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  1. 1. Praveen Kumar, Dr. Geeta Agnihotri / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.988-994988 | P a g eCold Drawing Process –A ReviewPraveen Kumar*, Dr. Geeta Agnihotri***(M.Tech Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.A.N.I.T.,Bhopal)** (Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.A.N.I.T.,Bhopal)ABSTRACTCold drawing is widely used metalforming process with inherent advantages likecloser dimensional tolerances, better surfacefinish and improved mechanical properties ascompared to hot forming processes. Due to theever increasing competition with the advent ofglobalization it has become highly important tokeep on improving the process efficiency in termsof product quality and optimized use ofresources. In view of this different models havebeen proposed and validated using experimentalresults over a long period of time. The demandsin the automobile sector, energy sector andmining sector have led to several modifications inthe drawing process. In this paper, processdetails of cold drawing, major analytical,experimental and numerical studies reported inliterature have been reviewed. The reviewfocuses on highlighting the developmentsassociated with the drawing technology thatincludes improvement in tool design,modification in product geometry, processoptimization etc. with the use of Finite elementmethod to achieve the process related objectives.Keywords-Cold drawing, Finite element method,Process optimization, Product geometry, Tooldesign.I. INTRODUCTIONGood quality and high precision productscan be produced by several metal forming methodssuch as extrusion, drawing, rolling etc. Metalforming is the large group of manufacturingprocesses in which plastic deformation is used tochange the shape of metal workpieces [1].Thefactors that determine the choice ofthe forming or for that matter any other process aremaximum utilization of resources with high qualityoutput. Both extrusion and drawing are net shapemetal forming processes which have high materialutilization and produces parts with superiormetallurgical and material properties. This paper isa review on cold drawing process with a focus onthe developments associated with the drawingprocess that includes improvement in tool design,modification in product geometry, processoptimization etc. with the use of modern techniqueslike Finite element method to achieve the processrelated objectives.II. COLD DRAWING PROCESS-ANOVERVIEWThe Cold drawing is one of the oldestmetal forming operations and has major industrialsignificance. It is the process of reducing the cross-sectional area and/or the shape of a bar, rod, tube orwire by pulling through a die. This process allowsexcellent surface finishes and closely controlleddimensions to be obtained in long products that haveconstant cross sections. It is classified as under: Wire and Bar Drawing: Cross-section of abar, rod, or wire is reduced by pulling itthrough a die opening (Fig. 1 a) .It issimilar to extrusion except work is pulledthrough the die in drawing. Both tensileand compressive stress deforms the metalas it passes through the die opening. Tube Drawing: It is a metalworkingprocess to size tube by shrinking a largediameter tube into a smaller one, bydrawing the tube through a die (Fig. 1 b). Itis so versatile that it is suitable for bothlarge and small scale production.The drawing process improvement has been anarea of extensive research over a long period oftime due to its commercial significance as itoffers excellent surface finish and closerdimensional control in the products.Fig.1 Types of Cold drawing (a) wire and bardrawing and (b) Tube drawingEarlier different analytical methods likeSlab method, Upper bound method or slip linetheory were used for material flow and behaviouranalysis. In the recent years with the development inNumerical techniques and with the advancement incomputers there is tremendous rise in the accuracyand pace of the solutions and information obtainedin the researches.In this context, Finite Element Method is one of themost popular methods employed to resolve the
  2. 2. Praveen Kumar, Dr. Geeta Agnihotri / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.989 | P a g emetal forming problems.Kopp [2] presented a reportthat described ways for the shortening,flexibilization and optimization, as important tools.Numbers of studies on the analysis of drawingprocess carried out by researchers are discussedbelow under different criteria.III. LUBRICATION AND COEFFICIENT OFFRICTIONEstablishing friction conditions is crucial inbulk metal forming because of the usually highcontact pressure and the influence of friction on thematerial flow, tool stresses and the forming force[3]. The friction minimization by forming processesis reflected in: tool life increase, stagnation timereduce, increase of the machining processproductivity, less energy consumption, lessconsumption of tools and less production costs [4].In the context of the same, Chuiko et al. [5]described the development in new forms ofproduction lubricants and methods of oxalateapplication over Stainless Steel Tube. Lubricitycriteria of fatty-based oils (palm, groundnut andshea butter oils), an important aspect of oilselection, were qualitatively assessed by Obi andOyinlola [6] for friction evaluation for processeslike wire drawing and extrusion through open dies.Neves et al. [7] carried out experimental tests with alaboratory drawing bench with three differentlubricants and two different lubrication conditions inorder to study their effect on drawing loads andresidual stresses. Similarly Byon et al. [8] performedWire drawing test for four different coatingmaterials and two different lubricants as thereduction ratio increased from 10% to 30%.Resultsshowed that the behaviour of drawing force varieswith the lubricant-type at the initial stage ofdrawing.1V. IMPROVEMENT IN TOOL DESIGNThe profile design of die and mandrel is themost important factor related to forming energy anddeformation behaviour of tubular material [9].Gunasekera and Hoshino [10] described a newmethod for obtaining optimal die shape whichproduces minimal stress in the extrusion or thedrawing of non-axisymmetric sections from roundbar stock. In order to find the best geometry of dieand plug to reduce the drawing force. , Neves et al.[7] simulated the cold drawing of tubes with fixedplug by FEM with the commercial software MSCSuperform. Kim et al. [9] investigated the processparameters related with tool configuration. As aresult, the advanced mandrel shape, which caneffectively transmit, without generating defect,drawing force to deforming tube, was designed.Wang and Argyropoulos [11] designed, modifiedand analyzed a plum-blossom-shape die for thedirect cold drawing of hexagon/square-section rodsin order to replace a series of converging dies in thetraditional section drawing method. It dramaticallyincreased the manufacturing productivity, improvedthe product quality, and reduced the manufacturingtime and cost.A newly developed plug featuring a tinyboss club structure in the sizing zone was proposedby Xu et al. [12]. It was found that when the plugwith a tiny boss club structure is adopted, thecontact quality is better and the larger plastic strainexists on the inner surface of the tube, which is verycrucial in improving the surface finish of the formedpart. The evaluation of effect of tools’ geometries onthe maximum possible tube deformation was studiedby Bihamta et al. [13] on variable thickness tubedrawing process with a newly developed procedure.Based on the optimum design developed by Bélandet al. [14] through a finite element model, a new toolwas built which minimised the maximum stresslevel to draw tubes in one pass.V. TOOL GEOMETRY MODIFICATIONModification in conventional tubegeometry like development of the Rifled Tubes etc.,as per the application requirement has also been apart of several researches. Rifled Tubes have highheat-transfer efficiency and therefore are used forthe furnace wall tube in the large power plantboilers. Assurance of high dimensional accuracy inthe rifle tubes was given by Yoshizawa et al. [15]with the help of a manufacturing techniquedeveloped through experiments. Bayoumi [16] gavean analytical solution for the problem of colddrawing through flat idle rolls of regular polygonalmetal tubular sections from round tube. The formingtool load in plastic shaping of a round tube into asquare tubular section was determined by Bayoumiand Attia [17] both analytically and numerically byapplying finite element simulation. Parshin [18]utilized the obtained equations in the standard finite-element program to analyse the variation in theshape of the eight-beam star like tubes in the courseof multipass drawing.Xu et al. [12] developed analuminium tube with rectangular cross-section withhigh dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Highquality micro copper tube with straight grooves(MCTSG) with an outer diameter of 6 mm wasobtained by Yong et al. [19].The influence ofdrawing parameters on the forming of micro straightgrooves was investigated based on the formingmechanism. Bihamta et al. [20] modified theclassical tube drawing process. The sinking andfixed-mandrel tube drawing methods were mixedtogether to produce tubes with variable thickness inthe axial direction.VI. EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSESResidual stress and its measurement is veryimportant aspect of cold drawing process as it has asignificant impact on the material performance inthe field. Minimisation of the induced tensile
  3. 3. Praveen Kumar, Dr. Geeta Agnihotri / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.990 | P a g eresidual stresses was investigated by Karnezis et al.[21]. Elices [22] showed that how stress-relaxationlosses, environmental assisted cracking and fatiguelife of cold-drawn pearlitic wires are influenced byresidual stresses. Elices [22] further discussed thatresidual stresses due to cold-drawing are known tobe detrimental to the mechanical performance-particularly as regards to creep, fatigue andductility.A numerical model using the codeABAQUS was developed by Atienza et al. [23] tostudy the residual macro stress state generated bydrawing. Phelippeau [24] identified and discussedthe mechanisms controlling the elongation to failureof cold drawn steel wires and examined, inparticular, the role of residual stresses. Nakashima etal. [25] patented a method to produce seamless tubesin such a way that the residual stress generatedduring the stage of correction after cold working islimited to 30 MPa and scattering thereof is 30 MPaor less, when measured by Crampton method. In thesimilar context, Ripoll et al. [26] proposed twomethods for reducing the residual stresses duringwire drawing, namely applying an advanced diegeometry and performing an inexpensive post-drawing treatment based on targeted bendingoperations. Kuboki et al. ([27] examined the effectof a plug on residual stress in tube drawing by bothnumerical analysis and laboratory experiment. Thetypical variation in residual stresses from tensile tocompressive was seen across the drawn gold wirecross section in the experiment carried out byNarayanan et al. [28]. Results of residual stressmeasurements and simulation were also presentedby Pirling et al. [29] .A three dimensional finiteelement model was developed to calculate thechange in wall thickness, eccentricity, ovality andresidual macro-stress (RS) state for cold drawntubes. A prediction model for the maximum axialresidual stress was proposed by Béland et al. [14]through a finite element method that considers theinhomogeneous deformation and heat generation ina high-carbon (0.82-wt% C) drawn wire .VII. DEFECTS IN DRAWINGThe misapplication of the manufacturingprocess or lack of control at any stage may introducedefects and residual stresses that can affect theperformance of structure in service, making itsusceptible to failure. The surface flaw of a drawnwire has a significant influence on the quality ofproduct [30]. The defects of cold drawn wireinherited from the wire rod may be divided into twogroups: those due to metallurgical processes; andthose due to rolling. The first group is formed insteel smelting and casting; the second is formed inheating and deformation in the course of rolling[31]. Same is true for drawn tubes. In this contextconsiderable amount of research has been carriedout, some of which is reviewed below.Rajan andNarasimhan [32] presented experimentalobservations of defects developed during flowforming of high strength SAE 4130 steel tubes. Themajor defects observed were fish scaling, prematureburst, diametral growth, micro cracks, and macrocracks. When we consider the micromechanicalpoint of view, it is a known fact that the drawingprocess influences the microstructure of the materialin the form of progressive trend towards a closerpacking and a more oriented arrangement [33].Anisotropic fracture behaviour is exhibited byprestressing steel wires (heavily drawn) in air and inaggressive environments promoting stress corrosioncracking in several forms as was reported byToribio et al. [33] .Camacho et al. [34] used the FiniteElement Method to study the effect of drawingvariables on defects. Shinohara and Yoshida [35]carried out a three-dimensional finite elementanalysis (FEA) that investigated the growth ofsurface defects due to wire drawing. They stated thatsuperior wires without flaws could be obtained byremoving the flaws before drawing and by multi-pass drawing.Weygand et al. [36] analysed thedrawing process with a finite element model todetermine the factors that are responsible for defectscalled splits. The effect of residual stresses due tothe cold-drawing process on the fatigue crackpropagation in a metallic cracked round bar with aV-shaped circumferential notch was examined byCarpinteri et al. [37]. The crack propagation undercyclic tension combined with the residual stresseswas analysed by taking into account the SIF valuesand the actual stress ratio. Toribio et al. [38]numerically analysed the role of drawing-inducedresidual stresses and strains in the performance ofcold drawn prestressing steel wires under conditionsof hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The results of thestudy carried out by Tang et al. [39] illustrated thedamage evolution of the drawn wire in each of theeight passes and the damage distribution along axialand circular directions. Wire breakage is expected tooccur in those areas of the drawn wire wherefractures most possibly initiate [39]. Furthermore,the numerical analyses contributed a new approachfor the optimization of the drawing parameters.VIII.INFLUENCE OF THE OPERATINGPARAMETERSDe Castro et al. [41] investigated theeffects of die semi-angle on the mechanicalproperties of round section annealed copperbars.The FEM calculations of the drawing stress andthe effective strain distributions in the tube sinkingprocess were performed by Sadok et al. [42]. Thecalculations were done for various processparameters, including different profiles of theworking part of the die. Chen and Huang [43]employed the finite element method and the Taguchimethods to optimize the process parameters of the
  4. 4. Praveen Kumar, Dr. Geeta Agnihotri / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.991 | P a g ewire drawing process. Neural networks were usedby Dwivedi et al. [44] to model relationshipsbetween controlled and uncontrolled processparameters and the yield. In most cases emphasis isgiven on one process parameter at a time and itsindividual effect is studied on the product.Dekhtyarev et al. [45] carried out a research todemonstrate the combined effect of these parameterson final properties of the product and productionprocess as a whole. Rocha et al. [46] analyseddistortion for a typical manufacturing process ofpre-straightened, cold drawn and induction hardenedAISI 1045 cylindrical steel bars using DoE (Designof Experiments). Celentano et al. [47] assessed theinfluence of specific operating conditions, such asthe decrease of the number of wire reductions andthe presence of back tension, on the materialresponse during the whole process numerically.During the same period, Bourget et al. [48] studiedthe effects of time, temperature, and furnace heatingrate in order to identify an optimized heat treatmentfor tubes with different cold work levels.The variable thickness tube drawing wasparameterized by Bihamta et al. [49]. Haddi et al.[50] studied the influence of drawing conditions ontemperature rise and drawing stress in cold drawncopper wires. From the experimental results, arelationship between temperature rise, drawingstress and friction coefficient was built. Bui et al.[51] carried out a study in which experiments wereconducted to evaluate the effect of cross sectionreduction. Nagarkar et al. [52] simulated drawing ofround tubes while passing through the sink pass,using ANSYS software to study the effect of variousparameters like die angle on the product quality.Cetinarslan [53] determined the effects of somedrawing parameters like deformation ratio anddrawing speed on wire drawing. It was observed thatthese variables significantly affect the tensile andtorsion strength of the ferrous wires.An investigation was carried out by Raji andOluwole [54] on 0.12%w C steel wire cold drawnprogressively by 20%, 25%, 40% and 50% to studythe influence of the degree of cold drawing on themechanical properties of the carbon steel material.IX. USE OF ANALYTICAL MODELS.Application and development of analyticalmethods and Models along with the Finite ElementMethod is being done over the years. For instance, ageneralized model, as devised by Kolmogorov,describing the deformability of metal in the processof drawing tubes on a fixed mandrel was presentedby Pospiech [55]. According to this model thecoefficient of utilization of reserve of plasticitydecreases with the increase of the coefficient offriction (at a constant angle of the die reductionzone).Rubio et al. [56] studied the main variants ofthe drawing process by different methods. Thin-walled tubes drawing through conical convergentdies with fixed inner, conical or cylindrical, plugwas analysed by Rubio et al. [57]using the upperbound method. Analytical formulations wereextensively used by Gur’yanov [58]. He calculatedthe limiting extension per drawing pass using sixdifferent formulas in order to determine the axial-stress increment in the working cone of the die.Similarly tension in the drawing process wasdetermined by Gonza´ lez et al. [59] via free bodyequilibrium method to solve the drawing problemfor dies of axisymmetric or symmetric sections. Asopposed to the classical slab method, solution of theequations obtained through this method accountedfor internal material distortion.An extension of anupper bound solution developed earlier wasproposed by Bui et al. [60] to predict the drawingstress field. Rubio [61] analysed tube drawing usinganalytical methods, i.e. Slab Method (SM), with andwithout friction effects and the Upper BoundMethod (UBM).X. CONCLUSIONSTo keep up with the ever demandingcustomer needs the industries have to keep onimproving in terms of product quality, minimumproduct development cycle time, optimized usage ofresources and incorporation of modern methods,technologies to achieve the aforementioned goals.This paper is a review on literaturepublished in the context of cold drawing process;which is used for manufacturing high qualityproducts that have wide variety of applications indifferent sectors of engineering. It helped inunderstanding the developments and researchcarried out over a period of time for differentproblems associated with cold drawing and differentapproaches involved in problem solving rangingfrom analytical methods to Finite Element Method.REFERENCES[1] Groover, M. P. Fundamentals of ModernManufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.4/e 2010.[2] Kopp, R. Some Current DevelopmentTrends in Metal-Forming Technology(1996). Journal of Materials ProcessingTechnology, 60, 1-9.[3] Rosochowska, Malgorzata, AndrzejRosochowski and Lech Olejnik (2009).Finite Element Analysis of Cold ForwardExtrusion of 1010 Steel. The Annals of“Dunărea De Jos” University Of GalaţiFascicle V, Technologies in MachineBuilding, ISSN 1221- 4566, 101-106.[4] Jurkovic, M., Z. Jurkovic and S. Buljan(2006). The Tribological State Test inMetal Forming Processes using Experimentand Modelling. Journal of Achievements in
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