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  1. 1. B.B.Gite, Divya Choksey, Mahesh Jambhulkar,Rahul Ramath,Yashovardhan Jhamvar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.364-369 Data Hiding Using Steganography And Authentication Using Digital Signatures And Facial Recognition B.B.Gite1, Divya Choksey2, Mahesh Jambhulkar3,Rahul Ramath4, Yashovardhan Jhamvar5 1 (Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Engineering, STESs Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, University of Pune, Pune-48,Maharashtra,India) 2 (Department of Computer Engineering, STESsSinhgad Academy of Engineering, University of Pune, Pune- 48,Maharashtra,India) 3 (Department of Computer Engineering,STESs Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, University of Pune, Pune- 48,Maharashtra,India) 4 (Department of Computer Engineering,STESs Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, University of Pune, Pune- 48,Maharashtra,India) 5 (Department of Computer Engineering,STESs Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, University of Pune, Pune- 48,Maharashtra,India)ABSTRACT Steganographyis the art or technique of Recognition, LSB Algorithm, PCA Algorithm, RSAhiding messages in such a way that no one except Algorithm, Steganography.the sender and the intended recipient suspects theexistence of the message, a form of security I. INTRODUCTIONthrough obscurity. In the current trends of the world, theWe use this concept wherein text is hidden behind technologies have advanced so much that most of thethe image and the intended recipient is able to individuals prefer using the internet as the primaryview it. The purpose of the system is covert medium to transfer data from one end to anothercommunication to hide a message from a third across the world. There are many possible ways toparty. transmit data using the internet: via e-mails, chats,In this paper, a technique called digital signature etc. The data transition is made very simple, fast andis also included which is added to all the accurate using the internet. However, one of the maindocuments sent by the sender to increase the problems with sending data over the internet is thereliability and authenticity of the document. Thus, security threat it poses i.e. the personal orthe proposed system would help to hide the confidential data can be stolen or hacked in manyexistence of confidential data and would increase ways. Therefore it becomes very important to takethe difficulty of detecting the hidden (embedded) data security into Data security basically means protection of data fromWe are also including facial recognition which unauthorised users or hackers and providing highautomatically identifies the person by comparing security to prevent data modification. In order toselected facial features from the image and a facial improve the security features in data transfers overdatabase. Hence when an image is sent with data the internet, many techniques have been developed,encrypted in it, the recipient’s facial features will like: Cryptography, Steganography and Digitalbe compared with the one in the central database. Signatures.In this way the receiver is authenticated using In this paper we propose a system in which wefacial recognition tool. integrate more than one of the aboveThus this paper gives a brief idea about image mentionedtechniques to provide a higher level of datasteganography that makes use of Least Significant security, whereas the existing systems implementBit (LSB) algorithm for hiding the data into an these techniques individually.This proposed systemimage which is implemented through the will prove to be helpful in areas where security ofMicrosoft .NET framework. data is of utmost importance ranging from collegeThis system will prove to be helpful in areas where offices to military of data is of utmost importance. It willalso be very easy to share and send data to a II. CRYPTOGRAPHYrecipient via a single image file. The word cryptography is derived from two Greek words which mean “secret writing”.Keywords :Cryptography, Data Security, Cryptography is the process of scrambling theDecryption, Digital Signatures, Encryption, Facial original text by rearranging and substituting the 364 | P a g e
  2. 2. B.B.Gite, Divya Choksey, Mahesh Jambhulkar,Rahul Ramath,Yashovardhan Jhamvar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.364-369original text making it unreadable for others.Cryptography is an effective way to protect theinformation that is transmitted through the networkcommunication paths [1]. In general, cryptography is transferring datafrom source to destination by altering it through asecret code. The cryptosystems uses a plaintext as aninput and generate a cipher text using encryptionalgorithm [2]. III. STEGANOGRAPHY Steganography is the art of hiding andtransmitting data through apparently innocuouscarriers to conceal the existence of data [3].Thistechnique is performed by different steganographicalgorithms like F5, LSB (Least Significant Bit), JStegetc. and the act of detecting the information hidden Fig No.1: Implementation of LSB Algorithmthrough these algorithms is called “Steganalysis”. In the above Figure No. 1, a glimpse of how the LSBWhen steganography is applied to an image, the new Algorithm works is shown; the message to be hiddenimage is called the “steganographic image”. This behind an image is first considered. The next step issteganographic image goes unnoticed as there is to get the ASCII (American Standard Code foralmost no difference between the original image and Information Interchange) of every character of thethe steganographic image which is visible to the message. Since the ASCII will be an 8 bit binaryhuman eye. number, we will require 8 Least Significant Bits to store the ASCII of one character.Thus steganography is considered as a powerful toolto provide data security. As every pixel in a standard Bitmap image is made up of 3 colors - Red, Green and Blue, we will get 33.1 LSB algorithm Least Significant Bits of the 3 component colors of each pixel. Therefore roughly 3 pixels are required toLSB (Least Significant Bit) is an algorithm to store the 8 bits of ASCII of every character.implement steganography. It is the process ofadjusting the least significant bitsof thepixels of the In the above Figure No.1,the message considered iscarrier image behind which the confidential data is “Aha!”. The ASCII of the first character A is 65hidden. It is a simple approach for embedding i.e.01000001 in binary. Hence the first 8 Leastmessage into the image [4]. Significant Bits of the RGB components of the first 3 pixels are changed according to the binaryThe Least Significant Bit insertion varies according representation of the ASCII of „A‟.Similarly the sameto number of bits in an image. For an 8 bit image, the procedure is incorporated for the rest of the message,least significant bit i.e., the 8th bit of each byte of the using the binary representation of each character‟simage is changed to the bit of secret message. For 24 ASCII value.bit image, the colors of each component like RGB(red, green and blue) are changed. It has high speed, IV. Difference Between Steganographyprovides good quality in hiding data, high security And Cryptographyand low complexity. In cryptography the message is not hidden, any unintended receiver can intercept and decrypt the message, if the decryption keys are possessed by him/her. However in steganography message is hidden and the enemy must discover the medium as the message is hidden behind an image and the image goes unnoticed as a usual, harmless image. Therefore, whereas cryptography protects the contents of a message, steganography can be said to protect both messages and communicating parties. 365 | P a g e
  3. 3. B.B.Gite, Divya Choksey, Mahesh Jambhulkar,Rahul Ramath,Yashovardhan Jhamvar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.364-369 V. DIGITAL SIGNATURE A digital signature is a scientific patternwhich verifies the authenticity of a digital message ordocument [5]. A valid digital signature makes surethat the message was created by a known sender andthe person cannot deny sending it. Hence itguarantees data integrity and non-repudiation ofdocuments and transactions. Digital Signature alsoassures that the document is not tampered duringtransmission and no alterations are made to the dataonce the document has been digitally signed.Digital signatures use asymmetric cryptography andit mainly consists of three algorithms: Fig No.2: Facial Recognition Process 1. Key Generation: Generates the private key and a corresponding public key.  Acquisition- Image acquisition module 2. Signing: Generates the signature using the seeks and thenextracts a region which message and the private key. contains only the face from the image 3. Signature Verification: Claims the picked up from the webcam.The image will authenticity of the sender using the message, then be resized and corrected geometrically public key and the signature [6]. and will eliminate the background and scenes which are unrelated to the face sothat5.1RSA Algorithm it is suitable for recognition.RSA is an algorithm for public-key  Preprocessing- The purpose of thecryptography/digital signatures that is based on the preprocessing module is to reduce orpresumed difficulty of factoring large integers, the eliminate some of thevariations in face duefactoring problem. to illumination. It performs normalizationThe algorithm involves the above 3 steps - key and filtering, improves image clarity, adjustsgeneration, signing/encryption, signature brightness and sets the default image sizeverifying/decryption. [9].  Feature extraction (Principal ComponentA user of RSA creates and then publishes the product analysis)-The purpose of the featureof two large prime numbers, along with an auxiliary extraction is to extract the feature vectorsvalue, as their public key. The prime factors must be (Eigen vectors) which represent thekept secret. Anyone can use the public key to encrypt face.This feature vector denotes thea message, but with currently published methods, if signature of the image. Signature matrix forthe public key is large enough, only someone with the whole database is thenvast knowledge of the prime factors can feasibly computed.Euclidian distance of the image isdecode the message [7]. then computed with all the signatures in the database. Image is identified as the one VI. FACIAL RECOGNITION which gives least distance with the signature of the image torecognize [10]. Facial recognition is a process of verifying aperson‟s identity by comparing the facial features of  Classifier- The purpose of the classificationthe person with those already stored in a database. It sub-module is to map the feature space of ais most widely used in security systems. test data to adiscrete set of label data thatEvery face has numerous, distinguishable landmarks serves as template. It compares the Eigencalled as nodal points. Each human face has many vectors with those already stored in thenodal points [8]. Few of the nodal points are as database library.follows:  Training sets- It adjusts the feature 1. Width of the nose. extraction parameters to ensure optimization 2. Distance between eyes. and accuracy. 3. Length of jaw line. 4. Shape of chin. VII. PREVIOUS WORKS The literature survey done for the proposed system has immensely helped us to understand the purpose and functionality of the systems presently existing to perform Image Steganography. 366 | P a g e
  4. 4. B.B.Gite, Divya Choksey, Mahesh Jambhulkar,Rahul Ramath,Yashovardhan Jhamvar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.364-369Some of the systems presently existing to cater image 7.2.1 AdvantagesSteganography are as- 1. A simple Graphical User Interface, which 1. QuickStego. makes it easier for users to understand what 2. FortKnox. are his/her options to execute the task. 2. The data is encrypted before the7.1 QuickStego Steganography is done.QuickStego lets you hide text in pictures so that onlyother users of QuickStego can retrieve and read the 7.2.2 Disadvantageshidden secret messages. Once text is hidden in an 1. Due to the change of color values of the twoimage the saved picture is still a picture, it will load Least Significant Bits, the steganographicjust like any other image and appear as it did before. image looks considerably different from theThe image can be saved, emailed, uploaded to the original image in many cases.web etc. 2. The source of the image is not verified inQuickStego alters the pixels of the image, encoding any way to pin point that the image hasthe secret text by adding small variations in color to come from a particular trusted source.the image. In practice, to the human eye, these small 3. Only 24-bit Bitmap images can be used todifferences do not appear to change the image. hide the data.QuickStego does not ENCRYPT the secret textmessage though it is well hidden in the image.If you VIII. PROPOSED SYSTEMrequire the message to also be encrypted then The proposed system aims to provide a highQuickCrypto, which is a paid product, needs to be degree of security for the confidential message. Itpurchased. This software is priced at £34.99. uses MySQLdatabase which is located on a server machine.The user needs to go to http://quickcrypto.comand The proposed system can be divided into 2 phases,then download the free version of the software. After Hiding phase and Extraction phase.installing the software, it requires the user to select an The new users need to register with the system andimage to work on. The user is now supposed to the existing users can login into the system in orderchoose whether he/she wants to hide text or get text. to access the system features.The text can also be opened from a text file and the The new user needs to specify basic personaltext retrieved from the image can also be saved into a information like name, email id and a profile picture.text document. The system also captures additional pictures of the7.1.1 Advantages users face, required for facial recognition in the 1. QuickStegois comparatively faster than decryption phase. other web based steganographic software providers as it is an offline software based Once all the input is accepted from the user, the on windows. system generates 2 sets of keys for the user using the RSA algorithm.7.1.2 Disadvantages The first set is called the Data Keys which are used 1. The Graphical User Interface of QuickStego for the encryption and decryption of the message makes it difficult for users to understand data.Data Keys consists of a Data Public Key and a whether the user is in the hide text mode or Data Private Key. the get text mode. The second set is called the Signature Keys which are 2. It does not require the user to be registered used to create the Digital Signature and verify the with the software; hence misuse of the Digital Signature of the Sender. This set consists of software is possible. the Signature Public Key and the Signature Private 3. There is no encryption of the message that is Key. hidden behind a steganographic image. All these 4 keys are unique for every user. 4. Only Bitmap images can be used to hide data. After successfully logging in the user can view his profile which contains his personal information as7.2 FortKnox well as all his keys which will be used for dataIt is also a Windows based application which has encryption, decryption and for creating a digitalbeen developed to provide image Steganography. signature for that particular user. He may also changeThis software uses the LSB algorithm for the his password if required.steganography, the only difference being that insteadof changing the values the Least Significant Bit, itchanges the values of the two Least Significant Bits. 367 | P a g e
  5. 5. B.B.Gite, Divya Choksey, Mahesh Jambhulkar,Rahul Ramath,Yashovardhan Jhamvar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.364-3698.1 Hiding PhaseThis process can be explained with the help ofthediagram given below. Fig No.4: Extraction Process Fig No.3: Hiding Process Once the receiver receives the steganographic image he needs to login to the system. To extract theIn the Hiding process the user has to select an image message from the image the receiver needs tofrom the storage. This image can be of any of the successfully pass the facial recognition wherein thefollowing file types (.bmp,.jpg,.png) Eigen vectors of the users face are compared with theThe secret message can be typed or can be loaded pre calculated Eigen vectors stored in the database. Iffrom a text file. The size of the secret message which the user successfully passes the facial recognitioncan be hidden depends on the size of the image test, the encrypted Digital Signature is extracted fromselected. The user selects the receiver to whom he the Steganographic Image.The receiver then chooseswants to send the secret message. Then the the Sender‟s Signature Public Key to decrypt andencryption process starts. It uses the Data Public Key verify the digital signature of the sender. Once theof the receiver for encryption. Once encryption of the digital signature is verified the next step is to extractmessage is done, the message text is scrambled and it the cryptographic message from the Steganographicwill be unscrambled only in the decryption Image. The receiver now uses his/her Data Privatephase.This scrambled data is called the Key to decrypt the encrypted, cryptographic message.“cryptographic message”. Table No 1: Tasks To Be PerformedEvery user will have a signature code which will be Steps Tasks to be Performedhis unique code. The sender‟s Signature Private Key 1 Acceptance of input from the new now used, and when applied on the signature codeof the sender, it will generate a scrambled signature. Generation of public and private keys 2 of the user.This scrambled signature is appended to the 3 Logging in of an existing user.cryptographic message and once this is done, the Selecting an image and the message toLSB Algorithm is applied to hide the entire 4 hide behind the image.cryptographic message along with the Digital Start of the encryption process andSignature behind the carrier image. 5 sending the steganographic image toThe new image created is called the “Steganographic the receiver.image”; this image can then be sent to the receiverusing any transmission method. Logging in of the receiver. 68.2 Extraction Phase Uploading the received steganographic 7 image.This process can be explained with the help of theblock diagram given below. Facial recognition of the receiver. 8 Selection of the public key of 9 thesender. Verification of the sender‟s digital 10 signature. 368 | P a g e
  6. 6. B.B.Gite, Divya Choksey, Mahesh Jambhulkar,Rahul Ramath,Yashovardhan Jhamvar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.364-369 Decryption of the steganographic placed on a server machine with a Static IP 11 image and display of the original Address. This will enable the users to use message. the proposed system on their client machines connected to a central database. 3. Improve the compression ratio of text to image. That is to accommodate more text data in a given image. REFERENCES [1] “Introduction to computer security” -Bishop, M., Pearson publications. [2] “Cryptography and Data Security”, Dorothy Elizabeth Rob, Ling Denning, Purdue University. [3] Neil F. Johnson, ZoranDuric, and Sushil Jajodia, Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking - Attacks and Countermeasures, MA, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. [4] Thesis On Information Security Through Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Fig No.5: Data Flow Diagram Level 2 Algorithm by NaniKoduri [5] S.R. Subramanya and Byung K. Yi: Digital IX. CONCLUSION Signatures- 0278-6648/06 2006 IEEE. All the systems that exist as of today that [6] .Chaitanya1 and Y.Raja Sree: Design of newprovide Image Steganography have some flaws and security using symmetric and asymmetricinconsistencies. The systems provide less security in cryptography algorithms- World Journal ofterms of encryption of the message data, the sender Science and Technology 2012.of the image is not verified, and the receiver is not [7] A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures andauthenticated to view the secret data hidden behind Public-Key Cryptosystems R.L. Rivest, A.the image. Shamir, and L. Adleman. [8] “How Facial Recognition Systems Work”:The proposed system aims to overcome the Kevin Bonsor.shortcomings of the existing systems which aim at [9] T. Chen, W.Yin, X.S. Zhou, D. Comaniciu, T.developing a more secure environment to carry out S.Huang,"Total Variation Models forImage Steganography. This system will provide the VariableLighting Face Recognition andusers a digital signature that they can embed in the UnevenBackground Correction", IEEEsteganographic image to validate the source of the Transactions onPattern Analysis and Machineimage, facial recognition at the receiver‟s end will Intelligence, vol.28(9), 2006.authenticate the receiver of the image and only he/she [10] Zhujie, Y.L.Y., 1994. Face recognitionwill be authorized to view the data behind the image. withEigen faces. Proc.IEEE Intl. Conf.Encryption of the message data will ensure that even IndustrialTechnology.if the image is decrypted using some other tools, the [11] "MySQL Enterprise Edition". MySQL 5.5message will not be decrypted and all that will be Reference Manual, Oracle. 5 February 2013.seen is data that does not make sense.Our tool uses MySQL as database which will ensurea more robust approach towards security,performance and disaster recovery as compared toother databases such as MS-Access 2007 [11]. X. FUTURE SCOPE The scope of proposed system can beexpanded in the following ways: 1. An image can be hidden behind the carrier image 2. The application can be installed on a number of client machines and the database can be 369 | P a g e