Hartej Singh Saini, Harinder Singh Sandhu / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.327-330327 | P a g ePerformance Analysis of Hybrid Model of Wind Mill,Photovoltaic Cell and Fuel CellHarinder Singh Sandhu,Hartej Singh SainiAbstractIn society to ensure the quality of life theenergy is an essential requirement. According toincrease demand of energy in world the science isdeveloping the different energy generationsystems, which can supply energy to the worldunder economic and environmental friendlyconditions. . Sources have increased interest inrenewable energy sources. Many societies acrossthe world in which we live have developed a largeappetite for electrical energy. In this researchpaper the three conventional energy forms i.e.wind energy, photovoltaic cell and fuel cell arecombined together for the economic operation ofenergy generation.Keywords:-Hybrid system, wind energy,photovoltaic cell, fuel cell.I. INTRODUCTIONHybrid power systems combine two ormore energy conversion devices, or two or morefuel for the same device, that when integrateovercome limitation inherent in either. A hybridsprogramme can create market opportunities foremerging technologies before they are mature,achieving higher reliability can be accomplishedwith redundant technologies and /or energy storage.Some hybrid systems typically include both, whichcan simultaneously improve the quality andavailability of power. Although the energy of sunand wind has been used by mankind for millenniamodern applications of renewable energytechnologies have been under serious developmentfor only about 20 years. Hybrid systems are moreeconomic, reliable and fuel efficient systems.II. HYBRID POWER SYSTEMSolar /Wind hybrid power systemThe escalation in electrical energy costsassociated with fossil and nuclear fuels, andenhanced public awareness of potentialenvironmental impacts of conventional energysystems has created an increased interest in thedevelopment and utilization of alternate sources .Photo voltaic and wind energy are being increasablerecognized as cost effective generation sources insmall isolated power systems. A realistic costbenefit analysis requires evaluation models thatrecognize the highly erratic nature of these energysources while maintaining the chronology and interdependence of the random Variables inherent inthem. The renewable energy sources areenvironmentally friendly and use primary energycarriers like solar, wind and water flow, biogas,biomass etc. The sources mentioned above can besplit into two groups: controlled sources anduncontrolled sources . As controlled sourcesauthors mean primary energy sources givingpossibility to control electrical power production,for example coal. It is obvious that powerproduction of uncontrolled sources is unpredictableand human independent. Solar and wind powerplants are uncontrolled sources. Wind, Solar PV andBiomass power generations are viable options forfuture power generation. Besides being pollutionfree, they are free of recurring costs. They also offerpower supply solutions for remote areas, notaccessible by the grid supply. Today, around 30,000wind turbines and more than 1, 00,000 off-gridSolar PV systems are installed all over the world.The Solar/Wind hybrid system block diagram isshown in the figure below:Figure 1: Block diagram of Wind / SPV Hybridenergy systemWhere,WEG = wind energy generatorSPV = solar photovoltaic panelsCC = power conditioning unitsBAT = battery banksINV = inverterIn this system solar power(PV) unit andwind power unit output is connected to a commonoutput bus .the combined output of te both powerunits are send to power conditioning unit ,theconditioning unit regulatyes the power .mow thepower is stored im battery umits for future work andfor supplying to the load the battery stored dc poweris converted into the ac power by using inverter.
Hartej Singh Saini, Harinder Singh Sandhu / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.327-330328 | P a g eWind/PV/Fuel Cell hybrid power systemFigure 2: Functional View of Wind/ SPV/ Fuse cellsystemThe wind /PV/fuel cell hybrid powersystem is a improved model of the wind /PV hybridpower system .in this system one new energyconversion device fuel cell is added to the system.by adding the fuel cell in the hybrid model increasethe efficiency of the hybrid power system ,now theoutput of the wind turbine ,PV solar cell and fuelcell is connected to an common dc bus ,the output ofall the power units are converted into dc beforeconnecting it dc bus .the supply to the dump load offuel cell is also supplied from the dc bus .a storageunit of batteries is used with the dc bus for storingthe power ,for supplying the dc power to load orgrid ,dc to ac converter is used .the output of the dcto ac converter is send to the ac bus and from ac busthe supply is send to the load and grid.III. POWER OUTPUT FROM HYBRID SYSTEM USINGSIMULATION TOOL MATLABSolar photovoltaic cellThe solar cell is the basic building of thePV power system it produces about 1 W of power.To obtain high power, numerous such cell areconnected in series and parallel circuits on a panel(module), the solar array or panel is a group of aseveral modules electrically connected in seriesparallel combination to generate the required currentand voltage. The electrical characteristics of thePV module are generally represented by the currentvs. voltage (I-V) and the current vs. power (P-V)curves. Figs. and show the (IV) and (P-V)characteristics of the used photovoltaic module atdifferent solar illumination intensities.The I– V characteristic of the PV module areI = IL - I0 (e^q(V +IRS)/nkT _ 1)(1)Where IL = photo currentI0 = diode saturation currentRS = series currentq = charge of electronk = constantT = temperatureN = number of PV moduleFigure 3: Output Power (W) vs Module Voltage (V)From Hybrid System Using SimulationFigure 4: Output Module Current (A) vs Modulevoltage (V)Wind energy systemThe wind turbine captures the wind’skinetic energy in a rotor consisting of two or moreblades mechanically coupled to an electrical to beused for system control. The fundamental equationgoverning the mechanical power capture of the windturbine rotor blades, which drives the electricalgenerator, is given by:Pwin (t) = 1/2 *ℓ*A*V (t) ^ 3* Cp* Effad (2)Were ℓ = air density (kg/m^3)A = area swept of rotar(m^2)V = wind speed (m/s)0 5 10 15 20 2501020304050607080Module Voltage (v)Power(w)Graph of Voltage generated and Power Performance in Photo Voltaic Cell0 5 10 15 20 25-2-101234Module Voltage(v)ModuleCurrent(A)G=.25G=.50G=.75G=1
Hartej Singh Saini, Harinder Singh Sandhu / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.327-330329 | P a g eEffad = efficiency of the AC/DCConverterThe theoretical maximum value of the powercoefficient Cpis 0.59 and it is often expressed asfunction of the rotor tip-speed to wind-speed ratio(TSR). TSR is defined as the linear speed of the rotorto the wind speed.TSR =R/V(3)Where R and are the turbine radius andthe angular speed, respectively. Whatever maximumvalue is attainable with a given wind turbine, it mustbe maintained constant at that value for the efficientcapture of maximum wind power.Power is directly proportional to windspeed, as the wind speed increases the powerdelivered by a wind turbine also increases. If windspeed is between the rated wind speed and thefurling speed of the wind turbine, the power outputwill be equal to the rated power of the turbine.Finally, if the wind speed is less than the cut-inspeed or greater than the furling speed there will beno output power from the turbine.The graph for power generated by a wind turbine fordifferent value of Cp is shown below.Figure 5: Power output of Wind energy systemPower output of the fuel cellThe power output of the fuel cell is shownin the graph. The fuel cell used in the present SOFC(solid oxide fuel cell), the following fuel cell is usedbecause of it following advantages operate at highertemperature, which reduces the need for expensiveprecious metals (such as platinum) to increase theirelectrical efficiency.1. Can operate on a number of differenthydrocarbon fuels,2. Better start up time.3. High electrical efficiency (70%)4. Near zero emission and quite operationwith little maintenance cost.Figure 6: Power output of fuel cellThe graph shows the voltage response of the FC,initially voltage is low until the current reaches arelative high level, the voltage reaches the peak justpass 1000s, and then starts to drop, and this istypical of FCs and has to do with irreversibilitywhen current reaches certain level.Neglecting the ohmic losses the total powergenerated by the FC (Pfc) isPfc =NoVI (4)Were no = number of fuel cellV = stack voltageI = stack currentThe total output power delivered can beincreased by increasing the number of fuel cell; thepower delivered by each fuel cell is different as thechemical reaction which makes chemical energy offuel into electrical energy is different in each fuelcell.IV. COMBINE POWER OUTPUTCombine power output power from a Wind anda PVmoduleThe total wind- and PV-generated power duringeach hour is first computed as follows:Where NPVis the number of PV panels, andPWind(t) is the power from the wind at timeT.0 5 10 15 20 2500.511.522.533.544.5x 104Wind Speed (m/s)Powergenerated(w)cp=.7cp=.8cp=.90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 10000123456789x 105Time (s)Powergenerated(w)
Hartej Singh Saini, Harinder Singh Sandhu / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.327-330330 | P a g eFigure 7: Combine power output power from aWind and a PV moduleCombine power output power from a Wind /PVmodule/fuel cellFigure 8: Combine power output power from aWind /PV module/fuel cellThe graph here shows a linear variation whichmeans the power delivered by the system increasesas we increase the voltage to the system, more overits easy to find out the power delivered by thesystem to a particular voltage as the graph here is alinear one.V. CONCLUSIONIn this paper the hybrid model of wind/pvsolar cell is improved by adding the fuel cell in thehybrid model .the power output of the new hybridmodel of wind/pv solar cell/fuel cell si shown byusing simulation tool .the output graph shows thatthe power output of new hybrid model is higher andmore efficient the power output of the wind/pvhybrid modelREFERENCES J. BhagwanReddey, D.N. Reddy“Probablistic Performance Assessment of aRoof Top Wind, Solar Photo VoltaicHybrid Energy System”. Stanley R. Bull, “Renewable Energy Todayand Tomorrow”, Proceedings of the IEEE,Vol. 89, No. 8 August 2001. R. Chedid& H. Akiki, “A decision SupportTechnique for the Design of Hybrid Solar-Wind Power System”, IEEE Transaction ofEnergy Conversion Vol. 13, No.1, March1998. D.B. Nelson, M.H. Nehrir and C. Wang,“Unit Sizing of Stand – Alone HybridWind/PV/Fuel Cell Power GenerationSystem”. M.A. Laughton, “Fuel Cells”, EngineeringScience and Education Journal, February2002 Jegerson M. Correa, Felix A. Farret, JonasR. Gonos and Marcelo Godoy Simoes,“Simulation of Fuel Cell Stacks using aComputer – Controlled Power Rectifierwith the Purposes of Actual High-PowerInjection Applications”, IEEE Transactionon Industry Application,Vo.39,No.4,July/August 2003 JozefPaska, Piot&Biczel, MariuszKlos,“Experience with Hybrid Power GeneratingSystem”. Dr. RecayiPecen, Dr. MDSalim&AyhanZora, “A Lab View BasedInstrument System for a Wind-solar HybridPower Station,” Vol 20, No-3 June 2004through August 2004 KourashSedghisigarchi& Ali Fellachi,“Impact of Fuel Cells on Load – FrequencyControl in Power Distribution Systems”,IEEE Transaction of Energy ConversionVol. 21, No.1, March 2006..VI. AUTHOR’S PROFILEEr.HartejSinghSaini is a Technicalgraduate in Electrical and Electronics Engg andpursing post graduation in Electrical Engg. The areaof interest of the author is Control system, Nonconventional energy sources and load flow analysis.Er.Harinder Singh Sandhu is aAssistant Professor in the ADESH Group,Faridkot.He is technical graduate and post graduatein the Electrical Engineering. The area of interest ofthe author is Non conventional energy sources andLoad flow analysis.-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15050010001500200025003000350040004500Voltage(v)Power(w) Power based on Wind Turbine, Photovoltaic cell0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 45000123456789x 105Voltage (v)Powergenerated(w)