Conferences, Singapore, member of Solar Energy Society of [2] Srisovanna P. (1998), “Case study of India(SESI),New Delhi and Energy And Fuel Users’ cogeneration in textile sector”, Proceedings Association of India(ENFUSE),Chennai. ESCAP South-East Asia Sub-regional Seminar on Promotion of Energy Efficiency and Pollution Control through T.G. Raju received his B.E degree in Cogeneration, Hanoi, 10-11 November Electrical and Electronics 1998. Engineering from KNSK College of [3] Patel M.M. and Raheja P.R. (1996), “Case Engineering, Nagercoil under Anna study presentation on cogen project and University of Technology, benefits at South India Paper Mills”, Tirunelveli, TamilNadu in 2011. Now he is working Proceedings CII Energy Summit’96, as a Service Engineer with Schnell Medical Chennai 11-14 September 1996. Services Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai. He has already attended [4] Low L. (1997), “Investing in cogeneration several conferences in the field of Solar Energy and for efficiency, competitiveness, reliability Energy conservation and published papers in and ease of operation at Kilang Sawit international journals and conference proceedings. United Bell”, Proceedings Cogeneration His area of interest includes Power electronics Asia 97 conference, AIC Conferences, application in Renewable Energy sources. Singapore, 25-26 November 1997. [5] Le Scraigne Y. (1994), “The first IPP project developed in Thailand – The Map 1426 | P a g e
  7. 7. M.Gohul, A.Mohamed Syed Ali, T.G.Raju, M.R.Saravanan, Dr.A.Pasupathy / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1421-1427 M.R. Saravanan received his B.E. degree in Electrical & Electronics Engineering from Arulmigu Kalasalingam College of Engineering, Srivilliputhoor under Madurai Kamaraj University in 2001. He was completed his M.E. degree at Collegeof Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennaiwith the specialization in Energy Engineering in theyear of 2006. He was a Senior Design Engineer withM/s Stelmec Limited, Mumbai for 3 Years andcompleted one year training in the O & M of230/110kV SS switchgear products. He joined as aLecturer in SKR Engineering College, chennai in theyear 2004 and presently working as an AssistantProfessor in department of Electrical & ElectronicsEngineering, KNSK college of Engineering,Nagercoil. He has already published many papers ininternational journals and conference proceedings.He is also pursuing for his Ph.D in the area ofThermal energy storage systems from AnnaUniversity Tamilnadu. His area of interest includesSolar Energy storage systems and Energyconservation in buildings and automobiles. He is themember of Solar Energy Society of India(SESI),New Delhi Dr.A.Pasupathy received his B.E. Degree in Mechanical Engineering in the year 1988 from The Indian Engineering College. He obtained his Master’s degree in the field of Energy Technology from Pondicherry GovernmentEngineering College in the year 2001. He receivedhis Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) through AnnaUniversity Chennai in the research topic of “Studieson Thermal Management in Buildings using PhaseChange Material” in the year 2007. He worked as aMarine Engineer in Barber / Bergesen ShipManagement Limited, Norway for 10 Years andhaving one year experience in the Erection Field. Heserved as Professor / Head, Director, and vice –Principal& Principal in various reputed EngineeringColleges in Tamilnadu for 12 Years. Presently he isworking as Principal of KNSK College ofEngineering, Nagercoil. He has published /presented several papers in various International &National Journals / Conferences.His area of Interestincludes Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics, ThermalEngineering, Energy Conservation, Design of HeatExchanger and Thermal Energy StoragesTechnologies. At present, four Research Scholars aredoing research under his supervision in the field ofSolar Thermal Storage Technologies using PhaseChange Materials. 1427 | P a g e