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  1. 1. Mr. Patil Sarang M., Prof.Dr.Bombale / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1242-1245 Design, Analysis and Study of 2x1 Rectangular Microstrip Antenna Array At 2.45 GHz for Beam Steering Mr. Patil Sarang M.*, Prof.Dr.Bombale U.L.**. *Electronics Engineering Department, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering Morewadi, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. **Department of Electronics Technology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.Abstract This paper presents an experimental Phase shifters, and control signals to provide itsPhased Array Antenna System operating at 2.4 output signals with the desired phase distribution toGHz. Antenna element excitation amplitudes are its radiating antennas. This approach, however,taken to be constant. Antenna element excitation utilizes components such as a feeding network andphases are changed. The obtained radiation variable phase shifters not only bulky but also lossy,patterns provide steerable main lobes and nulls thus increasing design complexity [3]. In addition,at predefined directions including control of the beam steering is designed for single frequencyside lobes at specified levels. Units of the system operation due to the limitation of phase shifters.are presented in detail and their architecture is In the proposed system, the total 1800 angleexplained. A phase calibration is used to is covered with discrete beam forming in desiredcompensate the system. Measurements of direction. The direction of transmission is controlledradiation patterns are presented and are through personal computer and controller unit. Tocompared with calculated patterns. change the direction of transmission, the PC is interfaced to the antenna hardware circuitry, theKeywords: Microstrip, patch antennas, beams angle in which the direction to be changed is givensteering. through the PC. To demonstrate the implementation of the1. INTRODUCTION digital beam forming, phase array is to be built for In wireless communication the 2.4 GHz [4], Transmission in order to allow testingtransmission and reception of the signal is through and demonstrational use of the array in thethe isotropic antennas. Since this antenna radiates in unrestricted Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM)all direction, this system has a limitation of high band. The demonstrated technique, however, can bepower and reduced transmission length[1]. So the implemented at any frequency and with minortransmission in desired direction is required which changes for a transmitting array as well.inspires scientists to develop Directional Antenna Microstrip antenna is printed type of(DA). Directional antenna has a characteristic of antenna consisting of a dielectric substrateradiating in one particular direction. Real time sandwiched in between a ground plane and a patchapplication requires transmission of the signals in [6]. The concept of Micro strip antenna was firstdesired direction without mechanical movement of proposed in 1953, twenty years before the practicalantenna. antennas were produced. Since the first practical Many applications require radiation antennas were developed in early 1970‟s, interest incharacteristics that may not be achievable by a this kind of antennas was held in New Mexico [7].single antenna element. It may, however, be The microstrip antenna is physically very simplepossible that an aggregate of radiating elements in and flat, these are two of the reasons for the greatan electrical and geometrical arrangement (an interest in this type of antenna.array) will result in the desired radiation Microstrip antennas have severalcharacteristics [2]. The arrangement of the array advantages compared to other bulky type ofmay be such that the radiation from the elements antennas. Some of the main advantages of theadds up to give a radiation maximum in a particular microstrip antennas are that it has low fabricationdirection or directions, minimum in others, or cost, its lightweight, low volume, and low profileotherwise as desired configurations that it can be made conformal, it can Beam-steering phased antenna arrays find be easily be mounted on rockets, missiles andmany applications in microwave radar and satellites without major modifications and arrays ofcommunication systems. A conventional phased these antennas can simply be produced.Antenna array uses a power distribution network, 1242 | P a g e
  2. 2. Mr. Patil Sarang M., Prof.Dr.Bombale / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1242-1245 dielectric constant (εr) = 4.4, substrate thicknessDESIGN PROCEDURE: h=1.588 mm, L=6 mm, W=8.88 mm on a ground The designed antenna is an 2×1 linear plane. All dimensions of the antenna are in mm.array. The first step in the design is to specify the The length and the width of the patch are calculateddimensions of a single microstrip patch antenna. initially by the relationships (1)-(6) given inThe patch conductor can be assumed at any shape,but generally simple geometries are used, and this vo 2simplifies the analysis and performance prediction. W (1)Here, the half-wavelength rectangular patch element 2 Fr  r 1is chosen as the array element (as commonly used inmicrostrip antennas) [8]. Its characteristic Where V0 is the free space velocity of the light.parameters are the length L, the width w, and thethickness h, as shown in below Figure C L -2 l (2) 2  Fr   reff   reff  0.03 W  0.26h  L  0.412  h    (3)   reff  0.258 W  0.8h     Where ¢ L is extension in length due to fringing effects. The effective dielectric constant is given by, 1  r 1  r 1   12  h  2 Figure 1.  reff    1    (4) To meet the initial design requirements 2 2   W (operating frequency = 2.4 GHz, and beam width = The ground plane dimensions would be given as,90) various analytical approximate approaches maybe used. Here, the calculations are based on the Lg=6(h) +L= 6(1.588) +28.49= 38.018 mm (5)transmission line model [9]. Although not critical,the width w of the radiating edge is specified first. Wg=6(h) +W= 6(1.588)+28.49=38.018 mm (6)In practice, the length L is slightly less than a halfwavelength (in the dielectric). The length may also Figure 2 show the geometry of inset feedbe specified by calculating the half wavelength microstrip array antenna with two patches in thevalue and then subtracting a small length to take into array. The patch is energized electromagneticallyaccount the fringing fields [7-9] using 50 ohm SMA connector. Therefore many kinds of miniaturization Hence wide bandwidth is generated as thetechniques, such as using of high dielectric resonant circuits become coupled. The slotssubstrates, resistive or reactive load and increasing aggregate the currents, which give additionalthe electrical length of the antenna, Also it gives a inductance controlled by the patch width. HFSSgood directivity and high gain with good software has been used to calculate the return loss (Sperformance characteristics [10].The proposed array 11 ) ,directivity vs frequency,3D radiation pattern &Antenna will be working on 2.45Ghz frequency field gain Vs frequency. Firstly the example singlerange. i.e.(ISM-band) The patch resonance to patch antenna is designed with patch dimensions Lproduce a broadband response. Representative = 28.49mm, W =28.49mm for resonating frequencyresults for the VSWR response, S- parameter and of 2.45 GHz. The bandwidth for the antenna isradiation patterns are shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4. around 2GHz.The gain of the antenna is higher than the traditionalMicrostrip antenna.The dimensions of the antennas are listed in Table 1.Table 1: Dimensions of the antenna εr W L h s d Antenna 1 4.4 38.89 102 1.588 9 36.51 An inset feed microstrip antennas is Figure 2.designed to resonate at 2.45 GHz frequency with 1243 | P a g e
  3. 3. Mr. Patil Sarang M., Prof.Dr.Bombale / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1242-1245 The present work signifies that byintroduction of two Patch in the same size, theDirectivity gets enhanced about 9bdB i.e., Figure3,4 and Figure 5 show the return loss (S11) vs.frequency curve for the proposed inset feedmicrostrip patch antenna without slot and with twoslots of same physical patch dimensions. Thepositions of the slots were varied to see the effect onthe microstrip antenna bandwidth. It was observedthat antenna performance could be controlled byintroducing slots to a large extent in terms ofincreased bandwidth, As the slots move in Ydirection the bandwidth gets increases for theproposed design. From the present work it can b einferred that as the slots are moving along the Y axis Figure 5in both the directions, of course in specified rangethe bandwidth and other performance parameters are 4. Gain vs. frequency:also improving significantly.2. SIMULATED RESULT FOR 2X2 PATCH ANTEENA ARRAY1. Return loss Measurement: Figure 6. From the figure 6, field gain obtained at 2.4Ghz is 5.93 dBi Figure 3. 5. Radiation pattern (3-D) for 2x1arrays: E –theta pattern:From figure 3 The Return loss obtained at 2.45 GHzis -30 dB and band width obtained at -10 dB is about40MHZ.2. Directivity vs. Frequency: Figure 4From the figure 4, directivity obtained at 2.4 GHz is9 dBi Figure 73. 2-Dimensional Radiation Pattern: 1244 | P a g e
  4. 4. Mr. Patil Sarang M., Prof.Dr.Bombale / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1242-12453. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE 10. K.R.CARVER and J.W.MINK, OUTLOOK ―Microstrip Antenna Technology‖, IEEE An experimental phased array antenna Trans. Antenna Propag., Vol.AP-29, pp.2-system is developed in this Paper. The use of IF 24, Jan 1981.processing to control the radiation pattern 11. I.J.BAHL and P.BHARTIA, ―Microstripcharacteristics proved to be an approach providing Antennas‖, Dedham, MA: Artech House,stability and easy control of the radiation patterns as 1980.verified by the measurements and comparison withtheoretical results, which shows good agreement. 4. AUTHORS:System provides radiation patterns with steerablemain lobes and nulls at prespecified positions within Mr.Patil Sarang M.the azimuth region 0◦ ↔ 180◦.The possibility of Has received B.E in Electronics &using the developed conformal array as focal plane Telecommunication in 2009 fromradiator in a large reflector antenna is an interesting BVCOE,Kolhapur. and Pursuing M.Techapplication being considered. (Electronics) from the DOT,SU Kolhapur, under the guidance of Prof.REFERENCES Dr.U.L.Bombale. Currently he is working 1. Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design - by as a Assit.Professor, In BVCOE, Kolhapur Balanis - [2006] (India). 2. L. Stark, ―Microwave Theory of Phased- Array Antennas—A Review,‖ Proc. IEEE, Ph.No-+919766747908 Vol. 62, pp. 1661–1701, December 1974. 3. F. M. Kashif, W. Qadeer, and S. I. Shah, ―Efficient implementation of quadrature Prof. Dr. U.L Bombale Has received PhD amplitude modulation transmitters,‖ in from Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of IEEE INMIC Technology for the 21st Information & Communication Century, 2001. Technology, (DA-IICT) Gandhinagar, 4. W. Aerts, P. Delmotte, G. A. E. Gujarat, India, under the guidance of Dr. Vandenbosch ―Conceptual Study of Sanjeev gupta. M.E in Electronics & Analog Baseband Beam Forming: Design Telecommunication in 1994 from COE, and Measurement of an Eight-by-Eight Pune, and Currently he is working as a Phased Array‖, Transaction on Antenna Professor in Dept. of Technology ,Shivaji Propagation, vol. 57, No. 5, pp. 000-999, university, Kolhapur (India). 2009. 5. . Aliakbarian* , V. Volski * , E. van der Ph.No-+919049274380 Westhuizen+ , R. Wolhuter+, and G. A. E. Vandenbosch ―Analogue versus Digital for Baseband Beam Steerable Array used for LEO Satellite Applications‖ 6. POZAR D.M., and SCHAUBERT D.H., ―Microstrip Antennas, the Analysis and Design of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays‖, IEEE Press, New York, USA, 1995 7. Guru Parsad, Tirupathi.‖ Design, Analysis and Study of 2x2 Rectangular Microstrip Antenna Array At 430 MHz for Wind Profiler RADAR‖ International Journal of Computer Applications & Information Technology Vol. 1, No.1, July 2012 8. J.R.JAMES, P.S.HALL and C.WOOD, ―Microstrip Antenna Theory and Design‖, London, UK,: Peter Peregrinus, 1981. 9. M. Amman, Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna for the 2.4 Ghz Band, Applied Microwave and Wireless, pp. 24-34, November /December 1997 JAMES J.R., and HALL P.S., ―Handbook of Microstrip Antennas‖ Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK, 1989. 1245 | P a g e