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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  1. 1. Dr. K.H. Jatkar, Mr. Sunil S. Dhanwe / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1177-11831177 | P a g eDynamic Analysis of Single Cylinder Petrol EngineDr. K.H. Jatkar, Mr. Sunil S. DhanweAbstract -In this study a dynamic analysis ofsingle cylinder petrol engine was conducted. Finiteelement analysis was performed to obtain thevariation of the stress magnitude at criticallocations of connecting rod and crankshaft. Thedynamic analysis resulted in the development of theload on piston. This load is calculated fromMATLAB. This load was then applied to the FEmodel and boundary conditions were appliedaccording to the engine assembly. It is observedthat maximum stress is developed at crank pin ofcrank shaft. The maximum stresses are developedat the fillet section of the big and the small end ofconnecting rod. Hence, the project deals with thestress analysis of connecting rod and crankshaft byFinite Element Method using ANSYSWORKBENCH 11.0 Software. Also Resultsobtained from the analysis were then comparedwith analytical method.Index Terms—Crankshaft, connecting rod andAnsys workbench 11.0I. INTRODUCTIONThe Internal combustion petrol engine arethose that burn their fuel which is mixture of air andpetrol from carburetor inside the cylinder. Theseengine convert the chemical energy stored in theirfuel into heat energy during the power stroke ofpiston. The heat energy produced from burning offuel is used for motion of piston. During Operationof four stroke of piston various parts engine is actedby different stress. Also some parts are undergoneDeformation. All these stresses and deformationmust be studied so that Petrol engine can bedesigned by Optimum. The magnitudes, variationsand exposure times for the stresses and temperaturesexperienced are the major factors controlling thelives engine components in service. The role ofstress analysis is to calculate these quantities so thatcomponent service lives can be predicted.Currently the dynamic analysis of theinternal combustion engine for a given configurationand specifications is most widely conducted using aphysical test rig. Though the analysis of in-processstress is very much difficult owing tothe complications of the system and the temperatureof the piston and cylinder assembly..All theseprocess are manually operated therefore itis timeconsuming.Dynamic analysis of the IC engine can also beperformed using dynamic simulation software likeMSC ADAMS, MATLAB Sim-Mechanics, ANSYSand the results of the dynamic analysis can then beimported into a FEA software which can solve forstructural solutions like stress, deformation.II. LITERATURE REVIEWWork done by various researchers in theareas of defined problem is focused as belowH. D. Desai [1] explained that thereciprocating engine mechanism is often analyzed,since it serves all the demands required for theconvenient utilization of natural sources of energy,such as steam, gaseous and liquid fuels, forgeneration of power. Further, it is widely employedas suitable mechanism for pumps and compressors.In this paper the complete kinematic and combinedstatic and inertia force analysis of a horizontal,single – cylinder, four stroke internal combustionengine is discussed. The analytical approach is usedas it is more accurate and is less time consuming if itis programmed for the computer solution. The datafor the analysis of the engine has been taken fromthe available literature. The present investigationfurnishes the complete kinematic history of thedriven links and the bearing loads for the completeworking cycle of the engine mechanism. Thecomplete force analysis of the engine is simplifiedby a summation of the static forces and inertia forcesignoring the friction forces which makes the analysislinear. The computer program is prepared in fortranlanguage for both kinematic and dynamic analysis ofthe engine at the crank interval of 15° Vivek. C.Pathade [2] recognized that, the automobileengine connecting rod is a high volume productioncritical component. Every vehicle that uses aninternal combustion engine requires at least oneconnecting rod .From the viewpoint of functionality,connecting rods must have the highest possiblerigidity at the lowest weight. The major stressinduced in the connecting rod is a combination ofaxial and bending stresses in operation. The axialstresses are produced due to cylinder gas pressure(compressive only) and the inertia force arising inaccount of reciprocating action (both tensile as wellas compressive), where as bending stresses arecaused due to the centrifugal effects. The result ofwhich is, the maximum stresses are developed at thefillet section of the big and the small end. Hence, thepaper deals with the stress analysis of connecting rodby Finite Element Method using Pro/E Wildfire 4.0and ANSYS WORKBENCH 11.0 Software.Momin Muhammad Zia Muhammad [3]presented that the crankshaft is an importantcomponent of an engine. This paper presents resultsof strength analysis done on crankshaft of a singlecylinder two stroke petrol engine, using PRO/E and
  2. 2. Dr. K.H. Jatkar, Mr. Sunil S. Dhanwe / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1177-11831178 | P a g eANSYS software. The three dimensional model ofcrankshaft was developed in PRO/E and imported toANSYS for strength analysis. This work includes, inanalysis, torsion stress which is generally ignored. Acalculation method is used to validate the model.The paper also proposes a design modification in thecrankshaft to reduce its mass. The analysis ofmodified design is also done.Anil Kumar [4] explained that Aim ofthis work is to optimize weight and reduce inertiaforces on the existing connecting rod, which isobtained by changing such design variables in theexisting connecting rod design. The model wasdeveloped in Pro/E wildfire 5.0 and then imported asparasolid (xt) form in ANSYS workbench. In thiswork finite element analysis of the single cylinderfour stroke petrol engine connecting rod isconsidered as case study. The Von Mises stress,strain and total deformation determined for the sameloading conditions and compared with the existingresults. Based on the observation of static FEA andthe load analysis result, the load for the optimizationstudy was selected same as on existing connectingrod. The current work consists of static structuralanalysis. The static analysis was carried out underaxial and buckling load. The model is also selectedfor fatigue analysis to determine the fatigue strength.Gunter Knoll [5] studied that Asoftware package was developed to simulate thedynamics of a flexible crankshaft and a flexibleengine block, coupled by nonlinear, distributed,elastohydrodynamic fluid film bearing reactionforces. The Kernel of the developed code is a stepsize controlled integration of Newtons equations ofmotion in the time domain. Large rigid bodymotions and small elastic deformations are separatedusing special matrix operations. No additional set ofequations for the rigid body motion is required.Structural properties of the elastic bodies arerepresented by stiffness and mass matrices obtainedfrom commercial finite element programs. Acombined static (Guyan) and modal reductionscheme is used to limit the number of degrees offreedom, at which gyroscopic, centrifugal andcoriolis effects are considered by suited reducedvectors and matrices. An arbitrary number of fluidfilm bearings can be defined to couple the finiteelement structures. Various (elasto-) hydrodynamiccalculation models can be selected depending on theneeds of accuracy and computational speed. In theelastohydrodynamic solution a sub structuringmethod is employed and Reynolds equation,including mass conserving cavitation, is solved onthe bearing surface of the substructure using finiteelement methods. The computed results, nodaldisplacements, velocities, accelerations and forces,lubricant pressure and density distributions, journalorbits etc., indicate the system behavior and supportthe system optimization. In an exemple studycomputed results are compared to measurements.Test rig runs were done with a four cylinder fourstroke 1.8 gasoline engine.Amit Solanki [6] explained that theperformance of any automobile largely depends onits size and working in dynamic conditions. Thedesign of the crankshaft considers the dynamicloading and the optimization can lead to a shaftdiameter satisfying the requirements of automobilespecifications with cost and size effectiveness. Thereview of existing literature on crankshaft designand optimization is presented. The materials,manufacturing process, failure analysis, designconsideration etc. of the crankshaft are reviewedhere.Farzin H. Montazersadghand Ali Fatemi [7]presented that a dynamic simulation was conductedon a crankshaft from a single cylinder four strokeengine. Finite element analysis was performed toobtain the variation of stress magnitude at criticallocations. The pressure-volume diagram was used tocalculate the load boundary condition in dynamicsimulation model, and other simulation inputs weretaken from the engine specification chart. Thedynamic analysis was done analytically and wasverified by simulation in ADAMS which resulted inthe load spectrum applied to crank pin bearing. Thisload was applied to the FE model in ABAQUS, andboundary conditions were applied according to theengine mounting conditions. The analysis was donefor different engine speeds and as a result criticalengine speed and critical region on the crankshaftwere obtained. Stress variation over the engine cycleand the effect of torsional load in the analysis wereinvestigated. Results from FE analysis were verifiedby strain gages attached to several locations on thecrankshaft. Results achieved from aforementionedanalysis can be used in fatigue life calculation andoptimization of this component.III. Analytical Vector ApproachThe main objective of the analyticalanalysis is to determine the magnitude and directionof the loads that act on the bearing betweenconnecting rod and crankshaft, which was then usedin the FEA over an entire cycle. An analyticalapproach was used on the basis of a single degree offreedom slider crank mechanism. MATLABprogramming was used to solve the resultingequations.The analytical approach is discussed indetail in this section. The slider-crank mechanismwith a single degree of freedom considered forsolving the equations of motion is as shown in figure3.1 below. The following procedure was performedto obtain different dynamic properties of movingcomponents.
  3. 3. Dr. K.H. Jatkar, Mr. Sunil S. Dhanwe / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1177-11831179 | P a g eFig1slider-crank mechanismThe angle θ shown in Figure1 representsthe crankshaft angle, which is used as thegeneralized degree of freedom in the mechanism;therefore every other dynamic property in thismechanism would be a function of this angle. Theequations where used in MATLAB and provided thevalues of angular velocity and angular accelerationof the connecting rod, linear acceleration of center ofgravity of the connecting rod, and forces at theconnecting rod-piston bearing and connecting rod-crankshaft bearing. The advantage of usingMATLAB programming is that any changes in theinput could be made very easily and solution quicklyobtained, whereas using commercial programs suchas Cosmos Motion requires much more time editingthe input data. This advantage comes intoconsideration when optimization is to be performedon a component, since during optimization massand/or some dimensions change and making thesechanges in the commercial software is timeconsuming. The complete MATLAB program usedin this analysis is also givenThe engine configuration from which thecrankshaft was taken is shown in Table I below..The four link mechanism was then solved byMATLAB programming to obtain the volume of thecylinder as a function of the crank angle.IV. Analytical analysis of Slider crankmechanismThe analysis was based on simulation of thesimple slider-crank mechanism which is shown 3.1in figure above. As can be seen in the figure 3.1, linkAB is the crankshaftradius, link BC is the connecting rodlength, and the slider is the piston assembly. Thevarious parameter of geometry of engine is listed inTable I which shows Configuration of the engine towhich the crankshaft belongs.Table-ISome analytical formulae for piston connecting rodand crankshaft used for dynamic analytical analysisof petrol engine.I. Piston Effort:It is the net force acting on thepiston. It is denoted by FpFp= FL+ FIWhere FL=Net load on piston=Pressure X𝜋4X D2FI=Inertia force of reciprocating partsII. Forces acting along connecting rod FQ =Fp𝑐𝑜𝑠III. Crank pin effort: FT= FQ x sin(ø + )IV. Torque on the crankshaft: T= FT x rWhere r =Radius of crankV. Shear stress of crankshaft: fs =𝑻.𝟏𝟔𝝅 𝑫 𝟑Minimum crossectional area of connecting rod is1500 mm2.Using above formulae dynamic analytical analysisof petrol engine can be done. stress on connectingrod and Shear stress of crankshaft can bedeterminedTable II Shows stress on connecting rod and Shearstress of crankshaft for crank angle 0°, 45°,90 ° up to360°.Table IICrankAngleStress inconnectingrod(N/mm2)Shear stress ofcrank shaft(N/mm2)0 -0.174 045 1.160 0.682990 1.67 1.109135 1.814 0.678180 2.178 0225 2.299 0.860270 2.760 1.833315 6.470 3.809360 13.926 0Crankshaft radius 37 mmPiston diameter 89 mmMass of connecting rod 0.283 kgMass of piston assembly 0.417 kgConnecting rod length 120.78 mmIZZ of connecting rodabout CG0.663 X 10-3 kg/m2Distance of C.G. ofconnecting rod from crankend center28.6 mmMaximum gas pressure 35 Bar
  4. 4. Dr. K.H. Jatkar, Mr. Sunil S. Dhanwe / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1177-11831180 | P a g eVI. STRESS ANALYSIS BY FEAIn this chapter, Material properties,Meshing Details, Boundary condition and modelingof engine assembly are focused.Steps of Finite Element analysis of Petrol engine.I. Defining Element Types: The element library ofanalysis software contains more than 100different element types. Each element type has aunique number that defines the elementcategory. I have selected the Element SOLID186 because I have to analyze 3D model ofEngine assembly. Number of element is867610.II. Defining the Material Properties: I have selectedStructural Steel as a material for 3D solid modelof Engine assembly. The value of propertiescorresponding to Structural steel material likeyoung‟s modulus , Poisson‟s ratio, Density oryield strength as shown in table IIITable III Material Properties used forsimulationMaterial Structural SteelProperty ValueDensity 7850 kg/m3Young‟s Modulus 200 GPaPoisson‟s ratio 0.3Bulk Modulus 166 GPaShear Modulus 76 GPaTensile yield Strength 250 MPaCompressive yieldstrength250 MPaTensile Ultimatestrength460 MPaIII. Geometry (Build the Model): First of all Ihave made a 3D model of Engine assembly onANSYS workbench Design modular. In building amodel we have used various modeling tools.IV. Meshing of Model: We discritized the wholesolid model into small elements. Depending uponthe requirement of the accuracy of results thefineness of meshing varies. More finer is themeshing more we are closer to the actual results. asshown in figure 4.2and 4.3 Number of nodes is2309632V. Boundary Conditions: Following boundaryconditions are applied on the rectangular flangeVI. ForceVII. Fixed SupportVIII. Cylindrical SupportIX. Loading:From the dynamic analysis carried out inCosmos Motion & Matlab, the maximum forceinduced between piston and connecting rod istaken for static analysis in Ansys.Maximum Force applied from the dynamicanalysis: - 21000N i.e. 21kNForce :A force of 21KN is applied on the topsurface of piston in the downward direction asshown in the Figure 2Fig. 2 Force diagramVII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONIn this chapter, analysis of piston assembly,connecting rod and crankshaft for stress anddeformation by using Ansys has been done.i) Deformation of piston assembly:Figure 3 Shows deformation of pistonassemblyFig 3 deformation of piston assemblyii) Stress of piston assembly: Figure 4Shows Stresses On Piston CylinderAssembly
  5. 5. Dr. K.H. Jatkar, Mr. Sunil S. Dhanwe / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1177-11831181 | P a g eFig 4 Stresees On Piston Cylinder AssemblyTable IV result of piston cylinder assemblyResults Maximum MinimumSTRESS 398.95MPa 1.26e-005 MPaDEFORMATION 0.31932 mm 0mmTable IV shows result of piston cylinderassemblyThese results values are within thepermissible limits for material at workingtemperature. Maximum stress induced is 391.07MPaat a location near to Stress concentration area inconnecting rod. This value of stress can beminimized by optimizing the connecting rodgeometry.In the rest of the assembly maximum stressinduced is 221.64MPa which is within the limit ofmaterial.iii) Analysis of connecting rodStress:Fig 5. Stresses On Connecting RodThe above Figure 5 shows Von Mises Stressacting on Connecting Rod. From the above fig. thered portion shows the maximum stress. So it is clearthat the maximum stress acting on Connecting Rod isat the fillet section Because of Stress concentration.DeformationFig. 6 Deformation Of Connecting RodThe above fig. 6 shows deformation of theConnecting Rod it is clear that the load imparts acompressive stress to Connecting Rod and causesbending. The red and yellow portion shows the max.Deformation. Table IV shows stress anddeformation Of Connecting RodTable IV Results Of Connecting Rodiv) Analysis of Crank ShaftStress:Fig 7 Stresses On CrankshaftThe above Figure 7 shows Von MisesStress acting on Crankshaft. From the above figurethe red portion shows the maximum stress. So it isclear that the maximum stress acting on Crankshaftis at crank pin due to Stress concentration.Deformation:The following figure 8 shows deformationof the Crankshaft. it is clear that the load imparts aResults Maximum MinimumSTRESS 0.0057567 1.4853 e-6DEFORMATION 1.6142E-6 0 Results Maximum MinimumSTRESS 0.57895 0.00071689DEFORMATION 0.00016631 0
  6. 6. Dr. K.H. Jatkar, Mr. Sunil S. Dhanwe / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1177-11831182 | P a g ebending stress to Crankshaft. and causes torsion.The red and yellow portion shows the max.Deformation.Fig 8 deformation of the CrankshaftTable V shows maximum and minimumvalue of stress and deformation of crankshaftTable V result of crankshaftVIII. COMPARISONThe analysis results and analytical resultare compared here as shown in Table VI and VIIi) Comparison between Analytical VsAnsys stress for Connecting RodTable VICrankangleAnsysstressAnalytical stress0 -0.180 -0.17445 1.191 1.16090 1.75 1.67135 1.9 1.814180 2.24 2.178225 2.30 2.299270 2.792 2.760315 6.512 6.470360 14.12 13.926ii) Comparison between Analytical VsAnsys stress for crankshaftTable VIIFrom the above table VI and VII it is clear thatsoftware results are in good correlation with theanalytical results.IX. CONCLUSIONI. Static analysis of a connecting rod thatis typically performed can yieldunrealistic stresses, where dynamic analysisprovides more accurate results better suitedfor fatigue design and optimization analysisof this high volume production component.II. The stresses induced in the small end of theconnecting rod are greater than the stressesinduced at the big end. Therefore, thechances of failure of the connecting rodmay be at fillet section of both ends.III. The bending stress produced as a result ofdynamic loading is significant and bendingstiffness in the shank should be consideredas an important design factor.IV. Kinematic analysis of the engine has beencarried out by analytical method UsingMATLAB method as this method is moreaccurate than graphical method and cangive results for all the phases of themechanism.REFERENCES[1] H. D. Desai “Computer Aided Kinematicand Dynamic Analysis of a HorizontalSlider Crank Mechanism Used ForSingle-Cylinder Four Stroke InternalCombustion Engine”London, U.K.[2] Vivek. C. Pathade, BhumeshwarPatle, AjayN. Ingale „Stress Analysis of I.C.EngineConnecting Rod by FEM.‟ Department ofmechanical engg, Wardha.[3] Momin Muhammad Zia Muhammad Idris„Crankshaft Strength Analysis UsingFiniteElement Method‟ PIIT, New Panvel, India.[4] Anil kumar, Kamaldeep Grover BalvinderBudania „Optimization of Connecting RodParameters using CAE Tools‟ ,InternationalJournal of Latest Trends in Engineering andTechnology (IJLTET)[5] Gunter Knoll .Richard Schönen. KlausWilhelm, „Full dynamic analysis ofcrankshaft and engine block with specialrespect to elastohydrodynamic bearingcoupling‟ Germany[6] Amit Solanki, Ketan Tamboli,M.J.Zinjuwadia„ Crankshaft DesignandOptimization- A Review‟ NationalConference on Recent Trends inEngineering & Technology[7] Farzin H. Montazersadgh and Ali Fatemi„Dynamic Load and Stress Analysis of aCrankshaft‟ The University of Toledo SAEInternational 2007-01-025CrankangleAnsysstressAnalytical stress0 0.105 045 0.712 0.682990 1.198 1.109135 0.685 0.678180 0.045 0225 0.897 0.860270 1.916 1.833315 3.897 3.809360 0.021 0
  7. 7. Dr. K.H. Jatkar, Mr. Sunil S. Dhanwe / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1177-11831183 | P a g e[8]. Pravardhan S. Shenoy, ”Dynamic LoadAnalysis and Optimization of ConnectingRod”Department of MechanicalEngineering, The University of Toledo. AThesis, May 2004[9 ] M. F. Spotts, “Design of MachineElements”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd,New delhi,[10] Reddy J.N. .“An Introduction to FiniteElement Method”, Tata McGraw-HillPublication, Fifth Edition.‟[11] V.B. Bhandari, “Design of MachineElements”, Tata McGraw Hill PublishingCo .Ltd, New Delhi, 2005.[12] Joseph Edward Shigley, Charles R.Mischke“Mechanical EngineeringDesign”,McGraw-Hill Book Company,New York, 2000, Sixth Edition.[13] Ansys User Guide- 2010AUTHOR BIOGRAPHYDr.K.H.Jatkar presently working as HOD inWalchand Institute of technology, Solapur,Mechnical Engg. DeptMr. Sunil Shivaji Dhanwe Pursuing M.E. (Design)IIfrom Walchand Institute of technology, Solapur.Also, Working as Sr.Lecturer in BrahmdevdadaMane polytechnic, Solapur.Membership- I.E.I. Membership No. : -AM0994688