Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and                  Applications (IJERA) ISS...
Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and                  Applications (IJERA) ISS...
Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and                                   Applica...
Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and                  Applications (IJERA) ISS...
Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and                              Applications...
Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and                   Applications (IJERA) IS...
Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and                   Applications (IJERA) IS...
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  1. 1. Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.581-587 Analysis & Prospects of Modification in Belt Conveyors - A Review Devendra Kumar1, R.K. Mandloi2 1M-Tech (Maintenance Engineering), Department of Mechanical Engineering M.A.N.I.T. Bhopal India 2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering M.A.N.I.T. Bhopal IndiaAbstract— Now a day’s Belt conveyor system not failures, maintenance cost, breakdowns, energyonly used in mining industries but also applied in consumption and overall cost of the system forcement industries, power plant, food industries, continuous transportation of material.production industries etc. So it is essential The technologies used to reduce failures ofequipment for in house material transportation the equipment and to increase the operational abilitytoday. The paper presents the review of belt of the system the mechanisms like cam drive system,conveyor design modification and latest hydro-viscous soft start, magneto-rheological softtechnologies or methodologies used in different starter, Control strategy of disc braking system to beapplications to reduce failures, maintenance cost designed for efficient driving of belt conveyors.and equipment related fatal accidents occurs Most of technologies focused on Fatigue Failures ofduring operation. The focus is on methodologies Welded Conveyor Drums, shell of drums andas Design modification, Drum and pulley failures, fracture analysis of collapsed heavy-duty pulleys andBelt design and its failure, energy & efficiency, other typical failure analysis on pulley shafts byfriction, inspection, operation & maintenance and using finite element method. Conveyor Belt is a keyfire & safety. The analysis shows, different part of belt conveyor system, sometimes its incorrectdesign parameters required for different designing also make an important role in conveyorapplications such as coal mines, cement and food failure. Therefore belt Safety and Eco-design of non-industries. Some of the common design metallic layer composites with a better capability ofparameters required in each application and the elongation should be considered. Transversalimportance of each parameter which impacts on Vibrations and tension around a drive drum of adifferent application. Conveyor Belt with a Low and Time-VaryingKeywords— Belt Conveyor, Design Modification, Velocity are also considered. Control of wholeFailures, Maintenance, pulley. system, operation & maintenance of belt conveyor and their inspection should be managed. I. INTRODUCTION As a kind of in house continuous II. METHODOLOGYtransportation equipment, belt conveyor is widely There are many methodologies usedused in today‟s modern port, especially in the according to their application and designtransport of coal and mineral powder because of its modification. Most of the researchers focused onhigh efficiency and environmental protection. [1] design of drive mechanisms of belt conveyors, Belt-conveyors are more acceptable than drum(pulley) and belt failures, energy & efficiency,other means of transporting bulk materials; they increasing friction, fire & safety, maintenance andneither pollute the air nor deafen the ears. They inspection.operate quietly, often in their own enclosures, whichwhen desirable can be located above the confusion A. Design Modificationand safety hazards of surface traffic or in small Different designs in the field of drivetunnels out of sight and hearing. [2] mechanism and other modification used for reducing Belt conveyor is one of the main transport starting torque on drive pulley and operationalequipment in coal mine, driving drum and belt is its efficiency.key part. Friction principle is used to initiatemechanical drive for belt conveyor. So friction is the 1) Multi-Step Cam Mechanism: A multi-step camdriving force. In order to raise transportation mechanism is preferred to drive belt conveyor forefficiency of belt conveyor, driving force of drum the self-orientation of the conveyed rigid objects. Itmust be increased. Energy saving & efficiency, is also used as velocity reduction, so doing awayfriction, fire & safety, maintenance and inspection with costly gear transmissions; thereby reduce theare the other key factors of belt conveyor design. [3] possibility of failure due to gears. [4]Most of the researchers focused on design 2) Control strategy of a hydro-viscous soft startmodification to reduce the pulley (drum) and belt device: The control system of hydro-viscous soft start (HVSS) device and a fuzzy – immune PID 581 | P a g e
  2. 2. Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.581-587controller are combined for feedback regulations and B Drum and Pulley Failureadaptability, and derive control algorithm andsimulate the results by comparing with conventional 1) Typical failure and processing: ThePID. [5] description of typical failure forms of roller and conveyor are analyzed, and explain the maintenance3) Control strategy of disc braking systems: A methods of prevention and elimination of failures toclose loop velocity control system is used for disc ensure the normal operation of belt conveyor. [10]braking of downward belt conveyors. Theproportional electro-hydraulic valve device is used 2) Fracture in collapsed heavy-duty pulley:and simulate by MATLAB. A PID (Proportion Fracture of pulley is analyzed by FEM and fractureIntegration Differentiation) is designed to increase macro examination with use of following formulas:the performance of disc braking system. [6] Sf = 32.FS.Mb/π D3. (.5 SUT) where Sf is estimated fatigue limit to the pulley FS is the safety factor, Mb 4) Magneto-rheological soft starter: A magneto- the bending moment and D the shaft diameter SUTrheological soft starter (MRSS) is a device having the material tensile strength. [11]magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) between the twodisks of MRSS and controlled by an external 3) Conveyor Pulley Shaft Failures: The cause formagnetic field for integrating disks for transmitting failures of shafts in a conveyor pulley in iron-torque to belt conveyor and torque transmitted can making unit at JSW Steel has been investigated.change by increasing the No. of disks. [7] Visual, metallographic, chemical, and fractographic studies were carried out. Fracture studies shows that5) Multi-conveyor system for profit maximization: shaft failed in shear because of overload. [12]The Multi conveyor control model is proposed byoperating no. of conveyors equipped with combined 4) Analysis of conveyor pulley using FEM: Thedriving system and handling speed variations and integral analysis of pulley parts has been helpful inaverage flow time between adjacent pallets for profit arriving at some broad design guidelines and stressesmaximization and reliability. [8] and deflections of its various parts has been described for reliable design of pulley by using FEM.6) Mechanism of hydro-viscous soft start: A hydro- [13]viscous clutch and its control system are explain bystartup process of a belt conveyor, and numerically 5) Fatigue Failures of Welded Conveyor Drum.:analyzed with the modified Reynolds equation, an An elastic analysis shows that high cyclic bendingenergy equation and a temperature-viscosity stresses were produced at the plate-boss welds whenequation. And show the effects of temperature, the drums were loaded by the tension in thegrooves of the friction disk surface on torque conveyor belt and Fatigue cracks initiated at the toestransfer and load capacity of the oil film have also of the welds between the plates and the bosses, andbeen analyzed. [9] propagated through the plates until the shell became On the basis of researches design modification detached from the shaft. [14]step by step has shown as below: 6) Fatigue in the shell of a conveyor drum: The shells of a belt conveyor broke in operation due to fatigue in the area of the weld seam between the axle disk and the cylindrical shell due to overloading of drum and compare the original design with actually manufactured drum. [15] On the basis of researches the variation in causes of failures in drum or pulley as shown in bar chart: Figure: 1 Step by step designs modification inBelt Conveyor System. 582 | P a g e
  3. 3. Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.581-587 starting of a drive drum with a distributed mass- 35 PERCENTAGE OF DRUM FAILURE spring system for the belting. The model produces 30 the tension distribution in the belt around the drum 25 face including requirements for visco elastic contraction when designing a drive system. [20] 20 15 D Energy & Efficiency 10 5 1) Energy efficiency optimization: An 0 analytical energy Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors has to be developed. The energy efficiency describes in terms of Performance efficiency, Operation efficiency, Equipment efficiency, and Technology efficiency and evaluates detailed description of factors responsible for energy consumption in belt conveyor system like starting & stopping conditions, conveyor runs without loading, load variations etc. and the CAUSES OF FAILURE parameters to reduce them. [21, 22]Figure: 2 Percentage in causes of drum failure in Describe the selection criteria of variableBelt Conveyor System. voltage, variable frequency (VVVF) drives systems for conveyor applications, and highlights designC Belt design and its failure considerations and energy saving potential of modern drive systems. [23] 1) Vibrations with Low and Time-VaryingVelocity: By using Kirchhoff‟s approach an equation 2) Prediction of Armoured Face Conveyorof motion will be derived from a coupled system of Performance for Increased Efficiency: A computerpartial differential equations describing the model has been developed for the dual purpose oflongitudinal and transversal vibrations of the belt in analyzing data from existing installations and forvarying load conditions. The results shows that the predicting the power needed for new applications i.e.frequencies of the belt speed fluctuations play an the parameters which increase the efficiency can beimportant role in the dynamic behavior of the concluded. [24]conveyor belt. [16] 3) Optimal control of operation efficiency: 2) Conditions for field vulcanizing with a The Switching control devices and variable speedbetter capability of elongation: By using analysis of control systems are proposed in literature to improvemean of the Taguchi method, the optimum energy efficiency of heavy duty belt conveyors,conditions for field vulcanizing a fabric conveyor where time-of-use tariff and ramp rate of belt speedbelt with a better capability of elongation were are considered. The current implementations mostlyobtained at different environmental conditions. The focus on lower level control loops or an individualoptimum conditions includes (1) curing time of 25 belt conveyor without operational considerations.min, (2) curing pressure of 9 kg/cm2, (3) [25, 26]dismantling platen temperature of 90 ˚C and (4)forced cooling of air. [17] D Friction 3) Eco-design of non-metallic layer 1) Traction and slip in a wheel-driven beltcomposites for belts: The methods for designing conveyor: An extension of existing models used formultilayer conveyor belts have been evaluated by flat belt conveyors to describe the relationshipusing SimaPro 5 software and optimizing the between traction and slip in a wheel-driven beltstrength properties regarding various belts and their conveyor with a curved surface. The model includeson the environment during operation. This includes the viscoelastic properties of the rubber runningBelt Materials with Nanostructure fillers appear to surface in the form of Maxwell elements. [27]have a more promising effect on the performance ofthe conveyor belt composite to adapt innovative 2) Rolling contact phenomena in a pouch beltperformance characteristics. [18, 19] conveyor system: A simplified approach to examine the rolling contact phenomena that occur at the 4) Belt Tension around a Drive Drum: A surface of a wheel driven rubber belt, determine themechanical model is developed to simulate the rolling friction due to hysteresis and evaluate the 583 | P a g e
  4. 4. Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.581-587relationship between traction and slip in wheel prototyping‟ techniques. This helps in decisiondriven belt conveyors. [28] makers with additional and improved information during the design process. [39]E Inspection Inspection of different types of conveying 6) Operation and Maintenance of Coalmaterial has been done by electro-mechanical Handling System in Thermal Power Plant: Itsystems like x-ray, linear array detector, sensors and presents effect and working principle of coalby using thresholding algorithm. They are used for handling system in thermal power plant. Analysisincreasing accuracy of the belt conveyor system. It the operation and work of major equipment in thiscan detect the size, shape, profile, surface fractal system, describes the main malfunctions form at keydimension and voids through time integration. [29, equipment and emphasized some main problems of30, 31] these mechanical devices which should pay attention on use and maintenance. [40] It is feasible to use topographic sensorsaround a moving conveyor belt carrying solid Reliability of conveyor belt system depends onparticulates to provide a continuous measurement. It four distinct categories shown as below;helps in controlling the parameters and identifies thevisual defects present on the surface. A textureanalysis has been developed for an automatedvision-based solution for identification of paint andsubstrate defects. [32, 33, 34]F Operation & maintenance 1) Optimization of overland conveyorperformance: The description of key elements(Capability, Reliability, and Economy) which areconsidered when designing overland conveyors toensure effective capital expenditure, long troublefree life, low maintenance and cost effectiveoperation. [35]2) Conveyor Belt Maintenance: This manual notonly includes proper care of the belt itself but alsoincludes care and maintenance of the frame and Figure: 3 Dependency of conveyor belt reliability.accessories. [36] H Fire & safety3) Improvement in drive system using An experimental and computational studymaintenance data: It presents an objective should be conducted to characterize the initiationmethodology for maintenance data analysis which and spread of fire along the upper and lower surfacesidentifies strengths and weaknesses in the of a conveyor belt. Develop a step by step structuremaintenance management system, opportunities for for creating safety training program and itsimprovements, and evaluates maintenance key implantation. Register all safety records of conveyorelements against maintenance best practice. [37] system and discuss the proper training to improve an overall efficiency and productivity. [41, 42]4) Belt Conveyor monitoring and control system:This research makes an in-depth analysis of Site-specific analysis required issuesimplementation possibilities and requirements of the relative to passive vs. active learning and classroom-ARM-based monitoring of belt conveyor system by based vs. self-paced training by developing andusing LM3S8962 chip. The fault detection and implementing an interactive multimedia-basedcontrol of belt conveyor can be done through the on- safety-training tool to reduce hazards in criticalsite sensors information signal collection by remote applications [43]monitoring of belt conveyor and the motorprotection. [38] III. ANALYSIS According to the review, belt conveyor is5) System design vs. Reliability: Advances in essential equipment for transporting material fromcomputer hardware and software for allowing one point to other unloading point. The parametersengineers and designers to get an unprecedented feel which impacts on designing of conveyor system arefor belt conveyor performance via „virtual drum & belt design, drive mechanism, fire and 584 | P a g e
  5. 5. Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.581-587safety controls, operation & maintenance, dust is most important parameter for coal mines then inemission control, inspection and energy & efficiency cement industries. Design of non reactive belts andcontrols. But all above parameters varied according inspection are most important parameter in foodto the requirement; however some parameters are industries then in cement industries. Thereforeequally impacts on each application, like drum & different design requirement and combination ofbelt failure, energy & efficiency, drive mechanism, design varies industry to industry shown in bar chartmaintenance control and safety controls. as below; Following bar chart shows the variation indesigning parameters of belt conveyor system in 400 350 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONcoal mines, cement industries and food industries. 300Chart shows impact of different parameters while 250 DUST REQUIRED IN%designing belt conveyor system for different 200 150 EMISSIONapplications. In this chart impact factor is taken from 1000-5 (varied according to the researches) on Y-axis 50 MAINTENANCand parameters on the X-axis. 0 E FOOD POWER PLANT MINING CEMENT INSPECTION 5 4.5 SAFETY 4 INDUSTRIES 3.5 IMPACT FACTOR Figure: 5 Percentage of Design Parameters required 3 in different industries. 2.5 From above analysis most effective belt conveyor system design depends on maintenance 2 control, energy & efficiency control, equipment fatal 1.5 accidents and drums & belt failures. The following chart shows above discussion. 1 0.5 0 COAL MINES CEMENT INDUSTRIES PARAMETERS FOOD INDUSTRIESFigure: 4 Impact of Design Parameters in differentindustries. Figure: 6 Parameters make Effective belt conveyor system. According to the chart most of theresearchers focused on key components drum &belt IV. CONCLUSIONfailure after that energy & efficiency, then As requirement of continuousmaintenance and drive mechanism. The above transportation equipment, belt conveyor is widelyparameters are approximate equal importance in all used in today‟s modern port, especially in theapplications, but fire & safety; dust emission control transport of coal and mineral powder. The belt 585 | P a g e
  6. 6. Devendra Kumar, R.K. Mandloi / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.581-587conveyor now designed for industries like food and [11] “J.A. Martins a, I. Kövesdy , I. Ferreira b”,cement, so the designing parameters varied Fracture analysis of collapsed heavy-dutyaccording to their application such as in food pulley in a long-distance continuoustransfer, belt must be non reactive with the food conveyors application, Elseviertransported, dust emission control system is required Limited, coal and cement industries, fire & safety is main [12] “D. Satish Kumar, Pradeep Agarwal”,consideration in coal industries, but others Investigation of Conveyor Pulley Shaftparameters like drum & belt failure, energy Failures, ASM International, 2011.&efficiency, drive mechanism, friction and [13] “M.Ravikumar1, Avijit Chattopadhyay”,maintenance are common in all applications. So the Integral analysis of conveyor pulley usingmost effective belt conveyor system design depends finite element method, Elsevieron maintenance control, energy & efficiency control, Limited, fatal accidents and drums & belt failures. [14] “D. R. H. JONES”, Fatigue Failures OfTo fulfill above requirement it is to be needed Welded Conveyor Drums, Elsevierfurther proper designing of conveyor system which Limited,1995is desired for the application keeping all parameters [15] “Ch. Affolter , G. Piskoty, R. Koller, mind and by inventing new approaches towards Zgraggen, T.F. Ru¨ tti”, Fatigue in the shellbetter design. It has been also focused on inspection of a conveyor drum, Elsevier Limited,2007.and online monitoring of all components while [16] “G. SUWEKEN and W. T. VANtransferring coal through belt conveyor to reduce HORSSEN”, On the Weakly Nonlinear,maintenance cost & fatal accidents in mines. Transversal Vibrations of a Conveyor Belt with a Low and Time-Varying Velocity, REFERENCES Kluwer Academic Publishers,2003. [1] “Mingwang Donga,Qing Luob”, Research [17] “Chuen-Shii Chou a, Ching-Liang Liu, and Application on Energy Saving of Port Chun-Sheng Tseng a”, Optimum conditions Belt Conveyor, Elsevier Ltd.,2011. for field vulcanizing a fabric conveyor belt [2] “Supriya Engineering “, Coal Handling with a better capability of elongation,,2012. Plant Manual, Operation & Maintenance [18] “Krystyna Czaplicka”, Eco-design of non- manual. metallic layer composites with respect to [3] “Lin-jing Xiao1, Xiu-hua Sui1, De-jun conveyor belts, Elsevier Limited,2003. Miao2”, Study on Mechanics of Driving [19] “S. Falkenberg and L. Overmeyer”, Doping Drum with Superelastic Convexity Surface of Conveyor Belt Materials with Nano Covering-Layer Structure, Elsevier Limited structured Fillers to Adapt Innovative and Science Press, 2008. Performance Characteristics, World [4] “khaled khader, sabry el-shakery,raafat Academy of Science, Engineering and abou-elnasr” ,The Synthesis Of A Multi- Technology, 2009. Step Cam Mechanism To Drive A Shaking [20] “A. Harrison”, Modeling Belt Tension Belt Conveyor, Elsevier Science Ltd, 1996. around a Drive Drum, bulk solids handling, [5] “XIE Fang-wei1, HOU You-fu1, XU Zhi- 1998. peng1, ZHAO Rui2”,Fuzzy-immune [21] “Shirong Zhang a, Xiaohua Xia b”, control strategy of a hydro-viscous soft start Modeling and energy efficiency device of a belt conveyor, Elsevier optimization of belt conveyors, Elsevier Limited,2009. Limited, 2011. [6] “Hou Youfu a, Xie Fangwei, Huang Fei a”, [22] “Daniel Clénet,”, Optimising energy Control strategy of disc braking systems for efficiency of conveyors, Document Number downward belt conveyors, Elsevier Limited, WP20100601EN, Schneider Electric SA, 2011. 2010. [7] “Tian Zuzhi, Hou Youfu”,Modeling a [23] “Markus Ahrens, Scott Southby”, Cutting magneto-rheological soft starter for use edge, energy efficient conveyor systems, with belt conveyors, Elsevier Limited,2012. Australian Bulk Handling Review, 2010 [8] “Chun-Hsiung Lan”,The design of a multi- [24] “Dr.J.P.J. KETELAAR”, Prediction Of conveyor system for profit maximization, Armoured Face Conveyor Performance For Elsevier Limited,2002. Increased Efficiency, Mining Supplies [9] “MENG Qing-rui, HOU You-fu”, Longwall Ltd. Mechanism of hydro-viscous soft start of [25] “ W. A. Günthner, Ch. Tilke, S. Rakitsch”, belt conveyor, Elsevier Limited,2008. Energy Efficiency in Bulk Materials[10] “Lihua ZHAO,Yin LIN”,Typical failure Handling, bulk solids handling, Vol. 30, No. analysis and processing of belt 3, Pages 138 - 142, 2010. conveyor,,2011. 586 | P a g e
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