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  1. 1. Sudhir Chowdary.N, Siva Rama Krishna.Ch / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.345-348 Energy Minimization for Wireless Sensor Networks using Opportunistic Routing Sudhir Chowdary.N*, Siva Rama Krishna.Ch** * (department of Electronics and Communication, SRM University,Chennai) ** (department of Electronics and Communication, SVIST Engg.Coll,Tiruvuru)ABSTRACT Wireless sensor networking research has location privacy problem and examine the privacyreceived considerable attention in recent years as it characteristics of different sensor routing protocols.represents the next phase of networking evolution. They introduce two metrics for quantifying source-Efficient and reliable routing of data from the location privacy in sensor networks, the safety periodsource to destination with minimal power and capture likelihood. The authors propose newconsumption remains the crux of the research techniques to enhance source-location privacy thatproblem. Source privacy is one of the looming augment these routing protocols.challenges that threaten successful deployment of In [4] authors focus on the multi-hopthese sensor networks, especially when they are performance of such a solution, in terms of averageused to monitor sensitive objects. In order to number of hops to reach a destination as a function ofenhance source location privacy in WSN the distance and of the average number of availableOpportunistic routing scheme is used. In this each neighbors. An idealized scheme (in which the bestsensor node transmits the packet over a dynamic relay node is always chosen) is discussed, and itspath to the destination. Energy minimized performance is evaluated by means of both simulationOpportunistic routing technique is used for the and analytical techniques. Even though they provideefficient utilization of the power. The energy can be some discussion about practical issues and brieflyefficiently utilized by reducing transmission power outline a possible protocol based on the main ideasof each node. By using the Energy minimized presented in this paper.Opportunistic routing algorithm packets are sentin a secured manner with minimal power. Such protocol is described and analyzed in detail in this paper. In [6] authors describe security solutions I. INTRODUCTION for collecting and processing data in Wireless Sensor Currently wireless sensor network research Networks (WSNs). In [7] the author proposes to usehas received considerable attention since it is the next large-scale cognitive networking methods to resolvegeneration of the surveillance and monitoring the wireless multi-hop challenges. In this paper, wescenario. We can deploy WSN throughout the propose a new Energy Minimized Opportunisticgeographical location for collecting data. The Routing [EMOR] protocol. It makes use of the ORefficiency of the WSN depends on the effective protocol technique for forwarding the packets fromrouting of the data. source to destination, but in this source location privacy is increased by reducing the transmission In [5] introduction about WSN and power of each node with this energy is alsoapplications of the WSN are discussed. It also explains minimized.the hardware and software used in WSN likemicroprocessors, power, storage, bandwidth and This paper organized as follows. Section 2operating systems used in WSN are discussed. presents sensor network and threat model. Section 3 describes EMOR principles. Section 4 presents In [1] authors describe Opportunistic Routing simulation results for the energy minimized(OR), a new unicast routing technique for multi-hop opportunistic routing. Finally, Section 5 presents thewireless networks. OR forwards each packet through a conclusion.sequence of nodes, deferring the choice of each nodein the sequence until after the previous node has II. SENSOR NETWORK AND MODELStransmitted the packet on its radio. Assume a large predefined geographical area that In [2] authors proposed to examine source- needs to be monitored, and deploy a wireless sensorlocation privacy through opportunistic routing. In [3] network consisting of many randomly distributedauthors provide a formal model for the source- sensor nodes. The network continuously monitors 345 | P a g e
  2. 2. Sudhir Chowdary.N, Siva Rama Krishna.Ch / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.345-348activities and locations of the target in the area. When in the data frame. Transmitted packets are received bythe target is discovered, the corresponding sensor number of nodes which are in the hearing radius of thebecomes the source. Every sensor can be the source, transmitting node.and can send packets to neighboring sensors that are in In next step the received nodes have tothe limited radio range. The source will continuously acknowledge back according to the priority given insend packets until the adversary discovers the source, the candidate header set. First node in the candidateor the target disappears from the monitoring area. header set should send acknowledgement in first timeThe system is assumed to have the following slot if it receives the packet, remaining nodes whichcharacteristics: receive packets sends acknowledgement in the time  There is only one destination node at any slots assigned to them. In final step received nodes time; while there can be more than one have to decide whether to forward the or not. If the source. packet is received by the node with highest priority  All the nodes in the network can participate then it will forward the packet else next node will in message transmission; hence, apart from forward. These steps are repeated until the packet detection capabilities they all have transmit reaches the destination. and receive functionality, based on the In opportunistic routing protocol the chances of applied protocol. forwarding the packet by same node is very less, so  Every node in the network knows the address the path between the source and destination changes of the destination node. dynamically. Source location privacy is achieved by  Every node in the network knows its relative using OR since the packet follows different routes to location. reach the destination.  The adversary is assumed to have the B. Energy Minimized Opportunistic Routing: following characteristics: Energy Minimized Opportunistic Routing  The adversary knows the location of the [EMOR] also makes use of the OR principles for destination and can determine the location of transmitting data between source and destination. the sender sensor from the instance of the Apart from the source location privacy EMOR also packet that it overhears. address the energy minimization. As wireless nodes  The adversary can physically move from one are powered by limited energy source efficient utilization of energy is required. There are many sensor to another and has unlimited amount techniques used for efficient energy utilization of the of power. sensor nodes, one of them is reducing the transmission  The adversary will not interfere with the power [6]. By combining the transmission power proper functioning of the network. reduction technique with OR it provides better source location privacy then the existing OR and it alsoIII. ROUTING PROTOCOL reduces the power consumption. PRINCIPLES AND PRIVACY In EMOR data is transmitted with the PROTECTION reduced transmission power, so it takes more numberA. Opportunistic Routing principles: of hops for packets to reach the destination. As During the last decade, a number of protocols number of hops between source and destinationhave been developed in order to improve the increases it takes more time for the adversary to traceperformance in wireless sensor networks. One the source, so it provides better source locationpromising approach is referred to as opportunistic privacy then the existing OR. Since the transmissionrouting; relay node is opportunistically decided by power of each node is reduced life time of the node isdynamic network conditions such as interference, also increases as energy consumption is reduced. Thechannel status and congestions. In general transmission power of nodes is reduced in such a wayopportunistic routing has three steps: that it does not degrade the total network performance. 1) Select Forwarding Candidates 2) Acknowledgements IV. SIMULATION RESULTS 3) Deciding whether to forward a packet All simulations are performed in the Network In first step transmitting node prepares a set of simulator-2 [NS-2] which is a discrete event networkforwarding candidates based on shortest path and simulator for simulating the networks [5]. Thenetwork conditions. The node which is nearer to the topology we selected was 500 × 500 where the sensordestination has highest priority and next nearest node nodes are deployed. The simulation parametershas the second priority based on this the forwarding considered are listed in Table-I. Initially, the adversarycandidate set is prepared. Then the transmitting node is located next to the destination node. Once it detectsbroadcasts packets by giving forwarding candidate set a packet, it moves to the node which transmits that 346 | P a g e
  3. 3. Sudhir Chowdary.N, Siva Rama Krishna.Ch / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.345-348packet. In the same time slot, the adversary may detectmore than one packet, because in the opportunisticrouting each packet can choose different paths to thedestination node, with different number of hops. Whenthe adversary detects multiple packets, it movesrandomly to one of the transmitters.Parameter Set ToChannel type Channel/Wireless ChannelMAC type Mac/802_11Antenna model Antenna/OmniAntenna Fig.1 Safety period Vs Number of Nodes Fig. 2 shows the curves between the energy consumed by system and the number of nodesMax packet in queue 50 participated in the communication.Routing protocol DSR/ORX dimension of 500topographyy dimension of 500topographyTime of simulation end 150 Table 1: Simulation Parameters Safety period is the time taken foreavesdropper to reveal the location of the source Fig. 2 Energy Vs Number of Nodes.before target disappears from the monitoring area. Fig. In Figure 2 on X-axis number of nodes is1 shows the safety periods of the opportunistic routing taken and on Y-axis energy is taken. From above plotand energy minimized opportunistic routing are it infers that EMOR consumes less energy whencompared. As in the case of EMOR since transmission compared to the OR. If optimal transmission power ispower is reduced it take more number of hops for the not correctly chosen then the energy consumption bypacket to reach the destination, so intruder also takes the system will increase. The ability of the EMORmore time to trace the source. In this way EMOR depends on the correctly choosing of the optimalperforms better than the OR protocol by increasing the transmission power. So EMOR offers bettersafety period. performance than OR in terms of security and energy.In Energy minimized opportunistic routing power of V. CONCLUSIONtransmitter is reduced so energy consumed by each Source-location privacy is critical to thenode is also decreases. successful deployment of many wireless sensor networks, especially in monitoring applications. In this thesis Energy minimized opportunistic protocol is proposed and simulated in extension to the opportunistic routing. The proposed Energy minimized opportunistic routing protocol provides better source location privacy than the opportunistic routing protocol and it also consumes less energy. 347 | P a g e
  4. 4. Sudhir Chowdary.N, Siva Rama Krishna.Ch / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.345-348REFERENCES Sudhir chowdary.N received his B.TECH. degree in[1] Sanjit Biswas and Robert Morris, Electronics and Communication Engineering from “Opportunistic Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Chaitanya Institute of Engg. & Technology, JNTUH Networks” In ACM SIGCOMM , pp. 133–144, University, India in 2009, M.TECH. degree in NY, USA, Jan. 2004. Communication Systems from S.R.M. University,[2] Petros Spachos, Liang Song, and Dimitrios Chennai in 2011. His research interests include Hatzinakos, “Opportunistic Routing for wireless communications. Enhanced Source-Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE Transaction on Communications, pp. 315-318, Kingston, Siva Rama krishna received his B.TECH. degree in Canada, May 2010. Electronics and Communication Engineering from[3] P. Kamat, Yanyong Zhang, W. Trappe, and C. Mother Teresa Institute of Science & Technology, Ozturk, “Enhancing Source-location Privacy in JNTUH University, India in 2009, M.TECH. degree in Sensor Network Routing,” in Distributed Communication Systems from S.R.M. University, Computing Systems, 2005. ICDCS 2005. Chennai in 2011. He is currently working as an Proceedings. 25th IEEE International Assistant Professor in the Department of Electronics Conference, pp. 599–608, Columbus, OH, June and Communication Engineering at SVIST 2005. Engineering College, Tiruvuru, India. Since 2011. His[4] Michele Zorzi, and Ramesh R. Rao, research interests include wireless communications, “Geographic Random Forwarding (GeRaF) for error control coding, diversity combining and MIMO. adhoc and sensor networks: multi-hop performance” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, pp.337-348, Oct.-Dec. 2003[5] David Culler, Deborah Estrin and Mani Srivastava, “Overview of Sensor Networks”, Published by the IEEE Computer Society, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 41-49, August-2004[6] Dirk WESTHOFF, Joao GIRAO, and Amardeo SARMA, “Security Solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Special Issue: Dependable IT and Network Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, Nov. 2006.[7] Liang Song and Dimitrios Hatzinakos, “Research Article: Real-Time Communications in Large-Scale Wireless Networks”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting, vol. 2008, Article ID 586067, pp. 1-17, Sep. 2008. 348 | P a g e