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IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit

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  1. 1. Varuna M., Rajesh Gopinath, Fathima Samana S./ International Journal of EngineeringResearch and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.454-457454 | P a g eA Conjoint Analysis of the Design Irregularities and PublicRealms of a National Highway in BangaloreVaruna M.*, Rajesh Gopinath**, and Fathima Samana S.****Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore 56.** Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore 107.***Assistant Professor, Acharya‟s N.R.V. School of Architecture, Bangalore 107.ABSTRACTA 40m stretch along National Highway(NH4) is considered, which is located on eitherside of an unmanned exit from YeswanthpurRailway station. This stretch of pedestrianwalkway was extremely congested, with anaverage pedestrian count of about 4000/hour.This also led to pedestrian spillover andjaywalkers on the main carriageway. Theabsence of guardrails and the encroachment offootpath by street-hawkers aggravated theproblem. Hence, the disruption of smoothpedestrian movement raises the accident rateand causes traffic delays. The width of theexisting footpath is only 1.2m, while the idealwidth should have been atleast 4m, as perstandards. A high blank wall, demarcating thestation and footpath, aggravated the persistingproblem, by cutting the possible visualconnection between them. This stimulated theabuse of the walkway by pedestrians. Thedilapidated walkway and the unaltered footpathwidth continue to be a distress, with the level ofservice being ‘F’. The remedial measures mustincorporate proper design of walkways, ensuringtransparency and fenestrations in the barricades,to establish a visual access between them, andthereby enhancing the urban public realm of‘seeing’ and ‘being seen’.Keywords - Walkway, pedestrian, urban,jaywalkers, transparency.I. INTRODUCTIONWith the advent of urbanisation,Bangalore has witnessed an exponential rise in itspopulation, due to its natural growth and influx ofmigrants for better opportunities. Globalisation andindustrialisation have been the driving forcesbehind the changing landscape of Bangalore city.One such feature, which is being impacted due torising urbanisation, is the pedestrian walkway(footpath).II. CURRENT STUDYThe study analyses the pedestrianwalkway with respect to design factors and publicrealm in the current urban scenario. Primarily, theland-use pattern was studied to comprehendpotential and frequent users. Then, the footpath wasanalysed for its design characteristics. This wasaccompanied by a 10 hour survey to determine thepedestrian count, further followed by a 24 hoursurvey to ascertain the traffic volume. Public realmstudies were later carried out to infer its possibleinfluence.III. LAND-USE ANALYSISThe study has been carried out at awalkway in one of the most congested anddeveloped area – Yeshwanthpur (figure 1) inBangalore West, where NH4, connecting Mumbaiand Bangalore passes alongside. While the area tothe west of the walkway encompassesYeshwanthpur Railway station (figure 2) andresidential outgrowth, the eastern side comprises ofPeenya Industrial Area.Fig. 1: Bird-View of Yeshwanthpur.Fig. 2: Bird-View of Stretch under Scanner.
  2. 2. Varuna M., Rajesh Gopinath, Fathima Samana S./ International Journal of EngineeringResearch and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.454-457455 | P a g eIV. SITE CHARACTERISTICSThe study basically visualizes 40m of thewalkway adjacent to an unmanned exit (figure 3)from the Yeshwanthpur Railway station. The visualaccess from the walkway to the rail terminal isinterrupted by a large blank wall. The walkway alsocomprises of fruit vendors and other street hawkers,luring the potential customers entering and leavingthe railway station.The survey confirmed that the walkwaydid not comply with the IRC standards, as its widthwas only about 1.2m (figure 4) and also lackedguardrails, compulsory requisite for all NationalHighways. The level of service for the walkwaywas found to be „F‟, which is the lowest rating, asper Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010. Thestretch parallel to the walkway also houses a petrolbunk, an auto-rickshaw stand and an unshelteredbus-stop, adding to larger agglomeration of public.Under the current circumstances, with less widthand high pedestrian density, people often tend towalk on the road to save time and avoid collisionswith other people, sharing the same space. Thiscauses pedestrian spillover onto the maincarriageway.Fig. 3: The unmanned exit from railway station.Fig. 4: The walkway under investigation.V. PEDESTRIAN AND TRAFFIC ANALYSISAs an intercity rail transit terminal, thearea is a major hub for people of all ages, classesand occupations. In the survey conducted between8:30AM–6:30PM on a weekday, the walkway wasfound to be extremely congested with a maximumpedestrian count of about 4000, and the pedestrianwalking speed reduced to as low as 0.54m/secduring the peak hours. Even the space occupied bythe pedestrians dwindled from 0.18 to 0.08m2/person, forcing spillover and jaywalkers (figure5) with a disturbing hourly average pedestrian flowof 26. The high frequency in usage may beattributed to the fact, that apart from the railwaystation, people from the surrounding residential andindustrial sectors also used the stretch to board andalight from the buses. The pedestrian density wasfound to vary from 5.3 to 11.42 person/m2, aroundthe peak hours.Fig. 5: Traffic Disruption by pedestrians.Fig. 6: Heavy traffic volume.The width of the two-lane carriagewaywas found to be 7m with the maximum users beingmotor-bikes, followed by cars. The traffic volume(figure 6) along the walkway was found to be38,498 alongside a disturbing hourly averagepedestrian flow of 26. As there was no provision ofzebra-crossing and median, the unruly crossingspeed of pedestrians was found to be around1m/sec, thereby interfering with the smooth flow oftraffic, leading to delays.
  3. 3. Varuna M., Rajesh Gopinath, Fathima Samana S./ International Journal of EngineeringResearch and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.454-457456 | P a g eFor every 1 minute, the vehicles werefound to be delayed by an average of 5 seconds,thereby aggravating noise levels and vehicleoperating cost.VI. PUBLIC REALM ANALYSISTo aggravate the persisting problem ofjaywalkers and high pedestrian density, the highblank wall demarcating the railway station andfootpath, cuts the possible visual connectionbetween the two, stimulating the abuse of thewalkways by pedestrians and its encroachment bystreet hawkers (figure 7). As the other side is notvisible, due to the presence of a huge wall along thefootpath, the commuters or pedestrians tend toblemish the walkway (figure 8), by disposinggarbage, spitting & urinating. Thereby, making thewalkway a misfit, failing to actually serve itspurpose. The use of walkway by pedestrians mayalso be biased by factors such as adjacent land-uses, its visual and physical connections with thewalkway and the prevailing condition of thefootpath. Instead of paintings and sticking picturesof deities on the wall to sensitize public, it is betterto ensure cleanliness and hygiene, throughtransparency and design.Fig. 7: Encroachment along walkway.Fig. 8: Public abuse & spillover along walkway.VII. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSISThe solutions, envisaged for the currentissue, have incorporated road widening, withoutany regard or consideration for the roadsideelements contributing to the urban landscape. Thishas severely impacted the natural environment andelevated air pollution levels, compounding the lossof trees, which act as natural air-purifiers. Metrorail project, which has been initiated along thisstretch to reduce stress on transportation andenvironment, has failed too, as it has added to thepresent congestion. With the commencement of theMetro construction, roads have deteriorated, withthe top layer of the tarred road (figure 9) beingworn out at several places causing dust pollution.Potholes and bottlenecks, introduced by Metroconstruction and its barricades have increased thewaiting time and crossing time of vehicles, therebyhiking the rate of automobile exhaust.Fig. 9: Widened Roads near stretchFig. 10: Flash Flooding, alongside walkway.The area presently is a mute witness to AirQuality Index (AQI) of 256, which incidentallyfalls under the category/rating of „Severe AirPollution‟. Coincidentally, even the average daily„maximum‟ and „minimum‟ noise levels have beenobserved to be above 92 and 62 dB, both beingabove city tolerance levels. All along this, thestretch is already experiencing flash floods duringrainy seasons (figure 10), due to clogged drains,compounded by the fact that it is located at a lower
  4. 4. Varuna M., Rajesh Gopinath, Fathima Samana S./ International Journal of EngineeringResearch and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.454-457457 | P a g elevel than the station. Along with all this, airpollution levels are also further elevated.VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS ANDDISCUSSIONThe existing footpath width is only 1.2m,whereas as per IRC standards, the ideal widthshould have been atleast 4m with provisions ofguard rails and zebra-crossing, along with regularmaintenance of the road infrastructure. Thecorrective measures must also incorporatefenestrations in the barricades, to establish a visualaccess, such that the link between them is enhancedby the urban public realm. Since sky-walkers orfoot-over bridge cannot be incorporated with metrobeing commissioned, an „I‟ shaped Subway (figure11) having a width of 4m and vertical clearance ofatleast 2.5m, starting from the point of unmannedexit, leading to the other side must be provided.The subway apart from providing structuralstability and necessary safety measures forpedestrians must also be pedestrian friendly,promoting its use. The subways, instead of beingused solely for crossing can be made moreinteresting with activities like informal hawking,incorporated in the design itself. Informal hawkingin the subway would not only enrich the experienceof the pedestrians who use it, but also would help inmaintaining the place neat and clean.Fig. 10: Proposed Subway.IX. CONCLUSIONThe study has revealed that the stretchunder investigation was inferior in all standards,with respect to the service offered to pedestrians.The high usage factor and the absence of guardrailshas further enhanced the problem of pedestrianspillover and jaywalkers, disrupting the smoothflow of traffic movement, raising the accident rateand causing traffic delays by a maximum of 30seconds per crossing.The government initiated road widening atthe cost of roadside trees; all along with unalteredfootpath width has continued to contribute to thespilling over of pedestrians onto the maincarriageway, aggravated by the dilapidated state ofwalkway, as an outcome of pedestrian abuse andencroachment by street hawkers. Recommendationsto counter the current situation, apart frominclusions of corrective designs along with periodicmaintenance, also envisages provisions of gradeseparated pedestrian facilities such as subway,keeping public realm in mind.REFERENCES[1] W.J. Book, EIA Report of Metro RailProject for Bangalore City, 2010.[2] IRC: 103-1988, “Guidelines for pedestrianfacilities”.[3] Flaherty, “Transport Planning and TrafficEngineering”, Butterworth-Heinemann,1996.[4] Chakraborty et al., “Facilities forPedestrian Movement in Metropolitancentres”, IRC.[5] Rakesh S., “Evaluation of the PedestrianEnvironment”, Chennai, 2003.