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At26288296

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At26288296

  1. 1. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296 Fsw Of Polypropylene Reinforced With Al2o3 Nano Composites, Effect On Mechanical And Microstructural Properties Prof.R.V.Prasad P.Madhu Raghava Dept.of Mechanical Engineering Dept.of Mechanical Engineering GIET,Rajahmundry GIET,RajahmundryABSTRACT Friction stir welding is a solid state percentage of nano sized Al2O3 powder showjoining process first used for welding of higher micro-hardness number as well as higherAluminum and its alloys, is now employed for ultimate tensile strength.welding of polymers and composite materials.Polypropylene (pp) is one of polymer materials Keywords: fsw, pp composites,used in many applications due to its good reinforcingdistribution, mechanicalproperties.performance, high strength to weight ratio andexcellent processing properties, its application is INTRODUCTIONlimited due to its weak abrasive properties, Polypropylene (PP) is one of the Polymericimpact resistance at low temperatures. Al2O3 material which has an extensive applications inreinforcement used to modify the properties of aeronautics, automobiles, constructions, oil and gaspolymer matrix due to its excellent dielectric Industries. Polypropylene (PP) is used in automotiveproperties, good thermal conductivity, high industry and electronic applications due to its goodstrength and resistance even at the elevated performance, high strength to weight ratio andtemperatures. In this study ball milling of Al2O3 excellent processing properties as well as low cost.powder particles was carried out, particles However, its application is limited due to its weakreduced to nano composites size and produces abrasive properties, relatively poor impact resistanceAl2O3 nano composites. The volume percentage of at room or low temperatures and low hardness. Thenano sized Al2O3 particles ranged from 5% to use of inorganic fillers has been a common practice15% in polypropylene matrix. From microscopic in the plastics industry to improve the mechanicalobservations, it was clear that the distribution of properties of thermoplastics, such as heat distortionreinforcing particles was uniform. Moreover temperature, hardness, toughness, stiffness, andtensile and micro-hardness tests have been utilized mould shrinkage. Therefore, so much attention hasto investigate the mechanical properties of been paid to improve the mechanical properties ofprepared samples in different volume percentages. PP thermoplastic in the last few decades.It has been observed that the samples with high Polypropylene fiber Polypropylene 288 | P a g e
  2. 2. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296 Polypropylene sheetsThe effects of filler on the mechanical and physical to a course-grained material to effect a reduction inproperties of the composites strongly depend on its particle size. the resulting particulate powders canshape, particle size, aggregate size, surface exhibit nanostructural characteristics . the particlescharacteristics and degree of dispersion. As the possess a distribution of sizes, can befiller/matrix interfacial bonding and filler “nanoparticles” if their average characteristicdispersion are crucial for the final composite dimension is less than 100nm .performance, different surface treatments will beapplied to the alumina nano fillers. In general, the The objectives of milling include particlemechanical properties of composites filled with size reduction (grinding);amorphization; particlemicron-sized filler particles are inferior to those size growth; shape changing(flaking);filled with nano particles of same filler. Nano agglomeration; solid-state blending (incompleteparticles are entities with diameters in the range of alloying); modifying, changing, or altering1–100 nm. When nano particles are embedded in properties of a material (density, flow ability, orpolymer, the resulted composite material is known work hardening); and mixing or blending of two oras polymer nano composite Recently, the methods more materials or mixed phases. However, theutilized for preparation of nano composites and primary objective of milling is often purely particleproperties of manufactured nanocomposite are size reduction.much under attention. Among reinforcementutilized to modify mechanical properties, alumina The fundamental principle of size(Al2O3) has received large interest because of its reduction in mechanical attrition devices lies in theexcellent dielectric properties, good thermal energy imparted to the sample during impactsconductivity, high strength, and resistance to strong between the milling media. The Figure representsacid and bases even at elevated temperatures. In the moment of collision, during which particles arethis study ball milling of Al2O3powder was carried trapped between two colliding balls with in as paceout in order to produce Al2O3 nano composites. occupied by a dense cloud, dispersion, or mass ofnanoparticles are formed in a mechanical device, powder particles .referred to as a “mill,”in which energy is imparted 289 | P a g e
  3. 3. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296FIG; Process of trapping an incremental volume of stage. The third stage of compaction, involvingpowder between two balls in a randomly agitated particle fracture, results in further deformationcharge of balls and powder.(a–c) Trapping and and/or fragmentation of the particles.compaction of particles. (d) Agglomeration.(e)Release of agglomerate by elastic energy. The size and shape of powder particles may be determined accurately with direct methods The first stage of compaction starts with of either scanning electron microscopy (SEM) forthere arrangement and restacking of particles. relatively coarse powders or transmission electronParticles slide past one another with a minimum of microscopy (TEM) for fine powders. The high-deformation and fracture, producing some fine, energy ball mill is typically used to produceirregularly shaped particles. The second stage of particles in the nano scale size range. Particle sizecompaction involves elastic and plastic reduction is effected over time in the high-energydeformation of particles .Cold welding may occur ball mill.between particles in metallic systems during this 290 | P a g e
  4. 4. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296 Al2O3particles before milling and after different milling time 291 | P a g e
  5. 5. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296 Pp/ Al2O3 nano compositesEXPERMENTAL SETUP Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state light weight, metallic structures. This method firstjoining process, considered recent development in used for welding of Aluminum and its alloys, isthe welding technology saving costs and weights now employed for welding of other materials suchfor steadily expanding the range of applications of as polymers and composites. 292 | P a g e
  6. 6. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296 The tool used in the present study is designed tooling system is as shown in Figure . The main based on the tooling system that has been role of pin is to produce frictional heat for developed (Strand,2004). It consists of a shoe, a softening the work piece and stirring material rotating pin and a heater, which is located at the within the joint. The tools shoulder is similar to a back of the pin. The designed tool provides the shoe, which is utilized to contain the displaced mixing and joining of plastic parts together in the material and hold it on the weld, while it is cooled. presence of heat. Additionally, a specially A heater, equipped with a closed-loop thermo- designed fixture was utilized to assure that the tool controller, is primarily responsible for supplying works in its best performance. The shoulder is additional heating for the work piece and slowing stationary relative to pin, whereas in FSW of down the cooling rate of material. metals, the shoulder rotates with the pin.. TheIn this study, an attempt has been made to PP via a new variant of friction stir processinginvestigate the mechanical properties of nano filled technique and three volume percentages of 293 | P a g e
  7. 7. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296nanopowder in polymeric matrix has been In this article Friction stir welding has been usedcompared in mentioned properties. present work for butt joining of Polypropylene composite platesutilizes friction stir processing concept in which a reinforced with Al203 Nano particles whoseheating system is added to promote a uniform percentage ranges from 5 % to 15% incooling rate which significantly affects the polypropylene matrix by volume. Tensile andmechanical and microstructure properties of these micro hardness tests have been utilized tomaterials. investigate the mechanical properties of the prepared samples in different volume percentages.RESULTS Table: Data obtained from tensile test of fabricated nano composites in different volume percentage Figure. Diagrams of tensile tests Figure: Micro-hardness 294 | P a g e
  8. 8. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296 A.PP+5%AL2O3NANOCOMPOSITES B.PP+10%AL2O3 NANO COMPOSITES C.PP+15%AL2O3 NANO COMPOSITES 295 | P a g e
  9. 9. Prof.R.V.Prasad, P.Madhu Raghava / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.288-296CONCLUSIONS polyethylene/high density polyethylene It is a very effective method for the Int. J. Phys. Sci., 6(28): 5895-5902.improvement in mechanical properties of these 4. Grewell DA, Benatar A, Park JB (2003).materials such as tensile strength and hardness Plastics and Composites Weldingvalue. Comparing with conventional friction stir Handbook. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munchen.processing method, designed tooling system leads 5. Kiss Z, Czigany T (2007). Applicability ofto a great reduction in manufacturing time friction stir welding in polymeric Higher rotational speed resulted in higher materials. Periodica Polytechnica. 51(1):tensile and flexural strength, with increasing 15-18.rotational speed of pin, the local temperature of 6. Mishra RS, Mahoney MW (2007).material would rise up. This can be attributed to Friction stir welding andlow thermal conductivity of polymeric material, processing.ASM International Materialwhich leads to heat concentration in weld nugget. Park, Ohio.As a result, more molten material would be 7. Payganeh GH, Mostafa Arab NB, Dadgarpresented in joint line that leads to improved Asl Y, Ghasemi FA, Saeidi Boroujeni Mstirring conditions as well as weld performance. (2011). Effects of friction stir welding Higher rotational speeds and shoulder process parameters on appearance andtemperature caused extending weld nugget to base strength of polypropylene compositematerial, which results in good combination of welds. Int. J. Phys. Sci., 6(19): 4595-molecular chains as well as reduction of incomplete 4601.Saeidi M, Arab NB, Ghasemi FApenetration, as a result, higher weld performance (2009).was achieved. 8. Strand S (2004). Effects of friction stir A 54% increase in micro-hardness value welding on polymer microstructure. MSand 10% enhancement in ultimate tensile strength Thesis, Brigham Young University.were observed for the sample with 10% Nano 9. Abbasi GM, Kokabi AH, Daneshi GH,Al2O3 content. Good distribution of reinforcement Shalchi B, Sarrafi R (2006). Theinfluencealumina particles is responsible for this of the ratio of „„rotational speed/traverseenhancement. speed‟‟ (o/v) on mechanical properties of AZ31 friction stir welds. Int. J. Mach.REFERENCES Tools Manufact., 46: 1983–1987. 1. J.Z. Liang, (2007) ” Evaluation of 10. Amirizad M, Kokabi AH, Abbasi dispersion of nano-CaCO3 particles in Gharacheh M, Sarrafi R, Shalchi polypropylene matrix based onfractal B,Azizieh M (2006). Evaluation of method”, Compsites. Part A, vol. 38, no. microstructure and mechanical properties 6, pp. 1502-1506 in friction stir welded A356+15%SiC cast 2. Chi. MC & Jingshen. W & Jian. XL & composite. Mater. Lett., 60: 565–568. Ying. KC, (2002) “Polypropylene/calcium 11. Gopalakrishnan S, Murugan N (2011). carbonate nanocomposites”, Polymer, vol. Prediction of tensile strength of friction 43, no.10, pp. 2981-2992. stir welded aluminium matrix TiC 3. Arbon K, Wahit MUB, Bahraeian S particulate reinforced composite, (2011). A study on thermal and electrical Materials and Design, 32: 462 467. properties of high-density 12. Maguire DM (1989). Joining Thermoplastic Composites. SAMPE J., 25:11–14. 296 | P a g e

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